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47 Cards in this Set

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3 coccidia-related genera of interest
Babesia
Theileria
Plasmodium
Coccidia-related genera of interest
- lifecycle
- DH, site
- IH
Coccidia-related genera of interest

Indirect lifecycle
DH: vertebrate, blood
IH: invertebrate
Babesia

- disease
- DH
- IH
Babesia

Babesiosis = piroplasmosis
DH: mammals (various)
IH: Ixodid ticks
Theileria

- disease
- DH, site
- IH
Theileria

Theileriosis = piroplasmosis
DH: mammals (ruminants)
IH: ticks
Plasmodium

- disease
- DH, site
- IH
Plasmodium

- malaria
DH: vertebrates (humans)
IH: mosquitos
What's this?
Pair of Babesia MEROZOITES in red blood cell

Pear-shaped (= pyriform, hence piroplasma)
Indistinguishable from Theileria
What species of Babesia are important in Australia?
Dog

B. canis vogeli
B. gibsoni

Cattle

B. bovis
B. bigemina
Dog
B. c...... v.....
B. g.....

Cattle
B. b......
B. bi......
Babesia of dogs in Australia
- 2 species
- relative pathogenicity
Babesia canis vogeli
- mild pathogenicity

Babesia gibsoni
- pathogenic
Babesia canis vogeli
- geography
- IH
- Northern Australia
- Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus)
Babesia gibsoni
- geography
- IH
- reported in Victoria 2002
- Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and/or Haemophysalis longicornis)
Babesia of dogs in Australia
- 2 species
- relative pathogenicity
- geography
- IH
Babesia canis vogeli
- mild pathogenicity
- Northern Australia
- Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Babesis gibsoni
- pathogenic, reported in Vic 2002
- Brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and/or Haemophysalis longicornis
Babesia in dogs
- clinical signs
Immune-mediated haemolysis
Anaemia, pyrexia, pallor, lethary

Thrombocytopaenia
Extra- and intra-vascular (DIC)
Multiple organ dysfunction (L, K, CNS)

Severity varies with species
Tick fever

organism?
DH?
IH? (species)
Babesia bovis transmitted by Boophilus microplus ("tick fever")

(B. bigemina less pathogenic)
Red water
Haemoglobinuria (Hbi in urine)

dt intra-erthyrolytic schizogony of Babesia bovis

leading to haemolytic anaemia & haemolysis of terminal blood vessels in kidney
Babesia bovis
- immunity
Good protective immunity
Bos indicus more resistant
Young more resistant
Babesia bovis
- geography
Disease distribution mirrors tick distribution - Northern Australian seaboard and inland to NSW
Babesia bovis
- enzootic stability versus instability
Enzootic "present constantly in a location"

Thus animals from enzootic area have a level of immunity dt exposure

whereas

animals from outside the enzootic area have no protective immunity
Babesia
- diagnosis
History: season & geography

Blood smear - intraerythrocytic stages
Serology
PCR
Babesia
- treatment & control
Prevention
- tick control (dipping but drug resistance, anti-tick vax partly effective)
- live attenuated vax (cattle)

Treatment
- imidocarb plus supportive (for dogs & expensive bulls only)
Babesia
- risk of eliminating all parasites
Eliminate premunition (lifelong immunity after recovery) thus greatly decrease herd immunity if exposed.
Tick fever
- 2 forms
Acute (cerebral) and chronic

- CNS signs common
Theileria
- disease
- DH
- geography
Theileriosis = piroplasmosis

DH: ungulates (wild & domestic)

Africa, Asia, Europe, North America

***No pathogenic species in Australia***
Theileria
- key features of LC
Schizogony in both leucocytes and erythrocytes

Tick transmission (trans-stadial (bn nymph & adult), no transovarial)
Theileria
- diagnosis
Blood smears (erythrocytes, leucocytes, macrophages)
Theileria
- control
Control similar as for Babesia
- control ticks (dipping)
- quarantine
- live attenuated vax
Theileria
- treatment
Tetracyclines prevent disease IF given during incubation period
Malaria
- main sp. infecting humans
Plamodium falciparum


Also P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae
Malaria
- geography
- DH
- IH
Tropics & subtropics (follow IH)

NOT Australia (but endemic to PNG)

DH: mammals (primates, rodents), birds, reptiles
IH: FEMALE mosquitoes (Anopheles, Aedes, Culex)
Malaria,
- 3 key features of life cycle
Exo-erythrocytic shizogony in liver

Intra-erythrocytic shizogony

Mosquitos remain infected for life
Malaria
- pathogenesis
Hepatosplenomegaly during exo-erythrocytic schizogony

Haemolytic anaemia (cerebral involvement), characteristic fever paroxyms,
haemoglobinuria ("black water")
Malaria
- diagnosis
Clinical symptoms & Blood smears
Serology
PCR (esp. to detect resistant strains)
Malaria
- control
Control mosquitos
- insecticides
- bed nets

NO vaccine
Malaria
- treatment
Quinine (gin& tonic!), chloroquinine, tetracyclines

Traditional remedies esp artemisinin
Malaria
- biggest challenges
Multidrug resistance seen in Plasmodium falciparum
Why can malaria relapse in people?
Some sporozoites in the liver undergo arrested development forming

HYPNOZOITES
Pathogenic Babesia in dogs in Australia
Babesia canis vogeli (mild)

Babesia gibsoni (pathogenic)
Pathogenic Babesia in cattle in Australia
Babesia bovis
Pathogenic Theileria in Australia
NONE
Pathogenic Plasmodium in Australia
NONE
"Red water"
Haemoglobinuria dt B. bovis
"Black water"
Haemoglobinuria dt Plasmodium infection of people
Coccidia-related Apicomplexan with extra-erythrocytic lifecycle
Plasmodium
Coccidia-related Apicomplexan with leucocytic lifecycle
Theileria