Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ーない(です)
Base 1
Informal negative.
(desu) Raises sentence to normal polite range.
ーないで
Base 1
Without doing, without having done.
ーないでください
Base 1
Negative request. "Please don't..."
ーなかった(です)
Base 1
Informal negative past.
(desu) Raises sentence to normal polite range.
Desu becomes dewanakatta or janakatta.
ーなかったら
Base 1
Conditional negative. "If/when I didn't/don't"
Desu becomes dewanakattara or janakattara.
ーなければ
Base 1
Conditional negative. "If I don't"
Aru becomes nakereba.
Desu becomes denakereba.
ーなければなりません
Base 1
Obligational. "Must, have to"
Desu becomes denakereba narimasen.
ーなくて
Base 1
Te form of -nai. "I didn't...but rather..."
Aru becomes nakute.
Desu becomes dewanakute or janakute.
ーなくても
Base 1
"Even if I don't"
Aru becomes nakute mo.
Desu becomes dewanakute mo or janakute mo.
ーなくてもいい(です)
Base 1
"It's OK not to..."
(desu) Raises sentence to normal polite range.
Aru becomes nakute mo ii (desu)
Desu becomes dewanakute mo ii (desu)
ーれる/ーられる
Base 1
Passive: be done.
Miru becomes mieru.
Korareru and sareru
ーせる/ーさせる
Base 1
Causative: Make someone do, let someone do.
kosaseru and saseru
ーずに
Base 1
Without doing.
Kozu and sezu.
No ending (base 2)
Base 2
Makes verb into a nown.
Hanasu (To say) becomes hanashi (What was said).
Continuation.
More poetic than -te form.
Desu becomes deari.
V2 + V3
Base 2
Compound form.
Aruku + mawaru = arukimawaru (Walk around)
ーだす
Base 2
Do suddenly, suddenly start doing.
ーはじめる
Base 2
Begin doing.
ーかた
Base 2
Method or way of doing something.
Changes verb into a nown.
ーこむ
Base 2
Do in/into.
kakikomu = write in (the date)
tobikomu = dive/fly into (a window)
Masu form
Base 2
Normal polite leve of speech forms.
-masu
-mashita
-masen
-masen deshita
-mashou (Let's)
-mashou ka (Shall we?)
ーながら
Base 2
While doing.
ーなさい
Base 2
Abrubt command. "Do it!"
ーにいく/ーにくる
Base 2
Go/come (to do someting)
ーにくい
Base 2
Difficult to.
(Creates an adjective)
Yominikui desu (...is hard to read)
ーおわる
Base 2
Finish doing.
ーそう(です)
Base 2
Looks like about to (verb).
ーすぎる
Base 2
Do too much.
飲みすぎました。
ーたがる
Base 2
Want to, wish to.
Similar to the -tai form, but adds more emotion and intensity.
Watashi wa BK o tabetagarimashita. (I longed to eat BK)
ーたい(です)
Base 2
Desirative.
-takatta, -takunai, and takunakatta are other forms.
(desu) Raises level to normal polite.
ーつずける
Base 2
Continue doing.
ーやすい
Base 2
Easy to do.
Creates an adjective.
ほど
Base 3
To the extent that, so much that.
かぎり
Base 3
Within the limits of, insofar as.
かわりに
Base 3
Instead of, in place of, in exchange for.
行くかわりに電話をしました。
きがある/きがする
Base 3
To want to do, to have a mind to do.
テニスおするきがあれば、いっしょうにしましょうか?
きになる
Base 3
To come to feel like doing.
ことがある
Base 3
(ever) do, occasionally do.
ときどきお寿司を食べることがあります。
ことができる
Base 3
To be able to.
お兄さんギターを弾くことができます。
For suru, koto ga is dropped and dekiru replaces suru.
ことになる/ようになる
Base 3
Comes about, comes to pass.
土曜日のも働くことになりました。
ことにする
Base 3
To decide.
明日東京に行くことにしました。
まで
Base 3
Until I do.
までに
Base 3
By the time I do.
まえに
Base 3
Before doing.
もの
Base 3
Makes verb into a thing, a person, an obligation, or reason to do something.
Base 3
Abrubt negative command.
ために
Base 3
In order for..
Base 3
If I do.
とちゅう(です)
Base 3
Be en route, be on the way. Used with verbs of motion.
学校え行くとちゅうで友達に会いました。
ところ(です)
Base 3
To be about to.
Used with the progressive form, means to be in the process of doing.
としたら/とすれば/とすると
Base 3
Emphatic Conditional.
としても
Base 3
Even if.
つもり(です)
Base 3
Intend to.
明日電車で行くつもりです。
ように
Base 3
In order to.
よてい(です)
Base 3
Plan to.
No ending (Base 4)
Base 4
Abrupt command.
ーば
Base 4
Conditional.
ーばよかった(です)
Base 4
It would have been better if I had done.
早く食べればよかったです。
ーる
Base 4
Potential for yodan verbs.
Able to do, can.
No ending (Base 5)
Base 5
Informal inclusive command. (Less formal than V2+mashou)
Base 5
Informal inclusice query.
(Less formal than V2+mashou ka)
とおもう
Base 5
I think I will.
とする
Base 5
To about to.
Most commonly in the progressive form to shite iru.
警察に電話しようとしています。
あげる/やる
Base 6
Do for (someone other than the speaker)
地図を書いてあげましょうか?
ある
Base 6
Has been done.
ほしい(です)
Base 6
Want someone to..
お母さんに買ってほしいです。
いく
Base 6
Do before going.
先生と話して行きましょう。
いる
Base 6
Progressive form. Be doing.
いただく
Base 6
Have somone do.
今晩電話をしていただけますか?
から
Base 6
After doing.
くる
Base 6
Do before coming.
食べてきました。
みる
Base 6
Do and see.
おいしいですから、食べてみてください。
Base 6
Even if I do.
もいいです
Base 6
It's OK to.
おく
Base 6
Do for a later purpose, do and set aside.
しまう
Base 6
Do completely.
はいけません。
Base 6
It's not OK to.
No ending (Base 7)
Base 7
Informal past tense.
あと
Base 7
After having done, after doing.
ばかり(です)
Base 7
Have just done.
ことがある
Base 7
Have ever done.
ーら
Base 7
If I did.
When the main verb is in the past tense, it means "when I did"
先生に聞いたら,はっきりと分かりました。
ーり
Base 7
Nonsequential series of verbs.
ために
Base 7
Because I did.
先生が行ったため、信じました。
ところ(です)
Base 7
Just did, (be at) the point of being done.
今食事が終ったところです。