Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is atrophy?
Reduction of size of organ due to decrease in size or number of specialised cells
Causes of atrophy (7)
Decreased Blood Supply
Loss of innervation
Decreased workload
Prolonged pressure
Lack of hormonal stimulation
Lack of nutrition
Physiological e.g. thymus
Cell process responsible for atrophy
Increase in APOPTOSIS
Special feature of adapted cells
Smaller, with fewer organelles
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in size of organ/ tissue due to increased size of specialised ccells
Cause of hypertrophy
Cells cannot divide to form more cells to share the work
muscle cells
Types of hypertrophy (2)
e.g. removal of a kidney, heavy workload of skel m., increased BP in myocardium


e.g. pregnancy --> hypertrophy of uterus
What is hyperplasia?
Increased size of organ/ tissue due to increased number of specialised cells i.e. no apoptosis
Types of hyperplasia (3)

e.g. haematopoietic system after blood loss


e.g. to restore architecture/fxn


e.g. cyclical changes in mammary gland or endometrium
What is acanthosis?
hyperplasia of stratum spinosum
What is Hyperkeratosis?
hyperplasia of stratum corneum
What is Metaplasia?
change from one specialised full differentiated adult cell type to another
3 phases of reparatory hyperplasia
Growth Inhibition
What is parakeratosis?
hyperplasia of the stratum corneum occurs too rapidly --> causes inhibition of squame maturation