Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

188 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What phylum do all vertebrates belong to?
phylum chordate
What is one unique characteristic of chordates?
They all have a notochord
Another unique characteristic of chordates is?
Pharyngeal pouches
What does the top pharyngeal pouch become?
Ear opening
What does the opening of the top pharyngeal pouch connect to?
Where it connects to the bronchial groove it becomes the ear drum.
What does the tube connecting to the throat become?
Eustacean tube
What type of nervous system do all chordates have?
Dorsal column central nervous system
What type of tail do all chordates have?
Post-anal tail
The animals commonly referred to as sea squirts are from what subphylum of chordata?
Subphylum urochordata
The animals known as lancelets or amphioxus comprise another sub-phylum called what?
What is the third sub-phylum called comprising among other organisms, us?
In this course, we look at the development of individuals in the phylum _______, and subphylum ______?
Chordate, Vertebrata
What are vertebrates characterized by?
What does the class agnatha lack?
What are some examples of agnathas?
Lampreys and Hagfish
All other vertebrates have jaws and we call them?
Gnathostomes, which means jaw-holder
What are osteichthyes?
What are chondrichthyes?
Cartilaginous fish, like sharksn
What are the three classes of fish then?
Agnathas, osteichthyes, and chondrichthyes
All other vertebrates have at some time in their lives what?
4 Limbs
Instead of calling them fish, we call them animals with 4 limbs, or refer to them as?
The class of tetradpods called amphibian have what type of developmental necessities?
Development is in an aquatic environment
What is the big adaptation that allows animals to be truly terrestrial in their existence?
The forming of the amnion.
What are animals called that develop in an amnion?
What are animals called that develop without an amnion?
What are the 3 classes of amniotes?
Reptilians, aves, and mammalians
What are the defining characteristics of mammals?
They have mammary glands, hair sometime in their life, 3 bones of middle ear, and a single bone in their lower jaw.
What are the 3 sub-classes of mammals?
Protheria, metatheria, and eutheria
What do protherians do?
They lay eggs outside the body that hatch, and have eggs that look kind of like chicken eggs.
What do metatherians do?
They are animals that have young that craw up the ventral side of the mother, called a marsupail, where it attaches to a tit
Eutherians do what?
They develop a placenta so that development occurs within the mother and nutrients are supplied via the placenta.
Ontogeny refers to what?
The development of an individual
Phylogeny refers to what?
The developmental history of a group of animals
Stuff over time refers to?
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny suggests?
When you look at the development of an individual, and you watch it over time, in an abbreviated fashion, it repeats the evloutionary history of an individual.
Is ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny true?
What is the first stage of development called?
At the end of cleavage, the zygote is known as?
A blastula
After undergoing several divisions, they get water in the interior, and it pushes the cleavage cells to the surface, and you eventually develop what?
A cavity in the interior
What happs after the blastula forms?
It undergoes gastrulation
What happens during gastrulation?
This is when the gastric cavity forms
The hollow ball of cells forms an indentation in gastrulation, which can push toward the unterior side, and fuse. If this occurs, the tube running through it becomes what?
The gut
In animals related to us, the new opening becomes _____ and the old opening is the ______?
Mouth, anus
After gastrulation is?
What happens during neurulation?
The neural tube forms
After neurulation is?
What is one phase of development that often gets overlooked?
Growth has what type of effect?
What is an example of this?
When the neural tuve forms, the reason this sheet of cells buckles is the rate of growth outside this sheet of cells is growing faster and they grow bigger and push the sheet of cells together.
Typically, ovulation occurs in what portion of the cycle, and why?
The middle of the cycle so that the uterine wall is ready for implanation
Ovulation is regulation by what system?
Endocrine system
Nervous system regulates what type of things?
The quicker things.
The nervous system and endocrine system are called what?
Integrative system
THere is an egg nest in the ovary, and potential eggs are surrounded by somatic cells, what are these somatic cells called?
Follicle cells
The follice cells become what as they get larger?
A mature follicle then a graffian follicle
The potential egg cell is inside a single large lumen and is surrounded by a thin layer of follicle cells, and is connected to the interior of this area by?
A bridge of tissue
What is adjacent to the ovary?
The oviduct
Ectopic pregnancy
When the egg misses the opening to the oviduct
After ovulation, the follicle cells that remain in the ovary are reorganized into?
Corpus luteum
How long does the corpus luteum remain?
A week or 10 days
Rathke's pouch
Gives rise to anterior pituitary
Gives rise to posterior pituitary gland
Next to this what develops?
Hypothalamus is sensitive to what?
How the brain detects the day, photoperiod
What is a vein called that begins as capillaries in the hypothalamus and ends in capillaries in the pituitary?
Portal vein
What is this vein's proper name?
Hypothalamic hypopheseal portal vein
Hormones that influence the gonads are produced in the?
Anterior pituitary
What are hormones called that influence the gonads?
Gonadotropic hormones
What are thw two major ones?
Follicle stimulating hormone and leutenizing hormone
LH primarily is the hormone that causes?
What causes the follicular cells to become the corpus luteum?
What are the two major ovarian hormones?
Estrogen and progesterone
When FSH levels start to increase, it causes the follicle cells to produce?
THe estrogen produced by the follicle cells is carried where?
The pituitary and other parts of the body
What does estrogen direct in the uterus?
The proliferative phase, which causes the uterine epithelium to increase in number
Under the influence of progesterone we find the uterus then enters what is rerred to as?
The secretory phase
What happens during the secretory phase?
The uterine wall become even more vascularized, and the glands become branched.
Corpus luteum is primarily producing what?
LH is what causes what to form?
Corpus luteum
LH also causes the corpus luteum to produce?
At the end of the spike of LH, they drop to low levels, and they no longer maintain what?
Corpus luteum
What directs the proliferative phase in changes of the uterus?
How does the increase of estrogen better allow sperm to get through the reproductive tract?
As estrogen increases before ovulation, it causes the cervical mucus to become less viscous. This enables sperm to more readily pass though the cervix and enter the reproductive tract.
What increases the number of FSH receptors on follicular granulosa cells?
At low levels, what effect does estrogen have on the pituitary, and what does this accomplish?
At low levels it has an inhibitory effect, causing less FSH to be produced.
Estrogen also causes the granulosa cells to produce another hormone, what is it and what does it do?
It is inhibin, and it inhibits the pituitary with respect to gonadotropins.
So, in summation, FSH comes down to the ovary and does what?
It causes follicles to proliferate.
Proliferation of these follicles causes what?
Causes the follicles to produce estrogens.
The cells that produce more estrogen are stimulated by estrogen to do what?
To produce more receptors for FSH
Which follicles are able to respond to the low titer of gonadotropins as time goes on?
The one with extra receptors on the surface.
So, the ones that didnt make enough estrogen don't enough enough receptors, which causes what?
It causes them to not be able to react to changing gonadotropic hormone levels.
At low levels, estrogen has a positive or negative influence on LH?
At low concentrations, estrogen _______ LH production, but at ______ concentrations over an extended period of time, it has a stimulatory effect.
Inhibits, high
What does the spike of LH in the middle of the cycle cause?
It causes the mature follicle to rupture.
What two things cause the blister to break?
Increased pressure and proteonases
Increased titers of LH cause an increase in the amount of _____, which is an enzyme which breaks down collagen.
LH also causes an increase in prostaglandins, which do what to contribute to ovulation?
They cause capillaries in this area to become leaky. It will increase amount of water there, and it increases pressure.
What allows fluid to pass between the follicular cells and the oocyte?
Gap junctions
Does LH open or close these gap junctions, and what does it cause when closed?
When closed, cylic AMP cannot move through to the oocyte, and this prevents phosphorylation of proteins which when phosphorylated prevent meiosis I.
As LH drops its high levels, what occurs to the corpus luteum?
It degenerates. What does this cause?
What does this drop in progesterone cause?
The uterine wall cannot be maintained, so menstruation occurs.
In cleavage in mammals, there are two populations of cells, what are they?
The surface cells are called the trophoblast. Inside those is a portion of cells called the inner cell mass.
Which becomes the embryo?
Inner cell mass.
What are the trophoblast and chorion then?
They are extra-embryonic and provide supportive growth of the inner cells of the embryo.
HCG is produced by what?
Chorionic cells.
What does HCG do?
It has an LH effect, and keeps everythin functioning.
What detects pregnancy?
Antibodies for HCG.
When does the first meiotic division of eggs in mammals occur?
What does cortisol do during pregnancy?
It changes the environment from progesterone to an estrogen dominant environment through the stimulus of the secretion of estrogen as well as the conversion of progesterone to estrogen.
High estrogen levels cause the release of what dealing with birth?
Oxytocin, which is a muscle stimulus that causes the uterine wall to contract and initiate labor.
What is the first primary hormone that creates mammary glands?
Estrogens, cause the increase in length of sweat glands, which leads the ducts to develop multiple branches
What does progesterone do dealing with mammary glands?
It causes the cells at the end of these elongated ducts to differentiate such that they are competent to make milk proteins.
Prolactin does what?
It makes the milk
What does oxytocin do?
It causes milk letdown
Suckling causes the release of?
What becomes the gametes?
Primordial germ cells
Diagram how chromosomes may be arranged in a cell with a diploid number of 6, in early anaphase of mitosis, and then meiosis I and meiosis II.
Where is the location of sperm development?
Seminiferous tubules
Primary spermatocytes undergo _______ to become secondary spermatocytes?
Meiosis I
Secondary spermatocytes undergo?
Meiosis II
Are spermatids able to fertilize an egg?
What is the process called that makes them spermatozoa?
What is the main thing that occurs between spermatid and spermatozoa?
Tail creation via tubulin polymerization
On the opposite side of the nucleus of the sperm is?
Golgi body
What does the golgi body do?
It deals primarily with the secretory activities of the cell
What is the dense material inside the golgi bodies?
The acrosomal granule
What does this eventually form on the anterior side of the nucleus?
A sort of cap
Where do the mitochondria form?
Around the tail area
What carries on cellular operations while development is occuring within these sperm?
Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules
What do the two meiotic divisions in oogenesis result on pertaining to cytoplasm?
Almost all the cytoplasmic material is in a single cell.
T/F: The acrosome is the cell organelle on the anterior end of the nucleus?
What is the membrane called that surrounds the cell membrane?
Vitelline membrane
Do mammalian egg's have the vitelline membrane?
What does it have instead?
zona pellucida
Around this zona pellucida is what?
A layer or more of follicle cells
What do we call these follicle cells?
The corona radiata
Do sea urchin sperm approach the egg perpendicularly, and how does this relate to mammalian sperm?
They do approach perpendicularly, but in mammals they approach more like a boat docking.
The contact of the egg and sperm initiates what?
The acrosomal reaction
What happens first in the acrosomal reaction?
The membrane surrounding the acrosomal granular material and the egg membrane fuse together
What is send across after fusing?
Sperm lysins will be sent through to digest away or breakdown the surface of the egg.
How do conflicting selective pressures interact dealing with fertilization of the egg via sperm?
It makes sense to increase the likelihood that a sperm will find an egg and fertilize it, but on the other hand for fertilization to be successful, the egg must develop more and more mechanisms to stop multiple sperm from getting inside.
When the acrosomal reaction occurs, what does the pH change initiated by sodium coming in and hydrogen ions being lost cause the actin on the egg surface to do?
It causes it do polymerize.
What does actin polymerization do?
It pushes the membrane of the acrosomal vesicle and forms the acrosomal process.
There is a material on the surface of the acrosomal tubule, or process, called what?
Bindin proteins
What do the bindin proteins do?
They are complementary to receptors on the cell membrane of the oocyte.
What does this act as the primary means of?
It is a primary means of species specificity.
How are mammals even further limited by the bindin proteins?
Sperm undergo some sort of modification or maturation within the reproductive tract of the female, and this is where the sperm gains the capacity to fertilize the egg.
What is this process known as?
Do sperm exhibit chemotaxis?
What do sperm orient towards?
Follicular fluid
How many kinds of zona pellucia protein are there?
3, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3
What does a high level of ZP3 protein cause?
It decreases the ability of the spermatozoa to fertilize an egg
Interaction with ZP3 in the zona pellucida allows what?
Initial docking to happen
The membrane docking is between what?
Proteins on the surface of the sperm and ZP proteins in the zona pellucida
How long does the slow reaction take?
60 seconds
How long does the fast reaction take?
Very little time
What does the fast reaction provide?
A temporary barrier while the slow reactions forms a more permanent block to polyspermy
What happens in the fast block?
When sodium ions enter, you get a negative change to a positive change (-70mV --> ~20mV)
What would happen if you artificially maintained eggs with a negative electrical potential and exposed them to sperm?
You would see a high incidence of polyspermy
What is the cortical reaction?
It is part of the slow reaction involving changes to the cortical granules found in the cytoplasm of the egg cell.
What is one result of the cortical reaction pertaining to protein receptors?
Protein receptors in the outer membrane have conformational changes, so more sperm cannot dock
What does the release of hydrogen peroxide cause?
It kills sperm that may be present in the perivitelline space
What is the hyaline layer?
It is what forms following the cortical reaction and consists of hemispheric globules and the viscous stuff in the cortical granules, coating the surface of the plasma membrane
What does this sticky layer do during cleavage?
We find the sticky surface holds the daughter cells together
What are the two things involved in fertilization?
When the sperm enters, it brings its nuclear complement to the make that fertilized egg cell a diploid cell, while the other thing is to activate the egg and move it forward from metaphase II.
When does fast block occur?
When egg and sperm bind together
That binding stimulates what two big things?
Kinase activation and maybe a G protein that leads to an activation of Phospholipase C.
What does activation of P-C lead to?
It splits PIP-2 into IP-3 and DAG.
IP-3 binds with what?
The receptor on the surface of the ER stimulating the release of Calcium into the cytoplasm
What does calcium in the cytoplasm cause?
It causes the cortical granules to undergo exocytosis.
The cortical granules popping open leads to?
A slow block to polyspermy
The slow block is also known as the _______, which leads to the coating of the ______ layer, which makes the surface sticky
cortical reaction, hyaline
Increased calcium also results in _____________, in which proteins are phosphorylated
enzymatic action kinase activity
What does this kinase activity lead to?
Membrane biosynthesis
Very little yolk
Equal distribution of yolk
Tenny tiny, not much yolk
If yolk lighter or heavier than the cytoplasm of an egg cell?
It is heavier
What type of eggs do mammals have?
Oligolecithel eggs
What are two other examples of animals with oligolecithel eggs?
Echinoderms and amphioxus
When the spindle apparatus tends to form in the center of the active cytoplasm the two cells split in two. The daughter cells tend to be the same size. What type of cleavage is this?
Holoblastic cleavage
A lot of yolk
What are examples of telolecithel animals?
Amphibians, some bony fishes, but most vertebrates have this
What happens to the spindle apparatus here?
It is displaced toward the top of the cell.
Meroblastic cleavage
A type of cleavage where the cells are not completely separated from each other
A syncytium
A condition where you have more than 1 nucleus inside one cytoplasmic area