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50 Cards in this Set

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Importance of Cranial Skeleton......
supports the jaws, or gills of fish, supports and protects the brain
Visceral Skeleton
in fish provides gill supports (branchial arches), makes up the pharyngeal supports in land vertebrates
the first branchial arch in jawless fish evolved into....
jaws of the first gnathostomes
the branchial arch two serves as what in gnathostomes
jaw supports
In reptiles the hyomandibula becomes.......
The quabrate moves towards the exterior and .....
the columella of the inner ear
......
serves as the articulation point for the jaws
In mammals the malleus and the incus form from the.....
quadrate and articular bones which entered the inner ear during mammalian evolution
In mammals the columella changes shape to become the....
stapes
The dentary bone or lower jaw articulates with this in mammals
squamosal bone
Remaining arches in mammals form support for
larynx, pharynx, and tongue
is formed by an outgrowth of the first brancial arch in embryos, forms the upper jaw
palatoquadrate cartilage
is formed by the first arch (mandibular arch) forms the lower jaw
Meckel's Cartilage
forms the hyomandibula, and supports for the tongue
hyoid arch
Branchial arches 3 and up form the...... in fish, and throat supports in land animals
gill arches
In fish the.....suspends the jaws
hyoid arch (hyomandibular arch)
In reptiles the......fuses with the dermatocranium and is not connected to the hyoid arch
quadrate bone, hyomadibular arch in fish is now part of the inner ear
In tetrapods branchial arches form this instead of gill supports in fish
support for the tongue, larynx (hyoid apparatus), and carilaginous rings within the larynx
Functional changes concerning branchial arches from fish to tetrapods
gills are no longer needed, arches form support for feeding and breathing on land
These arches were lost and are not even present in modern day amniotes (are present in some amphibians)
Branchial arches 5-7
Forms from four pair of cartilages, forms the case for the brain
Chondrochranium
Forms the floor of the brain....
ethmoid and basal plates
forms the capsules around the nasal sacs and inner ears
olfactory and otic capsules
in all vertebrates excepts chondrichthyes the catilage is replaced with.......
endochondral bone
Opening through which the spinal cord enters the brain case
Foramen magnum
articulate with the first cervical bone...what is their location
Occipital bones- on either side of the foramen magnum
Form within the otic and sometimes olfactory capsules-forms the innerear
Otic bones
Forms orbits which protects the eyeballs, forms within the walls and floor of the chondrocranium
sphenoid bones
technically part of the visceral skeleton, the posterior side of the palatoquadrate cartilage fuses to the skull, acts as point of jaw articulation in reptiles and amphibians
quadrate bone
originates from the ectomesenchyme of the nueral crest, does not go through a cartilage stage
Dermatocranium
The four parts of the dermatocranium in fish
1. roofing bones, cover the sides and roof of chondrocranium
2.bones of the upper jaw
3. primary palate
4. opercular bones (cover the gills)
Similarities of fish dermatocranium and labryinthodont
roofing bones, opening for parietal eye, and upper jaw bones, primary palate is also similar
In reptiles these formed in the dermatocranium to support large jaw muscles
temporal fossae
In reptiles this formed to seperate food and air pathways
secondary palate
bones that form the tip of the upper jaw, nasal pits are present here
premaxillary bones
bones that form the sides of the jaws in tetrapods
maxillary bones
lies along side of the maxillary bones, makes up the hard palate of the mouth
Palantine bones
Present in earliest vertebrates, is a blind gut that serves only has an olfactory organ
external nares
cavity that opens into the mouth cavity, in advanced tetrapods there is a passage and a cavity, allows animals to eat and breathe at the same time
internal nares
has no fossae, turtles
anapsid
have two pair of fossae, modern reptiles
diapsid
has one pair of fossae
synapsid
Modification in some reptiles of the diapsid skull
the bar of the infratemporal fossae has dissapeared leaving the fossae open on the ventral side, allowing the jaws to open wider and snap shut harder
upper jaw moves upward independent of the lower jaw..this is known as...
cranial kinesis
bones of the dermatocranium beneath the chondrochranium form the
primary palate
dermatacronium of mammals has a more.....shaped roof than reptiles to do what.....
dome shaped roof accomadates a larger brain
There are.....bones in the mammalian dermatacronium than the reptilian, which ones remain.....
less bones, the nasals, frontals, parietals, and squamosals are retained
what three bones form the temporal region of the dermatacranium in mammals
petrosal bone of chondrocranium, squamous portion of the squamosal bone of the dermatacranium, and the tympanic and mastoid portions of new bones form the inner ear cavity
These bones located in the nasal region, work to moisten and warm air as well as containing some olfactory cells
Turbinal scrolls
the processes of the squamosal and malar bone connect to form this structure along the sides of the face (structure surounds the temporal fossa
zygomatic arch
In mammals processes from the maxillary bones and palantine bones fuse to form the-
secondary palate
The mammalian palate is made up of a.....and.....with the .....being first
hard and soft palate, the hard palate occurs first