• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TRIBLOBASTIC BILATERIA + COELOMATES + DEUTEROSTOMES =
the chordates

(and echinoderms)
Four characters common to all chordates
1. Notochord – flexible rod of fluid filled cells
2. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
3. Pharyngeal slits – fileter feeding and respiration
4. Muscular post-anal tail - propulsion
Skeletal support & anchor for swimming muscle
Flexible rod made of fluid-filled cells
Notochord
Develops into CNS
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord (Non-chordate nerve cords are solid)
-found in embryos of all chordates – even if absent in the adults
-Filter-feeding devices
-Respiration (gills)
Pharyngeal slits
“Lancelets” - translucent, fish-like
Use cilia to filter-feed.
Adults have all 4 chordate characters (& resemble larval Urochordata)
Cephalochordata
“Tunicates” (sea squirts)
Sessile as adults.
Filter-feeders
All 4 chordate characteristics only displayed in larval stage.
Subphylum Urochordata
expansion of anterior end of dorsal nerve cord
Sensory organs: EYES – detection of light and images
OLFACTORY SYSTEM – detection of chemicals (smells)
Pharyngeal slits used as GILLS instead of filter feeding structures
Extra cluster of Hox genes
Craniata – main synapomorphy = possession of cranium
Myxini
“Hagfishes”
Cartilaginous skull
Lack jaws and vertebrae
Produce slime!
Craniate
“Lampreys”
Still lack jaws
Pharyngeal slits … gills
Gained vertebral column
Skeleton of cartilage
The Vertebrates.
key synapomorphy: Vertebral column
key synapomorphy: Jaws, mineralized skeleton
Mineralized skeletal elements began in mouth
The Gnathostomes
the first gnathostomes; armored vertebrates
Placoderms
sharks, rays, chimaeras
The chondrichthyes
Ray-finned fishes aka ?
The Actinopterygii
BONY FISHES AND TETRAPODS (animals with four walking legs)
Key synapomorphy: Lungs or lung derivatives (including swim bladders)
THE OSTEICHTHYANS
Actinistia: Coelacanths
Lobe-finned fishes
Lungfish
-Have true lungs!
-Also have gills
-Survive seasonal desiccation by Aestivating in mud
Dipnoi
Tetrapod synapomorphy
walking legs, with feet and digits
__________ has intermediate characters.
new characters include: movable neck, digits
Tiktaliik
Limbs evolve for moving in shallow water, and onto land for short periods. First tetrapods were _____________
amphibious. Still require water for laying eggs.
Key synapomorphy = Amniotic eggs
The Amniotes: the reptiles and the mammalia
protects and provides shock absorption
Amnion
disposal sac for wastes; also functions as a respiratory organ
Allantois
functions as a respiratory organ (gases diffuse freely across shell)
Chorion
stockpile of nutrients for the embryo
Yolk sac
REPTILES + SYNAPSIDS =
AMNIOTES
________ includes the birds and are ____________
REPTILES INCLUDE THE BIRDS: reptiles are paraphyletic
ANIMALS THAT GENERATE BODY HEAT BY METABOLISM
ENDOTHERMS
ANIMALS THAT DERIVE BODY HEAT FROM ENVIRONMENT
ECTOTHERMS
1. BIRDS + OTHER SAURISCHIAN DINOSAURS
2. MAMMALS

______therms?
-Endothermy evolved ____________ in these two groups
ENDOtherms.

CONVERGENTLY
Endothermic
the most diverse tetrapods
Most widely spread group of amniotes
Range in size from 5 cm
to 3 m
BIRDS
key synapomorphy = milk (and fur+
Mammals
3 major groups of mammals
Monotremes, Marsupials, Eutherians (placental mammals)
e.g. Platypus, Echidna. Only mammals to lay eggs. They produce milk but have no nipples. Restricted to Australasia (Australia + New Guinea etc.)
Monotremes
Live birth
Milk from nipples
Rudimentary placenta
Pouch – young develop mostly here
Marsupials.
Complex placenta
Eutherians
Opposable thumb
Fingerprints
Large Brain
Primates
orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, humans =
The extant apes
______________ have a notochord and a dorsal hollow nerve chord
Chordates
_______are the chordates that have a head.
Craniates
___________ are the craniates that have a backbone.
Vertebrates
___________are the vertebrates that have jaws.
Gnathostomes
____________are the gnathostomes that have limbs
Tetrapods
_______ are the tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg.
Amniotes
_________ are amniotes that have hair and produce milk.
Mammals
________ are mammals that have a large brain and bipedal locomotion.
Humans.