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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are Verbs inflected for in I-E?
Tense, Mood, Aspect, Voice, Number, and Person
What are the cases for MOOD in I-E?
Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative, Injunctive
What are the cases for MOOD in Germanic?
Indicative, Imperative, Optative (with Subjunctive and Injunctive factored in)
What does INDICATIVE CASE mark?
Statements or Questions of Fact
What does SUBJUNCTIVE CASE mark?
Expression of Will
What does OPTATIVE CASE mark?
Expression of Wishes
What does IMPERATIVE CASE mark?
Expression of Commands
What does INJUNCTIVE CASE mark?
Expression of Unreality
How many kinds of VOICE were there in I-E?
What were the kinds of VOICE in I-E?
Active, Passive, Middle (Reflexive)
How many kinds of VOICE were there in Germanic?
What were the kinds of VOICE in Germanic?
Active and Passive
What does ASPECT refer to?
Temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state
How many ASPECTS were there in I-E?
What were the ASPECTS in I-E?
Present (Progressive), Imperfect, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future (Potential)
What does the PRESENT (PROGRESSIVE) ASPECT refer to?
Continuing action in progress

Ex: I speak French
What does the IMPERFECT ASPECT refer to?
Continuing action in the past

Ex: I spoke French
What does the AORIST ASPECT refer to?
Singular, momentary action in the past

Ex: I answered the door
What does the PERFECT ASPECT refer to?
Completed actions with consequences for present

Ex: I have already returned that call
What does the PLUPERFECT ASPECT refer to?
Completed action in the past

Ex: I (had) answered the door when...
What does the FUTURE (POTENTIAL) ASPECT refer to?
Actions to come

Ex: I (will) answer the door
What were the Tenses/Aspects in Germanic?
Present (included Future) and Past (often called Preterite)
How many major Verb Classes were in I-E?
How are Verb Classes distinguished?
Root vowels (Vowel in uninflected form of the verb) and the following consonants
How many Verb Classes were in Germanic?
What category of Verbs did Germanic add?
"Weak" (or dental preterite) verbs
What are the two types of Adjective Declension?
Strong and Weak
When was a Weak/ Definite Adjective used?
When preceded by a demonstrative
When was a Strong/ Indefinite Adjective used?
When not preceded by a demonstrative