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135 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
biological evolution
change in allelic frequency
can we observe allelic changes?
no
______ develop....______ evolve
individuals...populations
phylogeny
evolutionary history of a taxon
phylogenesis
process that produces evolutionary lines
ontogeny
history of an individual from conception to death...highfill getting gray hair
microevolution
moths, bird flu
macroevolution
large scale evolution of new generas and species owing to mutations due to marked changes in chromosomal pattern...phenotype
greek philosophy over 2500 years ago
believed that only creatures with practical characteristics survived to reproduce
Carl von Linne
creationist
systematists- binomial nomenclature
species are immutable
Dr. John lightfoot
creationist
vice chancellor of cambridge
calculated humans dated back to 4004 bc to october 28 at 9 am
john baptiste de lamarck
1.evolutionist
2.hierarchy of species/spontaneous generation
3.inheritance of acquired characteristics
4. need produces change
5. muscles develop to meet need and then are passed on
alfred wallace
1. evolutionist
2. belief based on observations of malay archipalago
3. wrote a paper on evolution and sent it to darwin
4. read an essay on the population of species by malthus and the idea flashed to wallace that the same principle applied to all species
charles darwin
1. evolutionist
2. read principle of population
3. observations on south america and galapagos islands
4. delayed writing his book for 20 years
thomas huxley
1. darwinian evolutionist
2.darwin's bulldog
3. proved owen's archetype theory wrong
4. morphologist
vertebrate
an organism belonging to phylum chordata and subphylum vertebrata
characteristics of chordates
1. notochord.
2. pharyngeal slits
3. dorsal hollow nerve cord
4. postanal tail
5. endostyle
grand vertebrate design is...
complex and remarkably precise/ they are products of their evolutionary past and basic structural plan
evolution
natural selection
nonrandom differential reproduction of genotypes
evolution is a result of...
interaction of phenotypes with selective forces in the environment ex. black peppered moth: peppered survived then black survived after industrial
George Cuvier
1. creationist
2. morphologist
3. believed parts were adapted to perform specific fxns: if part were change function would fail and animal would perish
4. no change and no evolution of species
5. should be considered the father of comparative anatomy
richard owen
1. creationist
2. morphologist
3. believed in immutability of species
4. believed in archetypes: biological blueprint
5. limbs perform different function but all have a common plan: homologies
6. physiological and morphological constraints on animal design
lizard leg and dolphin flipper
homologous
tongue of salamander and toad
homology and analogy
gecko toe and tree frog
analogous
sailfish and pelycosaur
homoplasy
bird wing vs. bat wing
homologous
bat wing s. fly wing
analogous
turtle and dolphin flippers
homologous, analogous, and homoplastic
insects with wings like leaves
homoplastic
ascidean sea squirt
subphylum urochordata
lamprey/amphioxus: branchiostomata lancelata
cephalochordata
subphylum vertebrata
superclass agnatha
superclass gnathostomata
superclass angatha
class myxini
class petromyzoniformes
class conodonaclass cephalaspidomorpha
class myxini
hagfish: an agnathan
class petromyzoniformes
lamprey under agnathan
class conodona
conodont element is important index fossil- an agnathan
class cephalaspidomorpha
all extinct: ostracoderms= bony fish : an agnathan
superclas gnathostomata
evolved along chondrichthyes and teleostomi: classes placodermi chondrichthyes, acanthodii, osteichthyes,
class placodermi
plate- skin fishes are all fossils: gnathostomata
class chondrichthys
sublclass elasmobranchii (sharks, rays, no gas bladders)
subclass holocephali (chimeras): gnathostomata
class acanthodii
minnow size fish:large spines:thin skin web(fin):dermal armor in head: btw. cartilaginous bony fish: gnathostomata
class osteichthyes
small overlapping scales, swim bladder, fin rays, Lepidotrichia: gnathostomata
subclass actinopterygian
majority of all fish: under osteichthyes and gnathostomata
superorder paleonisciformes
earliest bony fish, fusiform, gannoid scales
infraclass metatheria
parched marsupials...kangaroos, oposoms
order marsupialia
pouched mammals
infraclass eutheria
placentals...true uterus
order edentate
anteaters, sloths
insectivore
shews moles
macroscelidea
elephant shrew
scandentia
tree shews
chiroptera
bats
dermoptera
flying lemurs
pholidota
pangolins
lagomorpha
pika, rabbits
rodentia
mice, rats, beaver
primates
lemurs, monkey, humans, gibbons
carnivora
cats, dogs, hyaenas, bears, racoons, skunks
artiodactyla
pigs, camels, cattle deer, hippos
perissodactyla
horses, tapirs, rhinos
hydracoida
hydraxes
cetacean
whale dophins
sirenia
sea cows
tubulindentata
ardvarkes
ungulates
hooved mammals
1. artiodactyla
2. perissodactyla
3. hydracoida
4. cetacean
5. sirenia
5. tubulindentata
class mammalia
a typeof conodont, cynodonts are a type of therapsid which are part of the synapsied lineage.
2 major characteristics of mammals
hair and mammary glands
Birds outnumber all verts except
fish
derived form... and most closely related to...
diapsids...crocodiles
birds are an excellent example of ... b/c
preadaptation b/c didn't evolve feathers to fly
within the fish the ... and ... appeared first
jaws and fins
wht type of fish have been the dominant aquatic vert and since when
ray finned...mid paleozoic
fleshy finned fish gave rise to
land vertebrates...the tetrapods
chridium
a muscular limb with well defined joints and digits
hox genes
master genes bringing huge change
induction
stimulatory effect btw. developing tissues and embryo
isolecithal
yolk evenly distributed throughout the ovum
macrolecithal
lot of yolk
meroblastic
elasmobranchs, teleost fish
mesenchyme
loosely associated cels meso in origin
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue giving rise to skeleton, internal organs, tissues, and muscles
mesolecithal
moderate yolk
mesomere
intermediate portion of lateral sheet of mesoderm
myotome
undifferentiated embryonic blocks of presumptive muscles
neural cress cells
come from ectodermal folds
neurula stage
neural tube formed by folding of dermal ectoderm
neurulation
process of formingectodermal tube
ovipositoin
eggs layed without further nourishment given by mother
paedomorphosis/neotony
juvenile characteristics of ancestors appear in adults of descendants
hox genes
master genes bringing huge change
induction
stimulatory effect btw. developing tissues and embryo
isolecithal
yolk evenly distributed throughout the ovum
macrolecithal
lot of yolk
meroblastic
elasmobranchs, teleost fish
mesenchyme
loosely associated cels meso in origin
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue giving rise to skeleton, internal organs, tissues, and muscles
mesolecithal
moderate yolk
mesomere
intermediate portion of lateral sheet of mesoderm
myotome
undifferentiated embryonic blocks of presumptive muscles
neural cress cells
come from ectodermal folds
neurula stage
neural tube formed by folding of dermal ectoderm
neurulation
process of formingectodermal tube
ovipositoin
eggs layed without further nourishment given by mother
paedomorphosis/neotony
juvenile characteristics of ancestors appear in adults of descendants
hox genes
master genes bringing huge change
induction
stimulatory effect btw. developing tissues and embryo
isolecithal
yolk evenly distributed throughout the ovum
macrolecithal
lot of yolk
meroblastic
elasmobranchs, teleost fish
mesenchyme
loosely associated cels meso in origin
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue giving rise to skeleton, internal organs, tissues, and muscles
mesolecithal
moderate yolk
mesomere
intermediate portion of lateral sheet of mesoderm
myotome
undifferentiated embryonic blocks of presumptive muscles
neural cress cells
come from ectodermal folds
neurula stage
neural tube formed by folding of dermal ectoderm
neurulation
process of formingectodermal tube
ovipositoin
eggs layed without further nourishment given by mother
paedomorphosis/neotony
juvenile characteristics of ancestors appear in adults of descendants
partuition
act of giving birht viviparity
peramorphosis
adult chars of ancestors appear in adult descendants
placenta
formed by tissues of fetus and mother forming intimate vascular contact
scleratome
cells eith tendency to migrate to many regions of the body
senescense
aging/ loss of physical and reproductive ability
somatic mesoderm
outerwall of hypomere
somite
called pumps
splanchnopleure
endodem and mesoderm fushing in gut region in btw. is coelom and d and v emsentary are membrances
deuterosomes have
radial cleavage/enterocoelic coelom/mesodermal skeleton/blastopore from anus
chorion
ectoderm/somatic meso
amnion
ectoderm and somatic mesoderm
allantois
endoderm and splanchnic mesoder
yolk sac
splanchnic mese and endomesoderm
respiratory membrane of all except marsupials
chorion allantois
ovoviparious
species have eggs which develop within mother/ but don't get nourishment from her