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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Produced the current system of classification published by System Naturae
major groups
Taxanonic ranks
indicate the inclusivness of a group
An animal that belongs to the phylum chordata
a rod like structure that spans the entire lenght of the body.

1. Early nervous system
2. Axis for muscle attachment
3. bend w/o shortening
4. Permits various muscle movements
Modified Ranks
Subdivided ranks that show evolutionary divergence ex. subclass, superorder
Broadest most inclusive rank
Specific most exclusive rank
First word, binomial nomenclature

Cannont be included in other genera
Trinomial nomenclature
Genius, Specius, Subspecius

Shows evolutionary divergence
Feature that varies from specius to species.

Used to study variations within a species.

Morphological, Chromosomal, Molecular
Have a notochord
Restricted geographic distribution
Characters resulting from evolutionary convergence
Sources of phylogenetic info
1. Comparative morphology (skull, teeth, hair, bones)
2. Comparative biochemistry (DNA, RNA, Amino acid sequence)
3. Comparative cytology (chromosomal size, number, shape)
4. Fossil record
Independent evolutionary origin of similar features from selective pressures.
Ancestor character trait
Passed on from one generation to the next.
Derived character trait
Characters that arose later through selective pressures.
Shows the relationship between ancester and derived character traits by using outgrouping. If the trait is in both the outgroup and other group then it is ancesteral.
Phylogenetically similar organism but is not in the same group.
Mandatory Ranks
Organisms that share derived characters
Character state that is ancestral
sharing ancestral states
brancing diagram that indicated nested hierarchy and clades.
Phylogenetic tree
Real lineage of evolutionary past. Creating phylogenetic tree involves adding to cladogram ancester info, duratin of lineage, amount of evolutionary changes, etc.
Binomial nomenclature
Italicized, latinized
Name of the derived character shared by the clades used for evidence of homology.
Criteria for recognition of species
1. Common ancestry
2. Distinct and smallest grouping
3. Reproductive community that excludes other species.
Evolutionary duration
Distribution over time
Worldwide distribution
1. Neural Tube (brain, spinal cord, neurons)
2. Neural chrest cells
3. Outer epithelial coverings
Amniotic sac
1. Fluid filled membranous sac that protects the embryo from mechanical stress.
2. Freed the early vert. from sea to land
What embryonic layer does neural tube come from?
Surface ectoderm
Second word, binomial nomenclature
Species epithet

Lower case
Agrees in gender w/genus
Can be included in other genera
Never stands alone
Origin of vertebrates ancester
Protostomes and deuterostomes
Deutrostomes five groups
Jawed fish
Character resulting from a similar ancestor.

Wrists of dogs and humans
4 chordate hallmarks
1. Notochord
2. Dorsal hallow nerve chord
3. Pharyngeal pouches/ slits
4. Postanal tail
Dorsal hallow nerve chord
1. Dorsal to the nerve cord
2. Anterior end swells to form brain
3. Hallow nerve cord formed by folding of the ectodermal cells
Pharyngeal pouches/slits
1. Filter feeding system
2. Protochordates- water enters through mouth, moved by cilia, particles captured by mocus, then leaves through gills.
3. Vertebrates- gas exchange system and pharynx system was developed
Postanal tail
Evolved for propulsion in water
Nine characteristics of phylum Chordata
1. Bilater symmetry
2. Notochord
3. Dorsal tubular nerve chord
4. Pharyngeal pouches
5. Postanal tail
6. Segmented muscles
7. Ventral heart
8. Complete digestive system
9. Endoskeleton (vertebrates)
Deuterostomes: three phylum
Hemichordata: 2 subphylum
Phylum hemichordata
Marine, bottom dwellers. Thought to be chordates because the have gill pores, rudimentary notohord, and tubular dorsal nerve chord. buccal diverticulum is actually for feeding system nothing to do w/N.S. Cosmopolitian, non motile.
Class enteropnuesta
(Acorn Worm), Wormlike
Lives under stones and burry itself under mud on the ocean floor.
External features: proboscis, collar, trunk.
Acornworm: Proboscis
Active part of the animal. Helps animal to bury itself in the mud and collect food in the mucus strands which traps food in the cilia and moves them to the moth
Acornworm: collar
covers the mouth and regulates what enters the mouth
1. notochord
2. Somites (Muscle, dermis, bone, cartiliage, connective tissue)
3. circulatory system (blood, bone marrow,lymph nodes, and blood vessels)
4. Lining of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
5. Organs of the urogenital system
Buccal diverticulum
Connects the protocoel (small sac). When the muscles contract forces water through the gill slites. Allowing the organism to move forward.
Acornworm: Feeding system
Food caught in the mucos, brought into the mouth by cilia, food passes through pharynz and esophagus to intestine, excess water leaves through gill slits.
Evolutionary truth based on the study of characters that vary from specius to specius.
Tries to show the evolutionary relationship between all specius both living and dead.
ID organismal characters/features.
Middorsal vessel
Carries colorless blood forward above the gut.
Four chordate hallmarks
1. Notochord
2. Dorsal tubular nerve cord
3. Postanal tail
4. Pharyngeal pouches
Dorsal tubular nerve chord
Dorsal to the notochord.
Anterior region enlarges to form the brain.
Hallow chord produced by infolding of ectodermal cells.
Pharyngeal Pouches and slits
Filter feeding system
Later modified for gas exchange
1. pharynx, lungs, pharyngeal pouches, thyroid, parathyroid
2. Liver, pancreas
3. Epithelium of urogenital system and respiratory system
Postanal tail
Provides motility
Subphylum Urochordata
Tunicates "sea squirts"
Live in all seas. Hermophrodites. Larval form has all chordata hallmarks. During metamorphosis the notochord and tail is lost and the nerve chord is reduced to a single ganglion. Has an endostyle
Secretes mucos
Subphylum cephalochordata
Lancelets "bladlike shape"
inhabit sandy bottoms. Barries its tail into the mud.Gill slits play a small role in gas exchange mostly for feeding. Have two sexes.
Garstang's Hypothesis of chordate larval evolution
adult are the ancestral stock. tadpole larvae evolved as an evolution for spreading to new habitats. Tadpole eventally failed to metamorphose into adult but developed gonads and reproduced in the larval stage. This lead to a new group of gree-swimming animals
Nest hierarchy
pattern formed from derived characters within one group
Formal system for naming and classifying species that have evolutionary relationships
evolutionary retention of juvenile or larval traits in the adult body.
Vertebate adaptations: Muscular/skeletal modifications
Muscle- changed from V to W shaped. Offered better contraction capability, and better control and extended the length.
Endoskeleton- changed to bone. offered protection from predators, better muscle attachment, mineral regulation, increase in size.
exoskeleton- primitive fish were covered with bony armor. Became modified to form scales, ect.
Vertebrate modifications: Physiology
Increased metabolism
Pharynx- went from filter feeding to gas exchange.
gut/digestive system- movement of food by muscular actions as opposed to cilia.
Evolution of the pancreas and liver
First to classify organisms based on structure and similarities
Vertebrate modifications: new head/brain/sensory system
Triparted brain.
Anterior end developed into brain. Posterior end into spinal cord
Evolved special receptors such as eyes, pressure receptors, inner ear for balance, taste/smell receptors.
Vertebrate modifications: Neural Chrest Cells and Hess genes
NCC- cranium, endocrine glands, pharyngeal skeletion.
Hess genes- control body plan
Lack paired fins
Heavy dermal skin
Have gill/pharynx of early vertebrates
Have jaws