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9 Cards in this Set

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-Fertilization can occur within 12-24 hours of ovulation

-Fertilization occurs in the lateral, widest portion of the oviduct

-Fertilization of more than one egg results in fraternal twins
A series of rapid mitotic divisions that lead to an increase in cell number without an increase in cell protoplasm
1. Indeterminate Cleavage

2. Determinate Cleavage
1. A cleavage that result in cells taht maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism (identical twins)

2. A cleavage that results in cells whose future differeniation pathways are determined at an early developmental state.
Cleavage Timing
First Cleavage: 32 hours
Second Cleavage: 60 hours
Third Cleavage: 72 hours at which time the 8-celled embryo reaches the uterus
1. Morula

2. Blastulation and Blastoceoel

4. Blastula
1. A solid ball of embryonic cells

2. Blastulation begins when the morula develops a fluid filled cavity called teh blastocoel

3. A hollow sphere of cells formed by the fourth day
Once implanted in the utuerus, cell migrations transform the single cell layer of the blastula into the three-layerd gastrula.
Gastrula Germ Layer: Ectoderm
Responsible for the differntial development of the epidermis, hair, nails, epithelium of the nose, mouth, and anal cavity, the lens of the eye, the retina, and nervous system.
Gastrula Germ Layer: Endoderm
Responsible for the differntial development of the epithelial linigs of the digestive and respitory tracts, and parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder lining.
Gastrula Germ Layer: Mesoderm
Responsible for teh differential development of teh musculoskeletal system, circulatory system, excretory system, gonads, connective tissue throughout the body, and portions of the digestive and respitory organs.