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1090 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DIABELERIE
DEVILTRY
VATIC
vatic
prophetic; oracular.
MAUNDER
maunder

to speak in a rambling manner.
SKULK
Skulk

move stealthily.
FLOUT
"to play the flute."
FLOUT
Express contempt for something in word or deed.
B A L S A M
b a l s a m

an aromatic resinous exudate
tree
oil
asking God for something --
PETITIONARY PRAYERS.
LOUCHE
"squint-eyed," from Latin luscus, "one-eyed."
CLERISY
CLERISY
INTELLIGENSIA
PRINK

being prinked and coiffed as she prepares for the beauty contest.
Prink
primp

dress up
DISCOMFIT
THWART

she would have been discomfited if no one noticed her.

THWART
GADABOUT
GADABOUT
"one to rove or go about without purpose or restlessly"
CHIMERA
CHIMERA
...monster made up of grotesquely incongruous parts.
MALVERSATION
malversation:
Misconduct, corruption, or extortion in public office.
DEMUR
DEMUR
To object; to take exception.
CLERISY
CLERISY

The clerisy of a nation...its learned men, whether poets, or philosophers, or scholars.

INTELLIGENSIA
DeMuR
DEMUR

de- + morari, "to delay, to loiter," from mora, "a delay."
DEMURRER
DEMURRER

a demurrer is a formal objection attacking the legal sufficiency of an opponent's pleadings.
INTREPID
"not" + trepidus, "anxious, disturbed."
EXPRESS CONTEMPT
FLOUT
IMPORTUNATE
Troublesomely urgent; overly persistent in request or demand; unreasonably solicitous.
...the most importunate beggar.
KVETCH
KVETCH

COMPLAIN
PURBLIND
PURBLIND
VERY BLIND
DISHABILLE
DISHABILLE
SCANTILY DRESSED
BRIO
BRIO
VIVACITY
PUKKHA
PUKKHA
AUTHENTIC
PERDURABLE
PERDURABLE
VERY DURABLE
SNAFFLE
snaffle

steal
PURLOIN
purloin

filch
FEY
OTHERWORLDLY
fey
WRY
SARDONIC

wry
ARCH
arch

affectedly playful
APORIA
APORIA

rhetorically asking one's hearers what is the best way to approach something.

Where shall I begin?
MULCT
MULCT


SWINDLE
BLACKGAURD
BLACKGUARD

black + guard. The term originally referred to the lowest kitchen servants of a court or of a nobleman's
PERFORCE
Perforce comes from French par force, "by force."
FAINEANT
noun:
A do-nothing; an idle fellow; a sluggard.
BILLET
BILLET

Lodging for soldiers.
LEGDI
GELID

Extremely cold; icy.
MULCT
swindle...
mulcting the public in a variety of ways.
Latin multa, "a fine."
ESCHEW
eschew
shun; avoid (as something wrong or distasteful).
FAINEANT

noun
adj
faineant,
adj:idle; lazy.
noun:A do-nothing.
PERFORCE
BY FORCE
the error of supposing that, because we are plainly not a race of angels, we must perforce be a race of beasts.
PERSPICACITY
invincible perspicacity and sophistication.
FIDUCIARY
He bears the ultimate legal and fiduciary responsibility for the company's performance.
SERIATIM
Seriatim "row, chain," He thanked them seriatim.
verbatim("word for word")
literatim ("letter for letter").
TURPITUDE
an era of subversion and moral turpitude.
EFY
FEY
Beneath a fey manner, his mother was highly competitive.
Old English fæge, "fated to die."
SARDONIC
"The parties have a theme, lest drinking until we see double gets dull," she writes, with the sardonic edge that makes the book so lively.
SERIATIM
SERIATIM
he thanked every lady and gentleman, seriatim, for the favour of their company.
verbatim/literatim
OBLATION
OBLATION
...making each day, in its most conventional aspects an oblation to the absolute.
SELF ANTONYMS
SELF ANTONYMS

Enjoin
Fast
cleave
EVINCE
EVINCE: indicate, make evident.
evincere conquer
EVINCIBLE
E VINC IVE
see EVICT
CIRCUMAMBIENT
CIRCUMAMBIENT

the self owes its form and perhaps its very existence to the circumambient social order.
FLORID
FLORID
*attacks on the Victorian bourgeoisie were florid in rhetoric, deficient in evidence, and malicious in intent
*florid prose
MIS EN EBYME
MIS EN ABYME
le procédé qui consiste à répéter (parfois à l'infini) un élément à l'intérieur d'autres éléments similaires au premier.
FORLORN
FORLORN
OE. forleosan, "to abandon," from for- + leosan, "to lose."
RECHERCHE
Exotic; rare.
. . . recherche topics interesting only to university specialists.

... recherche ingredients not because of their qualities but their snob value.

...the recherche terminology.
TURBID
Muddy
turbid water.
COMMODIOUS
Comfortably spacious
commodious pockets.
his commodious quarters
GERMANE
Latin germanus, from germen, "a bud, a shoot."
SUPERCILIOUS
Superciliosus, from supercilium, "an eyebrow, arrogance," from super, "over" + cilium, "an
eyelid."
COQUETTE
"somewhat of a coquette in manner," perversely entertaining suitors but accepting none.
Q
A
DESULTORY
DESULTORY
PERFUNCTORY
PERFUNCTORY
C O N C U P I S C E N C E
CON CUP IS CENCE
STAID
Staid is from obsolete staid, past participle of stay.

composed, grave, sedate, steady.
BEDAUB
be-, "thoroughly" + daub, , "to clothe in white, white-wash, plaster," dealbare, "to whitewash, to plaster," from de-(intensive prefix) + albus, "white."
BIDDABLE
that one charismatic individual can impose his will on a lot of biddable ones.
They are calm, biddable, cooperative, sensible companions.
CLOY
all these delights start to cloy my senses.
CLOG
STAID
Steady or sedate in character; sober; composed; regular; not wild, volatile, or fanciful.
From obsolete staid, past participle of stay.
composed, grave, sedate, steady.
IMPASSIBLE
he was a man of much dignity, with an impassible face
VENAL
a variety of venal practices
PENURY
Oscar Wilde, with his opulence of twadle and his penury of sense.
INTERLARD
To interlard a conversation with oaths.
ABULIA
abulia, also aboulia
There's little escape from her black hole of abulia.
a-, "without" + boule, "will." abulic.
NIMIETY
NIMIETY EXCESS
a nimiety of riches have we here!
nimius, "very much, too much," from nimis, "excessively."
OPPROBRIUM
a term of opprobrium
Malaysia incurred global opprobrium

Opprobrare,to reproach.
EX E CRABLE
ex-, "out of, away from, outside of" + sacer, "sacred."
FELICITOUS
felicitous turn of phrase
a chance for a felicitous reward in the hereafter.
felicitas, "fertility, hence success, happiness," from felix, "fertile, successful, happy."
OP PROB RIUM
a term of opprobrium
MPIDIL
LIMPID
her large eyes are a limpid, liquid blue
EX EC RABLE
truly execrable writing
NONPLUS
I could see that my success
had nonplussed him.
he seemed nonplussed
non plus, "no more."
SAPIENT
..a sapient observer of the world.
..the trusty and sapient counsellor of previous leaders.
OBJURGATE
The act about to be
objurgated.
DES UL TORY
desultory talk
IN TER STICE
Interstitium, "a pause, an interval," intersistere, "to stand still in the middle of something".
inter, "between" + sistere, "to cause to stand."
SPECIOUS
specious reasoning
a specious argument
specious claims
NETTLESOME
nettlesome problems
nettlesome issues
SYNCRETIC
In Cuba, the dominant religion is Santeria, a syncretic mix of
Catholicism and Yoruba deities.
SURCEASE
with no promise of surcease,
PERQUISITE
a perquisite reserved for top executives.
regarded petty larceny as a perquisite of office
CONCUPISCENCE
CON CUP ISCENCE
INSOUCIANT
in-, "not" + souciant,
"caring,"
INVEIGLE

in-VAY-guhl
Deep Blue had tried to inveigle Kasparov into grabbing several pawn offers
DYSPEPTIC

EUPEPTIC
dys-, "difficult, bad" + pepsis, "digestion." The opposite of dyspeptic is eupeptic, "having good digestion; also, cheerful."
SOLICITOUS
Sollicitus, "thoroughly or violently moved, disturbed, or agitated," - "anxious, uneasy, worried," from sollus, "whole, entire" + citus, past
participle of ciere, "to move, to stir."
EPHEMERON
ephemera of day-to-day life
behind this shimmering ephemeron lies Brahman
hungry for a plethora of Star Trek ephemera.
PORTENT
portendere, "to stretch out before or into the future, to predict," from por- (variant of pro-), "before" + tendere
SELF ANTONYMS
SELF ANTONYMS
Enjoin
Fast
cleave
UNTOWARD
Not favorable or fortunate; adverse.
OE toweard, "facing, imminent," from to, "to" + -weard, "-ward."
DEVILTRY
Mischievous conduct; deviltry.
DROUGHT
'Drought', OE 'drugoth'.
related to 'dry'.
WAYWORN
Wayworn is WAY (OE weg) + worn (from OE werian).
COSSET
pampered and cosseted from infancy
CLAQUE
1. A group hired to applaud at a performance.
2. A group of fawning admirers.
BLUB
SOB
Birdwatchers sob (blub) as 'extinct' woodpecker found after 60 years
HOBBLEDEHOY
An awkward, gawky young fellow.
the buffoonish behaviour of the spotty hobbledehoys at the end-of-term disco --
a hulking hobbledehoy.
ignorant hobbledehoys.

? derives from hobble, from the awkward movements of a clumsy adolescent.
BIDDABLE
one charismatic individual can impose his will on a lot of biddable ones.
...calm, biddable, cooperative, sensible companions.
"to ask, to command," from OE biddan; and partly "to offer, to proclaim," from OE beodan.
FETTLE
Middle English fetlen, "to set in order," originally "to gird up," from Old English fetel, "a girdle."
SKULK
Middle English skulken, ultimately Scandinavian origin.
CADGE
Cadge derives from Middle English cadgear, "a peddler, a
huckster."
GLOM
. . . salespersons who glom onto you. GRAB
TOOTHSOME
toothsome opportunities
a toothsome starlet
Toothsome is derived from tooth + -some.
delectable, delicious, palatable, scrumptious,
tasty, yummy.
FROWARD
FROWARD

headstrong, insubordinate, rebellious, contumacious.
STANCH
to stanch the flow of water seeping inexorably into the room.
Truman would stanch any North Korean invasion by
threatening to use atomic weapons.
Old French estancher, "to stop a liquid from flowing."

The verb stanch is related to the adjective staunch, meaning "steadfast, loyal." Both words have the same history (the adjective originally meant (watertight"), and each one serves as the variant spelling of the other. But the usual spelling of the verb is stanch, and the usual spelling of the adjective is staunch.
RESPONSIBILITY
fiduciary responsibility
IN EL UCTABLE
Impossible to avoid or evade.
... ineluctable as gravity.
Eluctari, "to struggle out of, to get free from," from ex-, e-, "out of" + luctari, "to struggle."
EXIGENT
EXIGENT

Exigere, "to demand."
ALTERCATE
Altercatio, altercation-, from altercari, "to dispute (with another)," from alter, "other." The verb form is altercate.
NAIF
prey on the sympathies of unsuspecting naifs, fishing for
bank account numbers or photocopies of passports.
LENITY
LENIENCY
And what makes robbers bold but too much lenity? (Shakes).

Lenis, "soft, mild."
LIMINAL
liminal
1 relating to a transitional or initial stage.
2 at a boundary or threshold.
liminality noun.
limen ‘threshold’.
LIMINAL
liminal, lawless, deprived and depraved.
STIPULATE
STIPULARI
...EDGE
SARDONIC EDGE

she writes with a sardonic edge
PROROGUE
Discontinue the meeting (of a parliament etc) without dissolving it.
TRUSTED WITH THE MONEY
fiduciary responsibility
LEOSAN
leosan, "to lose."
STANCH...
Verb stanch is related to adjective staunch, meaning "steadfast, loyal." Both words have the same history (the adjective originally meant (watertight"), and each one
serves as the variant spelling of the other. But the usual spelling of the verb is stanch, and the usual spelling of the adjective is staunch.
APORIA
APORIA

rhetorical.
Where shall I begin?
STANCH STAUNCH
Stanch is related to the adjective staunch, meaning "steadfast, loyal." The adjective originally meant watertight. Each one serves as the variant spelling of the other. But the usual spelling of the verb is stanch, and the usual spelling of the adjective is staunch.
TYRO
Latin tiro, "a young soldier, a recruit," hence "a beginner, a learner."
TUOLF
EXPRESS CONTEMPT
ATRA BILIOUS
Melancholic; gloomy.
an ill-faced, ill-tempered, atrabilious.
entertainingly atrabilious.
Atra bilis, "black" (atra) "bile" (bilis). It is a translation of Greek melankholia, from melas,
melan-, "black" + khole, "bile."
BADINAGE
an evening of anecdote and badinage.
badin:playful.
EMBONPOINT
EMBONPOINT: en + bon + point.
plumpness.
LUCUBRATION
LUCUBRATE
LUCUBRATION: lucubrare
...the amount of lucubration that finds its way
into print.
lucubrare, "to work by night, composed at night (as by candlelight)," ultimately connected with lux, "light." Hence it is related to lucent, "shining, bright," and lucid, "clear." The verb form is lucubrate.
NUGATORY
nugatory, adjective: insignificant,Having no force; inoperative; ineffectual.
his eye for what may appear nugatory or marginal but, when focused upon, illuminates the temper of a given moment.
an error so nugatory as to demand no action.
Nugari, "to trifle," from nugae, "jests, trifles."
TRUCULENT
truculent
adjective:
1. Fierce; savage; ferocious; barbarous.
2. Cruel; destructive; ruthless.
truculent partisan politicians in Washington.
the actions of a truculent fugitive.
an attitude of truculent resentment and outright paranoia rather than self-esteem.
truculentus, from trux, truc-, rough, savage, fierce.
UNCT U OUS
unctuous
A warmed, crusty French roll arrives split, lightly smeared with unctuous chopped liver.
unctuous public manner and her anger in private.
a smile so unctuous it seemed about to slide right off his face.
Unctus, "anointed, besmeared, greasy," past participle of unguere, "to anoint, to besmear."
QUAFF
transitive verb:
To drink with relish.
intransitive verb:
To drink largely or luxuriously.
noun:
A drink quaffed.
VLIAC
transitive verb.
transitive verb
noun

to cavil about competing ideas
to cavil at a single omission
be diverted from his main pursuit by cavils or trifles.
WAYLAY
waylay transitive verb:
To lie in wait for and attack from ambush.
To approach or stop someone unexpectedly.
waylay and beat them up.
waylaid him one evening and beat him bloody.
waylay tourists and entice them into buying the blooms and scents.
OE weg + lay from Old English lecgan.
BEHOLDEN
beholden , adjective:
Obliged; bound in gratitude; indebted.
she did not want him to feel beholden to her.
much less beholden to the farming interests than any government in
the past two decades.
did not intend to be beholden to any of his relatives unless they proved their worth.
Old English behealden, "to hold firmly," from be-, intensive prefix + healden, "to hold."
EKE
transitive verb:
1. To gain or supplement with great effort or difficulty --used with 'out'.
2. To increase or make last by being economical -- used with 'out'.

eke out a victory.
the wide margins the publishers use to eke out a skimpy text, they make the novel seem bigger than it is.
the rugged and resourceful villagers eked out a living on the thin crust of the soil.
Eke is from Old English ecan, "to increase."
TEM ER ARIOUS
TEM ER ARIOUS
Recklessly or presumptuously daring; rash.
Henry's enmity toward the temerarious Beckett for protesting the subordination of ecclesiastical to secular authority.
...temerarious theologian... ranged widely in my search for some permanently satisfying Truth.
temere, "rashly, heedlessly."
TNES
nest
A set of things that fit together or one inside the other.
a nest of tables
verb
nested, nesting
intr
To fit things together compactly, especially one inside another.
OE.
LABILE
Open to change; apt or likely to change; adaptable.
his prose is an amazingly labile instrument, wry and funny, never pretentious, capable of rendering the muck of a London street and the delicate hummingbird flights of thought with equal ease.
labi, "to slip."
ENJOIN
ENJOIN
1. to order.
2. to forbid.
... in only one place does it specifically enjoin fasting during the month of Ramadan...
...a steady stream of decisions enjoining strikes, boycotts, picket lines, and other collective actions.
injungere, to attach, to fasten to; also, to bring upon," from in- +
jungere, "to join."
/Enjoin/ is its own antonym. Other self-antonyms include /fast/("moving quickly; fixed firmly in place") and /cleave/ ("to split; toadhere").
ABLUTION
Ablution comes from Latin ablutio, from abluere, "to wash, to remove by washing, to wash away," from ab-, "away from" + luere, "to wash."
ABOMINATE
...and as for Latin, I abominated it.
I abominate the theatre.
FIDUCIARY
fiduciary responsibility for the company's performance
MISE EN ABYME
le procédé qui consiste à répéter (parfois à l'infini) un élément à l'intérieur d'autres éléments similaires au premier
ACQUIESCE

ASSENT
ACCEDE: accedere, ad-, "toward, to" + cedere, "to move, to yield."
acquiesce, agree, assent, comply, concur, consent.
AC QUIES CE
acquiesce to mafia involvement
acquiesce to the return of the marbles.
acquiesce in it.
ACUMEN
ACUMEN
rare combination of editorial acumen and business know-how.

The family store gave him a sharp business acumen --
acquired by manning the cash register --

acumen, "the sharp point of something; sharpness of understanding; cunning," from acuere, "to sharpen."
Sharpness, sagacity, perspicacity.
ADVENTITIOUS
adventicius, "coming from without, from outside sources," from the past participle of advenire, "to come towards or to; (of events) to happen," from ad- "to" + venire, "to come."
AD VEN TITIOUS
His posing was mostly harmless--merely adventitious to the genuine strength and gallantry underneath.
AFFLATUS
Afflatus, past participle of afflare, to blow at or breathe on, from ad-, at + flare, to puff, to blow. Other words with the same root include deflate (de-, out of + flare); inflate (in-, into + flare); soufflé, the puffed up dish (from French souffler, to puff, from Latin sufflare, to blow from below, hence to blow up, to puff up, from sub-, below + flare); and flatulent.
DEUS EX MACHINA
The dramatic device dates from the 5th century BC and is especially associated with Euripides.
IM MITIG ABLE

immitigable
The immitigable mountains and their stark, eldritch trees; coasts where earth abruptly snapped off, never to be continued, or beaches which gnawed it to bright dust and sucked it gently away....
NOCENT
Not nocent yet, but on the grassie Herbe Fearless unfeard he slept:
BULLY PULPIT
Theodore Roosevelt's reference to the White House as a "bully pulpit," meaning a terrific platform from which to persuasively advocate an agenda. Roosevelt often used the word "bully" as an adjective meaning superb/wonderful.
FIREBRAND
firebrands v. deadwood trope
LIBRI
CURSOR RECURSUS
EKE
Eke Old English ecan, to increase.
BIDDABLE
"to ask, to command," from OE biddan;
and partly "to offer, to proclaim," from OE beodan.
NWI
WIN
Obtain ore from a mine.
Winning coal by strip mining.
REBARBATIVE
The accusation against differential psychology is that its factorial dimensions are rebarbative to those who wish to improve the human lot.
COMELY
OE cymlic, from Cyme "pretty, beautiful, fine, delicate" + lic, adjectival suffix.
PELF
PELF:
"booty, stolen goods."
Related to pilfer.
VOTARY

...votaries.
VOTARY
monomaniac votaries.
Votum, "vow,".
NETTLESOME
NETTLESOME PROBLEMS
Verb nettle, "to sting; to irritate or vex" (from nettle, a plant covered with minute sharp, stinging hairs) + -some.
ANTE DILUVIAN
Ante-, "before" + diluvium, "flood." ancient, antiquated, archaic.
anti-diluvian--against floods!
LEXICON
THE TOTAL MORPHEMES OF A LANGUAGE
lexikos, "of or belonging to words," from lexis, "a speaking, speech, a way of speaking, a word or phrase," from legein, "to say, to speak."
IN A TRICE
"(at one)pull," from trisen, "to pull," from Middle Dutch trisen, "to hoist," from trise, "a windlass, a pulley."
PANOPLY
lay aside their precautionary panoply.
Greek panoplia, "a full suit of armor," from pan, "all" + hoplia, "arms, armor," plural of hoplon, "implement, weapon."
VOTARY
VOTARY
Votum, "vow," from the past participle of vovere, "to vow, to devote." Related words include vow and vote, originally a vow, hence a prayer or ardent wish, hence an expression of preference, as for a candidate.
IM PREG NABLE
...those [laws] are strong which appeal to reason, but those are impregnable which compell the assent both of reason and the common affections of mankind. --James Russell Lowell--
UMBRAGE
The river tumbling green and white, far below me; the dark
high banks, the plentiful umbrage, many bronze cedars, in shadow; and tempering and arching all the immense materiality, a clear sky overhead, with a few white clouds, limpid, spiritual, silent.
--Walt Whitman, Specimen Days.
SYNCRETIC
In Cuba, the dominant religion is Santeria, a syncretic mix
of Roman Catholicism and Yoruba deities.
a moderate, syncretic, inclusive brand of Islam.
ASCETIC
Those who practiced the cult of Orpheus banded themselves
into ascetic brotherhoods and tried to purify their souls through diet and dress.
askein, "to work, to exercise, to train."
MODICUM
Modicus, "moderate," from modus, "measure."
small quantity, trace, hint, speck, jot, iota.
ABJURE
ABJURE FORSWEAR
To renounce under oath.
abjure his heretical views.
He tasted the wine. There and then he resolved to abjure it totally.
Abjurare, "to deny upon oath," from ab-, "away" + jurare, "to swear." It is related to jury, "a body of persons sworn to give a verdict on a
given matter."
recant, renounce, forswear.
ABJURE
Abjurare, "to deny upon oath," from ab-, "away" + jurare, "to swear." Related to jury, "a body of persons sworn to give a verdict on a given matter."
FETID
FETID:
the fetid smell of the tannery.
Fetidus, from fetere, "to stink."

noisome, rank, rancid, smelly, stinking.
FETID
noisome, rank, rancid, smelly, stinking.
GIMCRACK
gimcrack, n & adj.:
gewgaw.
cheap.
a collection of pretty gimcracks.
always seeming aesthetically gimcrack.
DELIQUESCE
Deliquescere, from de-, "down,
from, away" + liquescere, "to melt," from liquere, "to be fluid." It is related to liquid and liquor.
DELI QUESENCE
deliquescere, de-, "down, from, away" + liquescere, "to melt," from liquere, "to be fluid."
EKE
EKE:
1. To gain or supplement with great effort or difficulty -- used with 'out'.
2. To increase or make last by being economical -- used with 'out'.
to eke out a skimpy text,
they make the novel seem bigger than it is.
OE ecan, "to increase."
EKE
ECAN
OE INCREASE
ADAMANT
adamant.
the adamant ignorance--of so many people.
Gk. Adamas, adamant-, "unconquerable; the hardest metal; diamond."
CANARD

He repeats the canard that...
He repeats the canard that since Britain failed to pay for Zimbabwe's land reform , “a forcible process of land redistribution became inevitable”.
CADRE

trained cadres flowed across the porous border.
cadre KAH-dray
A tightly knit and trained group of dedicated members active in promoting the interests of a revolutionary party.
A member of such a group.
Trained cadres flowed across the porous border
CADRE
the French avant-garde was made up of a cadre of bitter, highly self-conscious poets, painters, novelists, and critics.
BALAC
The world is under the control of a global cabal of elites.
...the profit-mad cabal of toy pushers.
---
Hebrew qabbalah, "received," hence "traditional, lore,".
ENJOIN
ENJOIN
1. to order.
2. to forbid.
enjoins fasting during the month of Ramadan...
...judges were friendly to unions, as shown by a steady stream of decisions enjoining strikes, boycotts, picket lines, and other collective actions.
injungere, to attach, to fasten to; also, to bring upon," from in- + jungere, "to join."
VAPID
he was writing vapid and sentimental mediocrities
prose of vapid enthusiasms
vapid anecdotes
VAPIDUS, "spiritless, spoiled, flat."
TITI VATE

c/w titillate
To smarten up; to spruce up.

In The Idle Class, when Chaplin is titivating in a hotel...
Titivate is perhaps from tidy + the quasi-Latin ending -vate.
When the word originally came into the language, it was written tidivate or tiddivate. The noun form is titivation.
Usage: Titivate is sometimes considered colloquial and is
often used for humorous effect. Be careful not to confuse it with titillate.
STORMCROW
..a morbid old stormcrow.

a harbinger of stormy weather.
APOTHEGM
adage, aphorism, maxim, proverb, saw.
BADINAGE
an evening of anecdote and badinage over a bottle or two of vintage bubbly and some tasty cheese straws.
badin:playful.
BEHOLDEN

TO
the government is beholden to farming interests.
TEM ER ARIOUS
TEM ER ARIOUS
Recklessly or presumptuously daring.
ABJURE
recant, renounce, forswear.
ABROGATE
To annul or abolish by an authoritative act.
put an end to; to do away with.
to abrogate the ABM Treaty
abrogate the agreement.
Abrogare, "to repeal a law wholly, to annul,"
LUCUBRATE
LUCUBRATION: lucubrare.
lucubrare, "to work by night, composed at night (as by
candlelight).

The verb form is lucubrate.
EKE
IN A TRICE
BLACKGAURD
DROUGHT
SKULK
COSSET
GAINSAY.
EKE.
IN A TRICE.
BLACKGUARD.
DROUGHT.
SKULK.
COSSET.
FETTLE.
MULCT.
STORMCROW.
LOSE.
FLOUT.
NETTLESOME.
PURLOIN.
FILCH.
PELF
GIMCRACK.
ESCHEW.
SHUN.
QUAFF.
GADABOUT.
SKULK.
HOBBLEDEHOY.
BIDDABLE.
WAYLAY.
WRY.
UNTOWARD.
MULCT.
INTERLARD.
CADGE.
FROWARD.
WRAITH
Wraith is from Scottish warth, probably originally "a guardian angel, hence a person's ghost seen -- as a warning or means of protection -- immediately before death, hence any apparition," from Old Norse vörthr, "watcher, guardian."
WIZENED
Wizened
Past participle of wizen, "to wither, to dry," from the OE wisnian.
WISEACRE
a smart aleck.
...journalists and other wiseacres...
Wiseacre comes from Middle Dutch wijssegger, "a soothsayer," from Old High German wissago, alteration of wizago, "a prophet."
WIZENED
wisnian
to wither, dry.
WHEEDLE
wheedle (transitive verb) or
To flatter; to use soft words.
(Intransitive vb).
to wheedle contributions by asking in a seductive voice.
OE wædlian, "to beg, to be a beggar," from wædl, "want,
poverty."
cajole.
WASTREL
Wastrel is from waste + -rel (as in scoundrel).
WAN
Wan
OE wann, "gloomy, dark."
WAG
Some wag has summed up the three laws of thermodynamics in everyday terms: 1. You can't win. 2. You can't even break even. 3. You can't get out of the game.
Wag in this sense perhaps comes from the obsolete wag-halter, "a rogue; one likely to be hanged."
UNFLEDGED
Lacking the feathers necessary for flight.
this parrot was caught when very young, even possibly unfledged.
sheltering unfledged youth from the real world, "prolonging a cocoon existence."
He is not naive, unfledged.
Unfledged is from obsolete fledge, "capable of flying;
feathered,"OE-flycge.
MAZY

...Mr. Dunne's mazy plot...
...a dense, mazy book...
Mazy is the adjective form of maze, which comes from Middle English mase, from masen, "to confuse, to daze," from Old English amasian, "to confound." It is related to amaze, which
originally meant "to bewilder."
HOARY
OE har, "gray; old (and gray-haired)."
TOWARD
adj.
old use
In progress
Example: Have you heard what is toward?
HARDSCRABBLE
hardscrabble , adjective:
1. Yielding a bare or meager living with great labor or difficulty.
2. Marked by poverty.
this hardscrabble land
hardscrabble farming
Hardscrabble is formed from hard (from Old English heard) + scrabble (from Dutch schrabbelen, "to scratch").
GAUCHE

DEXTEROUS
Sinister, Latin for left, suggests or threatens evil. Gauche is tactless, awkward and clumsy, but dexter gives us dexterous (also meaning skillful). If you are
GAINSAY
ME geinseien, from gein-, against (from OE gegn-, gean-) + sayen, to say, from Old English secgan.
FROWARD
to discourage further opposition by the contumacious Gauls
a contumacious teenager
Contumax, contumac-, "insolent." contrary, froward, headstrong, insubordinate, rebellious.
FORLORN
OE forleosan, "to abandon," from for- + leosan, "to lose."
FOR go
forgo
OE forgan, "to go without, to forgo," from for-, "without" + gan, "to go."
forwent, forgone, forgoing, forgoes
To abstain from; to do without.
she will forgo her favorite foods.
I might cheerfully forgo stock options in Microsoft to do it.
I wanted to forgo college and head straight to New York to become an actress
FILLIP
A snap of the finger forced suddenly from the thumb; a stimulus.
transitive verb:
he gives him a fillip on the nose.
the coffee administers a fillip to my brain.
Her raspberry cream tart is given an added fillip with
bourbon and nutmeg.
You fillip me o' the head. Shakespeare.
ACCEDE
Accedere, "to approach, to accede," from ad-, "toward, to" + cedere, "to move, to yield."
acquiesce, agree, assent, comply, concur, consent.
TAMBI
he came within the ambit of the Vienna Circle.
a regulatory regime completely outside the ambit of the Central Bank.
Ambitus, "circuit," from ambire, "to go around," from amb-, "about, around" + ire, "to go."
APPRISE
became apprised of this news,
apprise him of the bare clinical facts only.
He apprised her of his plan
Apprehendere, "to take hold of (by the mind)," from ad- + prehendere, "to lay hold of, to seize."
BAILIWICK
I'll give it a try, but this is not my bailiwick.

ME baillifwik, from baillif, "bailiff" (ultimately from Latin bajulus, "porter, carrier") + wik, "town," from Old English wic, from Latin vicus, "village."
COMELY
OE cymlic, from cyme, pretty, beautiful, fine, delicate + lic, adjectival suffix.
sih-ZUR-uh.
CAESURA
sih-ZUR-uh.
LOWCAL
CALLOW
at first he was a callow and unambitious youth, he began to develop into a serious young man dedicated to books and devoted to his father.
OE calu, "featherless, bald."
CAMARILLA
Camarilla, which an unofficial group of courtiers or favorites surrounding and influencing a king or ruler
CATERWAUL
CATERWAUL
Dutch catawail, from cat-wail, "to wail like a cat."
SLAKE
SLAKE
OE slacian, from slæc, "slack."
STRIPLING
A youth in the state of adolescence, or just passing from boyhood to manhood; a lad.
COZEN
to think that such an outright rogue could cozen you.
louts and losers who cozen each other.
cozen her readers by appeal to feeling.
cozening and cheating, lying and defrauding'.
CALLOW
CALLOW

Immature
Old English calu, featherless, bald.
CAVIL
transitive verb.
noun

to cavil about competing ideas
to cavil at a single omission
diverted from his main pursuit by cavils or trifles.
PUCK
Those that Hobgoblin call you and sweet Puck,
You do their work, and they shall have good luck:
Are not you he?
A Midsummernight's Dream
QUAGMIRE
quagmire
quag, a dialectical variant of quake (from Old English cwacian) + mire, from Old Norse myrr, "a swamp."
SCAPEGRACE
a happy-go-lucky scapegrace of a boy
Scapegrace is from scape (a variant of escape) + grace.
COMPRISE
To comprise something has the same meaning as consist, often implying that the
whole is regarded from the point of view of its individual parts: The
programme comprises two short plays (they were chosen to make it up).
TOCSIN
RING/SOUND THE TOCSIN
to sound his tocsin on the condition of human society.

Old Provençal tocasenh, from tocar, "to touch, to strike, to ring a bell" + senh, "church bell," ultimately from Latin signum, "sign, signal."
A new toxin! Ring the tocsin!
PETTIFOGGER
The nitpickers, the whiners, the pettifoggers are everywhere.
SCINTILLA
scintilla, noun:
a spark.
a scintilla of humility
not one scintilla of ill will
never a scintilla of doubt

a spark. Also from scintilla is the verb scintillate, "to
sparkle."
TARADIDDLE
tarradiddle:
1.a fib.
2.Pretentious nonsense.
This was no fib, plumper, porker or tarradiddle. There was definitely no deceit, mendacity or fabrication.
WINSOME
winsome , adj:
Cheerful.
agreeable; pleasant.
it was a sweet smile...so winsome and large it transformed her melancholy face.
Old English wynsum, from wynn, "joy" + -sum (equivalent to Modern English -some), "characterized by." charming, engaging, winning.
APPARATUS
of its several hundred pages, 130 contained poetry. The rest was technical apparatus of various kinds:
WOOLGATHERING
Indulgence in idle daydreaming.
It would be easy to slip off into woolgathering and miss a deadline.
TOWEARD
OE/toweard/ future.
BETIMES
betimes , adverb:
Early; in good time; before it is late.
Betimes is from Middle English bitimes, from bi, "by" + time,"time."
BULB
BLUB
WEEP
BRACKISH
Somewhat salty.
...the dangerous beaches where the river meets the sea, a
brackish zone where sharks and saltwater crocodiles lurk.

Brackish derives from Dutch brak, "salty." It is especially used to describe a mixture of seawater and fresh water.
BRICKBAT
Mbeki is attracting brickbats for his handling of a corruption scandal.
CATERWAUL
caterwaul \KAT-uhr-wawl\, intransitive verb:
Caterwaul is from Middle English caterwawen, "to cry as a cat," either from Medieval Dutch kater, "tomcat" + Dutch wauwelen, "to tattle," or for catawail, from cat-wail, "to
wail like a cat."
CHORTLE
chortle, transitive and intransitive verb:
noun:
A snorting, exultant laugh or chuckle.
Chortle a combination of chuckle and snort(LC).
CLAMBER
Clamber is from ME clambren, probably a modification of climben, "to climb."
COZEN
To cheat usually by petty tricks.
You would naturally not think such an outright rogue could cozen
you.
louts and losers who cozen each other.
cozen her readers by appeal to feeling.
cozening and cheating, lying and defrauding'.
COSSET
PET LAMB
DISTRAUGHT
distraught.
1. deeply agitated.
2. mentally deranged.
ME var. of obs. distract distracted, by assoc. with straught, old ptp. of STRETCH
distraughtly, adv.
DISTRAIT
adjective:
Divided or withdrawn in attention, especially because of anxiety.
...too distrait to begin work
distrahere, "to pull apart; to draw away; to distract," from dis- + trahere, "to draw, to pull." It is related to distraught and distracted.
LACK A DAISI CAL
LACK A DAISI CAL:
Lackadaisical comes from the expression lackadaisy, a variation of lackaday, itself a shortening of "alack the (or a) day!" Alackaday! Expression of regret or Surprise. lazy.
MISPRIZE
MISPRIZE
hold in contempt.
undervalue.
did he misprize such fidelity?
NEST
n & v
NEST
noun
A set of things that fit together or one inside the other.
Example: a nest of tables
verb nested, nesting
intr To fit things together compactly, especially one inside another.
Anglo-Saxon.
VOLUPTUARY

n&v
Colette used to begin her day's writing by first picking
fleas from her cat, and it's not hard to imagine how the methodical stroking and probing into fur might have focused such a voluptuary's mind.
Though depicted as a decadent voluptuary, she remained celibate for more than half of her adult life.
BOOTLESS
INEFFECTUAL: bootless, fruitless, futile, unavailing, useless, vain.
INKHORN
INKHORN
Affectedly or ostentatiously learned; pedantic.
APOCA LYPTIC
the apocalyptic marriage of energy and mass in the famous equation E=mc2.
EX EC RABLE
Zimbabwe's execrable Robert Mugabe.
a vast quantity of truly execrable poetry.
an execrable performance
execrable taste.
Exsecrabilis, from exsecrari, execrari, to execrate, to curse, from ex-, out of, away from, outside of + sacer, sacred.
To execrate means "to declare as hateful or detestable; hence, to detest utterly; to abhor."
EXIGENT
EXIGENT:
1.critical.
2.exacting.
constituents' demands are exigent.
exigent circumstances required officials to act immediately.

to confirm the poet in a lonely and exigent task, which is all the more necessary in these times.
HALE
Hale ME hal, related to whole. The alliterative phrase hale and hearty is often applied to older persons who retain the health and vigor of youth.
EXIGUOUS
Exiguous:
Extremely scanty; meager.
moonlighting to supplement exiguous incomes.
ameliorate the family's exiguous circumstances.
Exiguus, "strictly weighed; too strictly weighed," hence "scanty, meager," from exigere, "to determine; to decide; to weigh." >Exiguous:
Extremely scanty; meager.
FECKLESS
ineffective; incompetent; futile: feckless attempts to repair the plumbing.
FETTLE
FETTLE
ME fetlen, "to set in order," originally "to gird up," from OE fetel, "a girdle."
FLORID
FLORID
a florid face
they were florid and overweight
IN THRALL
I saw pale kings and princes too,
Pale warriors, death-pale were they all;
They cried - 'La Belle Dame sans Merci Hath thee in thrall!
WOE BETIDE
And there she lulled me asleep
And there I dreamed - Ah! woe betide! -
The latest dream I ever dreamt
On the cold hill side.
THRALL
thrall
1a. One, such as a slave or serf, who is held in bondage. b. One who is intellectually or morally enslaved. 2. Servitude; bondage: “a people in thrall to the miracles of commerce”.
: thralled, thrall·ing, thralls
Archaic To enslave.
OE, from ON thrll.
thralldom, thraldom.
DISTRAUGHT
dis·traught, adj.
deeply agitated.
[1350–1400; ME var. of obs. distract distracted, by assoc. with straught, old ptp. of STRETCH]
—dis·traughtly, adv.
DOTARD
Dotage comes from the verb to dote, "to be weak-minded, silly, or foolish; to have the intellect impaired, especially by old age," from Middle English doten. One who is in his or her dotage is a dotard.
COR US CATE
CORUSCATE

SPARKLE
ELDRITCH
"fairyland," from Middle English elf, "elf" (from Old English aelf) + riche, "kingdom" (from Old English rice).
GAINSAY
Middle English geinseien, from gein-, "against" (from Old English gegn-, gean-) + sayen, "to say," from Old English secgan.
COMELY
OE cymlic, from cyme, "pretty, beautiful, fine, delicate" + lic, adjectival suffix.
NEST
nest
A set of things that fit together or one inside the other.
a nest of tables verb nested, nesting
intr
To fit things together compactly, especially one inside another.
OE.
SENTENTIOUS
sen·ten·tious
1.pithy,aphoristic.
2.Abounding in pompous moralizing.
RAILLERY
subjected to a certain mordant raillery from this witty company.
Her raillery and mockery are fun.
GAUCHERIE
GAUCHERIE:
awkward or tactless act.
"guilty of a gaucherie of the crassest kind".
HOARY
Old English har, "gray; old (and gray-haired)."
DISCOMFIT
Thwart.
OVERWEENING
presumptuous.
overweening pride brought
condign disaster.
ME overwening, present participle of overwenen, "to be arrogant," from over + wenen "to ween," from OE wenan.
MAWKISH
excessively sentimental.
"mawkish sentimentality."
ME mawke, maggot, hense nauseating.
MAZY
winding; intricate;

...mazy, echoing corridors of the old house.
...a mazy plot...
...a dense, mazy book...
OE amasian, "to confound." It is related to amaze, which
originally meant "to bewilder."
MEGRIM
I've got the megrims.
lowness of spirits
GADABOUT
verb gad, "to rove or go about
without purpose or restlessly" (from Middle English gadden, "to hurry") + about.
GAINSAY
1. To deny.
2. to contradict.
ME geinseien, from gein-,
"against" (from OE gegn-, gean-) + sayen, "to say,"
from Old English secgan.
SLAKE
to slake thirst.
She had some money but never enough to slake her anxieties.
ME slaken, "to become or render slack," hence "to abate," from OE slacian, from slæc, "slack."
SLAVER
intransitive verb:
to drool.
noun:
Saliva drooling from the mouth.
The tiger was slavering.
SATURNINE
1.Gloomy.
2.Sardonic.
DOUGHTY
adjective:
Marked by fearless resolution; valiant; brave.
Doughty comes from Old English dohtig, "brave, valiant, fit."
TURPITUDE
TURPITUDE
*an era of subversion and moral turpitude.
*engaging in acts of moral turpitude.
*his misdeeds, his turpitudes
Turpitudo, from turpis, "foul, base."
ut turpiter atrum
desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne,
TURGID
turgid prose that passed for elegance.
turgere, "to swell."
TUMID
TUMID
1. Swollen.
2. Bulging; protuberant.
3. Swelling in sound or sense; pompous; inflated; bombastic.
a tumid style.
Tumidus, from tumere, "to swell."
bloated, distended, inflated, puffed, puffy.
BIDRUT
TURBID
Muddy
turbid water.
ENCUMBRANCE
A lien, mortgage, or other financial claim against a
property.
Encumbrance is from Old French encombrance, from encombrer, "to block up," from en-, "in" (here used intensively) + combre, "dam, weir, hence hindrance."
BEHOLDEN
beholden , adjective:
bound in gratitude.
beholden to the farming interests.
beholden to his relatives.
OE behealden, "to hold
firmly," from be-, intensive prefix + healden, "to hold."
CAROM
carom noun/vb:
A rebound following a collision; a glancing off.
The anger caroms around in our psyches like jagged stones.
SATURNINE
1.Gloomy.
2.Sardonic.
...opts for sour, saturnine irony instead of mawkish modesty.
FLIPPANT
flippant, adjective:
Lacking proper seriousness or respect; showing inappropriate levity; pert.
Flippant probably comes from flip. The noun form is flippancy.
MALAPROPOS
Unseasonable; unsuitable; inappropriate.
adverb:
In an inappropriate or inopportune manner; unseasonably.
Such malapropos wise cracks
It is very easy to fire-off a malapropos statement

mal à propos, "badly to the purpose."
TURGID
TORPID
TUMID
TORRID
TURGID swollen
TORPID sluggish
TUMID swollen
TORRID passionate
WREAK
WREAK
...upon: the storm wreaked havoc on the crops.
INEFFABLE
INEFFABLE
unutterable.
Ineffabilis, from in-, "not" + effabilis, "utterable," from effari, "to utter," from ex-, "out" + fari, "to speak."
SENTENTIOUS
sen·ten·tious
Abounding in pompous moralizing.
sententiōsus, full of meaning, from sententia, opinion. See sentence.
WINSOME
WINSOME:
merry
pleasant.

a sweet smile, they said, none sweeter, so winsome and large it transformed her melancholy face.
she was a winsome little girl
full of energy and mischief.
such a winsome way with words,

Wynsum, from wynn, "joy" + -sum (equivalent to Modern English -some), "characterized by." charming, engaging, winning.
QUAGMIRE
quagmire
Soft, wet, miry land that shakes or yields under the feet.
Quag, a dialectical variant of quake (from OE cwacian) + mire, from Old Norse myrr, "a swamp."
COMPOSE

COMPRISE
To *consist* of something is to be made up of it: /The programme consisted of two short plays/.

To *comprise* something has the same meaning, often implying that the whole is regarded from the point of view of its individual parts: /The programme comprises two short plays/ (they were chosen to make it up).
LACONIC
LACONIC , adjective:
brief and pithy.
Readers' reports range from the laconic to the verbose.
a few laconic and uninformative entries in a soldier's log.
"Spartan," hence "terse" .
IMMOLATE
transitive verb:
to kill as a sacrificial victim.
What have I gained, that I no longer immolate a bull to
Jove, or to Neptune, or a mouse to Hecate... if I quake
at opinion
Immolare, "to sacrifice; originally, to sprinkle a victim with sacrificial meal," from in- + mola, "grits or grains of spelt coarsely ground and mixed with salt."
BAILIWICK
I'll give it a try, but this is not my bailiwick.
Middle English baillifwik, from baillif, "bailiff" (ultimately from Latin bajulus, "porter, carrier") + wik, "town," from Old English wic, from Latin vicus, "village."
APERCU
"Ageing is simply learned behaviour".(Deepak Chopra). Demi Moore was so impressed by this apercu that she named him as her personal guru.
CAESURA
CAESURA
Any break, pause, or interruption.
a narrative caesura between the film's two "acts."
Say her name today in the right circles and you'll notice a sudden intake of breath, a caesura of pure awe.
APOLOGIA
The work is "a classic apologia, an aggressive defense of Roth's moral stance as an author," Harold Bloom said.
WHEEDLE
(intransitive verb):
To flatter; to use soft words.
She tried to wheedle contributions by asking in a seductive voice.
REDACT
REDACT :
1. To draw up or frame (a statement, proclamation, etc.); to put in writing.
2. To make ready and put in shape for publication; to edit.
The authors have obtained a copy of this memo, albeit redacted.
White sat down to write or re-write or redact whatever one does to a twenty-year accumulation of episodes.
RIPOSTE
an instinct for punchy ripostes.
an inelegant riposte
Riposte derives from Italian risposta, "an answer," from rispondere, "to answer," from Latin respondere, "to promise in
return, to answer," from re- + spondere, "to promise."
MAELSTROM
maelstrom, noun:
A large, powerful, or destructive whirlpool.
the maelstrom of the Napoleonic Wars.
Always at the center of a maelstrom of activity.
Dutch maelstroom, from malen, "to grind, hence to whirl round," + stroom, "stream."
MIEN
MIEN.
a modest mien.
Here Mnemosyne shows her true face, and she is no young
beauty. Not for her the unlined mien of the younger Muses.
COMPORT
–v.i.
To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity (usually followed by with):
His statement does not comport with the facts.
FAST MAPPING
The team then tested Rico’s ability to employ fast mapping, a neurological process that toddlers use to quickly guess the meaning of
new words. The researchers put an unfamiliar object in a room with other things he did know and, without teaching Rico the name of the novel item, asked him to get it.
EXPERENTIA VAGA
Ex singularibus, nobis per sensus mutilate, confuse, & sine ordine ad intellectum repraesentatis: & ideo tales perceptiones cognitionem ab experientia vaga vocare consuevi.
RECURSIVE RULE
In the first test, random words were called out in a strictly alternating pattern of male followed by female voices. The monkeys
responded to breaks in the male-female rule, by looking at the loudspeaker. This showed that they were able to recognise the simple rule.
In the next test, the grammatical rule dictated that the male voice could call out one, two or three words, as long as the female voice did
the same. This type of slightly more complex pattern is called recursive, as it involves a rule within a rule.
FOLK PSYCHOLOGY
“our commonsense conception of psychological phenomena” (Churchland 1981), there have been implicit assumptions regarding the nature of that commonsense conception. A heterogeneous collection of heuristics are used.A number of different heuristics, such as the attribution of traits and inductive generalizations.
NATURAL FREQUENCY FORMAT
vs
PROBALITY FORMAT
physicians have an improved
understanding of statistical information when it is presented in a natural frequency format rather than a probability format. A cancer screening test--and gave physicians information in a probability format (giving
percentages for population base rate, test sensitivity, and false-positive rates) and in a natural frequency format ("30 out of every 10 000 people have colorectal cancer. Of these, 15 will have
positive haemoccult tests. Of the remaining 9970 patients without colorectal cancer, 300 will still test positive. How many of those who test positive actually have colorectal cancer?").
'THE RIVALS'

MALAPROP
'THE RIVALS'
"The Rivals," Sheridan's celebrated 1775 comedy of manners."She's as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile!" "He is the very pineapple of politeness!"
TWO OVERLAPPING NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS
There are some important corollaries of having two overlapping normal distributions. One is that a normal distribution falls off according to the negative exponential of the square of the distance from the mean. That means that even when there is only a small difference in the means of two distributions, the more extreme a score, the greater the disparity there will be in the two kinds of individuals having such a score. That is, the ratios get more extreme as you go farther out along the tail. If we hold a magnifying glass to the tail of the distribution, we see that even though the distributions overlap in the bulk of the curves, when you get out to the extremes the difference between the two curves gets larger and larger.
OVERLAPPING DISTRIBUTIONS
For example, it's obvious that distributions of height for men and women overlap: it's not the case that all men are taller than all women. But while at five foot ten there are thirty men for every woman, at six feet there are two thousand men for every woman. Now, sex differences in cognition tend not to be so extreme, but the statistical phenomenon is the same.
VARIANCE AND TAIL RATIOS
A second important corollary is that tail ratios are affected by differences in variance. And biologists since Darwin have noted that for many traits and many species, males are the more variable gender. So even in cases where the mean for women and the mean for men are the same, the fact that men are more variable implies that the proportion of men would be higher at one tail, and also higher at the other. As it's sometimes summarized: more prodigies, more idiots.
ESSENTIALISM

NATURAL KINDS
"Essentialism and the Grounding of Rights"
Much controversy surrounds essentialism and the notion of 'natural kinds'. Nonetheless, defenses of human rights and related notions of 'dignity' and 'justice' tend to have essentialism as a silent premise.
THE RED WHEELBARROW
So much depends
upon
a red wheel
barrow
glazed with rain
water
beside the white
chickens.
(William Carlos Williams).
GAME THEORY
"Game theory" is a mathematical method of analyzing the strategies that
different "players" - be they governments, business partners or criminals - choose to achieve the best possible outcome for themselves in a given interaction.
VITUPERATION
a repertoire of vituperation
PUISSANT
adjective:
Powerful; as, a puissant prince or empire.
Puissant is from Old French puissant, "powerful," ultimately
from (assumed) Vulgar Latin potere, alteration of Latin posse, "to be able." The noun form is puissance.
1.Gloomy.
2.Sardonic.
SATURNINE
BAYES THEOREM
quantitative analysis that weighs current observations against past experiences.
THE LIBERTINE
Rochester
Elizabeth Barry
King Charles II
George Etherege
PARRHESIA
"Parrhesia" "free speech" "franc-parler", "Freimüthigkeit".
ANATOMY
Anatomy:
A form of prose fiction, traditionally known as the Menippean or Varronian satire and represented by Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, characterized by a great variety of subject-matter and a strong interest in ideas. In shorter forms it often has a cena or symposium setting and verse interludes.
IRONY
Irony:
The mythos of the literature concerned primarily with a "realistic" level of experience, usually taking the form of a parody or contrasting analogue to romance. Such irony may be tragic or comic in its main emphasis; when comic it is normally identical with the usual meaning of satire.
SOLEM
MELOS:
The rhythm, movement, and sound of words; the aspect of literature which is analogous to music, and often shows some actual relation to it. From Aristotle's melopoiia.
MYTHOS
Mythos
1. The narrative of a work of literature, considered as the grammar or order of words (literal narrative), plot or "argument" (descriptive narrative), secondary imitation of action (formal narrative), imitation of generic and recurrent action or ritual (archetypal narrative), or imitation of the total conceivable action of an omnipotent god or human society (anagogic narrative).
2. One of the four archetypal narratives, classified as comic, romantic, tragic, and ironic.
ROMANTIC
Romantic:
1. A fictional mode in which the chief characters live in a I world of marvels (naive romance), or in which the mood is elegiac or idyllic and hence less subject to social criticism than in the mimetic modes.
2. The general tendency to present myth and metaphor in an idealized human form, midway between undisplaced myth and "realism."
CONFESSION
Confession:
Autobiography regarded as a form of prose fiction, or prose fiction cast in the form of autobiography.
INSTRUMENTALISM
instrumentalism

Belief that statements or theories may be used as tools for useful prediction without reference to their possible truth or falsity. Peirce and other pragmatists defended an instrumentalist account of modern science.
IRONY
IRONY
Use of language to convey something entirely different
from its literal meaning. Thus, Socrates professed an ignorance that was the mark of true wisdom, and Kierkegaard often tried to provoke his readers by writing exactly the opposite of what he intended for them to believe.
OPERATIONALISM
operationalism
Belief that the meaning of scientific terms and concepts is wholly captured by a description of the process that determines their applicability in particular cases. On this view, theoretical entities are merely logical constructs.
OCCASIONALISM
occasionalism

Belief that natural events are not directly related in causation, since both the apparent cause and the apparent effect are, in fact, produced by some third thing (usually divine providence). Geulincx and Malebranche introduced occasionalism as an improved way of reconciling the mechanism with the dualism of Descartes.
PRAGMATISM
pragmatism
An indigenous American philosophical theory that explains both meaning and truth in terms of the application of ideas or beliefs to the performance of actions that have observable practical outcomes. Peirce, James, Dewey. More recently, such analytic philosophers as Quine, Putnam, and Rorty have expressed sympathy with various portions of the pragmatic program.
PRAGMATIC THEORY OF TRUTH
pragmatic theory of truth

Belief that a proposition is true when acting upon it yields satisfactory practical results. As formulated by William James, the pragmatic theory promises (in the long term) a convergence of human opinions upon a stable body of scientific propostions that have been shown in experience to be successful principles for human action.
POSTMODERNISM
postmodernism

Most generally, abandonment of Enlightenment confidence in the achievement objective human knowledge through reliance upon reason in pursuit of foundationalism, essentialism, and realism. In philosophy, postmodernists typically express grave doubt about the possibility of universal objective truth, reject artificially sharp dichotomies, and delight in the inherent irony and particularity of language and life. Various themes and implications of postmodern thought are explored by Foucault, Derrida, Lyotard, Rorty, Haraway, and Cixous.
POSITIVISM
positivism

Belief that natural science, based on observation, comprises the whole of human knowledge. Positivists like Auguste Comte, then, reject as meaningless the claims of theology and metaphysics. The most influential twentieth-century version is logical positivism.
QUANTUM MECHANICS
quantum mechanics
A physical theory developed by Planck, Heisenberg, and Schrödinger. Quantum theory typically permits only probable or statistical calculation of the observed features of subatomic particles, understood in terms of wave functions.
QUALIA
QUALIA
The intrinsic phenomenal features of subjective consciousness, or sense data. Thus, qualia include what it is like to see green grass, to taste salt, to hear birds sing, to have a headache, to feel pain, etc. Providing an adequate account of qualia is sometimes held to be a difficult problem for functionalist explanations of mental states.
BEGGING THE QUESTION
begging the question (petitio principii)
Circular reasoning. The "informal fallacy" of (explicitly or implicitly) assuming the truth of the conclusion of an argument as one of the premises employed in an effort to demonstrate its truth.
"Since firefighters must be strong men willing to face danger every day, it follows that no woman can be a firefighter.

Although arguments of this sort are formally valid because it is impossible for their conclusions to be false if their premises are true, they fail to provide logical support for their conclusions, which have already been accepted without proof at the outset.
BAYES
BAYES
Evidence confirms the likelihood of an hypothesis only to the degree that the appearance of this evidence would be more probable with the assumption of the hypothesis than without it.
CATEGORY MISTAKE
category mistake

Confusion in the attribution of properties or the classification of things. Thus, to suppose that sleep is furious or that a city is nothing more than its buildings is to commit a category mistake. Ryle maintained that Cartesian dualism arises from the implicit occurrence of just such an error, the supposition that the origins of human behavior must reside in an immaterial substance.
CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
categorical / hypothetical imperative
In the moral philosophy of Kant, a distinction between ways in which the will may be obliged. A hypothetical imperative (of the form, "If you want X, then do A.") is always conditioned on something else, but a categorical imperative (of the form "Do A.") is absolute and universal. Moral action for Kant always follows from the categorical imperative, "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it become a universal law."
CASUISTRY
casuistry

Approach to ethics that begins by examining a series of concrete cases rather than by trying to deduce the consequences of a moral rule. Although Pascal criticized this method for the excessive, misleading, or harmful cleverness with which it was practiced in his day, it remains a common tool for applied ethics in a theological vein.
COGNITIVE SCIENCE
cognitive science

Interdisciplinary effort to study and explain the processes of human thought as a system of symbol manipulation or computational rules.
CLEAR AND DISTINCT
clear and distinct
Features of ideas considered as mental entities, without regard for their external relation to objects they are supposed to represent. An idea is clear if its content is precise and detailed; otherwise, it is obscure. An idea is distinct if it can be distinguished from any other idea, confused if it cannot. (Although the two notions are formally distinct, they are commonly supposed to coincide, on the grounds that clarity is a necessary and sufficient condition for distinctness.) Descartes held that the clarity and distinctness of our ideas is a criterion for the truth of what we believe.
COMPATABILISM
compatibilism

Belief that the causal determination of human conduct is consistent with the freedom required for responsible moral agency.
DOUBLE --- THEORY
double aspect theory

Belief that mental properties and events on the one hand and physical properties and events on the other hand are irreducibly distinct features or aspects of one and the same thing that exhibits them both. Spinoza, for example, maintained that thought and extension are distinct attributes of the one existing substance that is "god or nature."
ERIGENA, JOHN SCOTUS
Erigena, John Scotus (810-80)
Irish philosopher. In De Divisione Naturae (On the Distribution of Nature), Erigena notoriously combined Greek and neoplatonic elements into a highly rationalized scheme in which everything both emanates from and later is reabsorbed by god. Although the divine is incomprehnsible for Erigena, god may be known indirectly, as manifested in the created order. The views on human freedom he defended in De praedestinatione (On Predestination) earned for Erigena the official condemnation of the church.
FINAL CAUSE
final cause

The ultimate purpose, end, or goal of a thing; one of Aristotle's four causes. Explanations of how a thing is that rely on reference to its end {Gk. teloV [télos]} are often called "teleological;" their use fell into disfavor during the Renaissance.
ESSENCE/ACCIDENT
essence/accident per se/per accidens.
Distinction among the attributes, properties, or qualities of substances. A thing's possession of its essential properties is necessary either for its individual existence or, at least, for its membership in a specific kind. Accidental features, by contrast, are those which the thing merely happens to have, even though it need not. Rationality may be part of the essence of any human being, but being able to calculate square roots accurately in one's head is an accident.
The legitimacy of the distinction itself is called into question by philosophers Anti-essentialists doubt whether any features are genuinely essential to the things that have them.
NATURALISM
naturalism
Belief that all objects, events, and and values can be wholly explained in terms of factual and/or causal claims about the world, without reference to supernatural powers or authority. Prominent naturalists include Clifford and Dewey. Quine proposed a naturalistic epistemology, understood as empirical study of the origins and uses of sensory information.
HERMENEUTICS
Formal study of appropriate methods of interpretation {Gk. hermêneuma}, first developed as a formal discipline of study by Schleiermacher. Following the work of Dilthey, Gadamer, and Ricouer, the hermeneutical process is often regarded as involving a complex interaction between the interpreting subject and the interpreted object. The task is complicated by the apparent circularity of understanding particular elements in light of the text as a whole, which can in turn be understood only by reference to them.
HEURISTIC
heuristic
An informal method for solving problems in the absence of an algorithm for formal proof. Heuristics typically have only restricted applicability and limited likelihood of success but, as George Polya showed, contribute significantly to our understanding of mathematical truths.
MONAD
monad
A complete individual substance in the philosophies of Conway and Leibniz, who supposed that each contains all of its properties—past, present, and future.
MYTHOS
mythos
Greek term for a speech, tale, or story, as opposed to a rational explanation. See logos/mythos. Although Plato typically derided myth as inferior to analysis, Philo Judaeus incorporated it as allegorical interpretation in order to synthesize theology and philosophy.
RECURSIVE
recursive
Capable of being indefinitely re-applied to the results of its own application. Hence, a recursive definition is one that begins with one or more initial instances and then specifies the repeatable rules for deriving others. Thus, for example:
"A person's descendants include that person's children and all of their descendants" is a recursive definition [not a circular definition] of the word "descendant".
VAGUENESS
vagueness
The characteristic of words or phrases whose meaning is not determined with precision. Use of one or more vague terms typically renders it impossible to establish the truth or falsity of the sentences in which they appear.
AMBIGUITY
AMBIGUITY
The presence of two or more distinct meanings for a single word or expression. When unnoticed in the context of otherwise careful reasoning, however, it can lead to one of several informal fallacies.
Example:"I'll give you a ring tomorrow."
Note the difference between ambiguity and vagueness.
AMPHIBOLY
amphiboly
The informal fallacy that can result when a sentence is ambiguous because of its grammatical structure, even if all of its terms are clear.
Captain Spaulding shot an elephant in his pajamas. It is dangerous for large animals to wear human clothing.
BIVALENCE
bivalence, principle of
Supposition that every proposition must be either true or false. The status of this supposition is controversial, especially with respect to future propositions about human action. Thus, for example, if "I will vacuum the carpet tomorrow." were regarded as already true (or false) today, it would seem that I cannot freely choose whether or not to clean. Note the difference between bivalence and excluded middle.
IDENTITY THEORY OF MIND
identity theory of mind
Belief that mental properties and events are identical with physical properties and events. Although the details are not yet apparent, identity theorists suppose that scientific research into the nature of the central nervous system will eventually establish the contingent identity of every kind of conscious experience with some neurophysiological phenomenon. Significant variations of the identity theory include physicalism and neutral monism.
PSYCHOPHYSICAL PARALLELISM
parallelism, psychophysical
Belief that even though the minds and bodies of human beings are distinct substances that can never interact with each other causally, it is nevertheless true that their development, features, and actions coordinate perfectly. Leibniz supposed that this happens as a result of a providentially pre-established harmony.
PRIVATE LANGUAGE
private language argument

Wittgenstein's contention that it is impossible for an isolated individual to employ language, since a single person could not have adequate criteria for following linguistic rules. This argument is commonly taken as a refutation of solipsism.
NESTED
NESTED
What are nested Variables I hear you ask? Text variables that are embedded inside other text variables.
MOBIUS STRIP
MObius strip
A surface is orientable if it has two sides so that, for example, is it possible to paint it with two different colours. A sheet of paper or the surface of a sphere are examples of orientable surfaces. A Mobius strip is a non-orientable surface: you can build one with a strip of paper (twist the strip and glue end together to form a ring) and verify that it has only one side: it is not possible to paint it with two colours.
ETHNOLOGY
ETHNOLOGY
The comparative scientific study of human peoples.
GENETIC DRIFT
The process by which gene frequencies are changed by the chances of random sampling in small population.
SURREALISM
Surrealism. A twentieth century Avant-garde art movement that originated in the nihilistic ideas of the Dadaist and French literary figures, especially those of its founder, French writer André Breton (1896-1966). At first a Dadaist, he wrote three manifestos about Surrealism, and opened a studio for "surrealist research."
Influenced by the theories of psychoanalysis.
OPPORTUNITY COST
OPPORTUNITY COST
The true cost of something is what you give up to get it. This includes not only the money spent in buying (or doing) the something, but also the economic benefits (UTILITY) that you did without because you bought (or did) that particular something and thus can no longer buy (or do) something else. Everything you do has an opportunity cost (see SHADOW PRICE). ECONOMICS is about the efficient use of scarce resources, and the notion of opportunity cost plays a crucial part in ensuring that resources are indeed being used efficiently.
GNP
GNP
Gross national product. It is calculated by adding to GDP the INCOME earned by residents from investments abroad, less the corresponding income sent home by foreigners who are living in the country.
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
Number-crunching to discover the relationship between different economic variables. The findings of this statistical technique should always be taken with a pinch of salt. How big a pinch can vary considerably and is indicated by the degree of STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE and R SQUARED. The relationship between a dependent variable (GDP, say) and a set of explanatory variables (DEMAND, INTEREST rates, CAPITAL, UNEMPLOYMENT, and so on) is expressed as a regression equation.
CAPITAL
CAPITAL
MONEY or ASSETS put to economic use.
One of the 4 ingredients of economic activity, the FACTORS OF PRODUCTION, along with LAND, LABOUR and ENTERPRISE. Production processes that use a lot of capital relative to labour are CAPITAL INTENSIVE; those that use comparatively little capital are LABOUR INTENSIVE. Capital takes different forms. A firm’s ASSETS are known as its capital, which may include fixed capital (machinery, buildings, and so on) and working capital (stocks of raw materials and part-finished products, as well as money, that are used up quickly in the production process).
BONDS
BONDS
A bond is an INTEREST-bearing SECURITY issued by governments, companies and some other organisations. Bonds are an alternative way for the issuer to raise capital to selling shares or taking out a bank loan. Like shares in listed companies, once they have been issued bonds may be traded on the open market. Bonds are regarded as a lower RISK INVESTMENT. GOVERNMENT bonds, in particular, are highly unlikely to miss their promised payments. Corporate bonds issued by blue-chip "investment grade" companies are also unlikely to default; this might not be the case with high-yield "junk" bonds issued by firms with less healthy financials.
AGOGIC
Used of deviations from the strict tempo and rhythm necessary for the subtle performance of a musical phrase.
ARABESQUE
arabesque (Fr. and Eng.), arabeske (Ger.)
A short piece with decorative qualities (e.g. Debussy, Arabesques).
NOTALA
atonal
Music which is composed without reference to a KEY (e.g. major, minor or modal). All the expected devices for musical composition, such as melody, chords, rhythm, can be used. However, other methods of tonal organization (including mathematical patterns) are used.
CADENCE
cadence
A progression of chords in music designed to produce a closing effect, such as at the end of phrases, sections or the composition. Over the years, some chord progressions have come to be known as a standard cadences.
LEITMOTIF
leitmotif (Ger.)
Leading motif. A recurring theme symbolising a character, emotion or object.First used in a discussion of Wagner's The Ring.
PASTICCIO

pastiche (Fr.)
pasticcio (It., 'pie')
An operatic work with the material drawn from the works of various composers, especially popular in the 18th century.

pastiche (Fr.)
A piece composed deliberately in the style of another well- known composer. See also pasticcio above.
POINTILLISM
pointillism
Term taken from painting (referring to pictures using separate dots of colour) and applied to the music of some 20th century composers (e.g. Webern). This described music of a spare and pointed style emplying use of pizzicato.
PROGRAMME MUSIC
programme music
Music which interprets or describes a story, painting, poem, landscape or emotional experience. Opposite of absolute music.
ROMANTIC MUSIC
romantic music
A l9th century style expressed by writers, painters and by musicians like Chopin, Liszt, Berlioz, Rossini and Paganini. Characteristics are Iyricism, chromatic harmony, an interest in literature, nationalism, programme music, miniature or character pieces and generally emotional aspects governing the traditional, formal musical structures.
QUANTUM
The minimum amount by which certain properties, such as energy or angular momentum, of a system can change. Such properties do not vary continuously but in integral multiples of the relevant quantum. This concept forms the basis of the quantum theory. In waves and fields, the quantum can be regarded as an excitation, giving a particle-like interpretation to the wave or field. Thus, the quantum of the electromagnetic field is the photon and the graviton is the quantum of the gravitational field.
PHOTON
A particle with zero rest mass consisting of a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. The photon may also be regarded as a unit of energy equal to hf, where h is the Planck constant and f is the frequency of the radiation in hertz. Photons travel at the speed of light. They are required to explain the photoelectric effect and other phenomena that require light to have particle character.
MODAL
MODAL
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
CORBIE
The Corbie is a large black bird of ominous aspect. A scavenger. Some believe it to be a symbol of death and decay, due to its preference for scavenging carrion and other dilapidated consumables, but others consider it a good omen. Corbie is also known Crow, Carrion Crow, Stormcrow, Jav’veir, Hravn, Death Bird or Rogue Bird.
TWA CORBIES
As I was walking all alane,
I heard twa corbies making a mane;
The tane unto the t'other say,
'Where sall we gang and dine to-day,
Where sall we gang and dine to-day?'
APATHEIA
apatheia - 'a lack of feeling'; the Stoic doctrine that man must learn to ignore passions (e.g., fear, greed, grief, joy), which disturb his peace of mind.
ATARAXIA
But this is not to say that Epicurus was an atheist. He believed that the gods exist in the interspaces between the innumerable worlds and, because they have no involvement with the world and the troublesome life of mankind, are models of Epicurean ataraxia.
ALGORITHM
ALGORITHM
A formal statement, clear complete and unambiguous, of how a certain process needs to be undertaken.
SARTOR RESARTUS
It was widely believed that the world had lost its
religious bearings during the Enlightenment and that
men needed to recover them if there were ever again
to be heroes and great works of imagination. In “the
Unbelieving Century” God had become nonexistent or
peripheral and bound by rational categories. Carlyle
vividly describes this feeling of loss in his chapter on
“The Everlasting No” in Sartor Resartus (1833-34),
that great source book for romantic views on God and
religion.
MODE
Mode: The number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers.
JUNK BONDS
Technically known as bonds of “less than investment grade,” they are short-term, high-yield bonds. They were widely used in the 1980s to finance mergers, especially hostile ones.
MULCT
The light foolish handling of them by mulcts, fines, &c.; ’tis their glory and their advantage! If the Gallows instead of the Counter, and the galleys instead of the fines; were the reward of going to a conventicle, to preach or hear, there would not be so many sufferers!
(Defoe-The Shortest Way With Dissenters).
BATHYPELAGIC
bathypelagic
1.Of, relating to, or living in the depths of the ocean; especially, between about 600 and 3 000 meters (2,000 and 10,000 feet).
2. A reference to creatures living in the bathyal region of an ocean.
GEOFAN-HUS
geofon-hūs
ship, vessel (lit. ocean-house', ref. to the Ark)
PARADOX
paradox
An absurd truth. Hence, the derivation of an unacceptable conclusion from apparently unquestionable premises by an apparently valid inference. Resolution of a paradox requires that we abandon at least one of the premises, refute the process of inference, or somehow learn to live with the unpalatable result. Zeno used paradoxes to demonstrate the impossibility of motion. Modern semantic paradoxes (such as the liar and the term "heterological") arise from difficulties inherent in self-reference.
PANPSYCHISM
panpsychism
Belief that everything in the world has some mental aspect. This view attributes some degree of consciousness—however small—even to apparently inert bits of matter. Varieties of panpsychism have been defended by the Pythagoreans, Plotinus, Leibniz, Schopenhauer, and Whitehead.
LOGICAL POSITIVISM
logical positivism
used a strict principle of verifiability to reject as meaningless the non-empirical statements of metaphysics, theology, and ethics. Under the influence of Hume, Russell, and Wittgenstein, the logical positivists regarded as meaningful only statements reporting empirical observations, together with the tautologies of logic and mathematics. The Vienna Circle,Ayer.
LOGOS
MYTHOS
logos / mythos
Plato's Greek distinction between two ways of explaining what happens: either by providing an explicit rational account (logos), which combines with belief to form accurate knowledge {Gk. epistêmê} of the essence of things; or merely by telling a story with figurative significance (mythos). The Stoics elevated logos into an active principle that generates the specific "seminal reasons" {Gk. logoi spermatikoi} from which individual things flow. Philo Judaeus fully personified this notion as the divine agent responsible for creation of the world.
ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTE
A property or feature possessed by a substance. In the nomenclature of Aquinas and Descartes, attributes are regarded as essential to the substances that have them.
CORNEL WEST
West, Cornel (1953- )
American theologian and social philosopher whose The American Evasion of Philosophy: A Genealogy of Pragmatism (1989) traces the origins of American thought in the work of Emerson and Thoreau. In The Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought (1991) and Race Matters (1993), West addresses the significance of racial concerns in contemporary American culture.
TU QUOQUE
tu quoque

The informal fallacy of replying to criticism by arguing that one's opponent is guilty of something equally improper.

Example: "Republicans claim that Democrats make illegal use of campaign funds. But they do the same thing themselves, so there is no reason to enforce campaign finance laws."

This fallacy is usefully regarded as a special case of the circumstantial ad hominem argument.
TRUTH
truth {Gk.alêtheia; Lat. veritas; Ger. Wahrheit}
The conformity of a proposition to the way things are. Precise analysis of the nature of truth is the subject of the correspondence, coherence, pragmatic, redundancy, and semantic theories of truth.
LINEAMENT
LINEAMENT:
One of the outlines, exterior features, or distinctive marks of a body or figure, particularly of the face.
2.A distinguishing or characteristic feature; -- usu the plural.She saw the lined and ageing woman she had become, as if these
lineaments had been waiting to emerge since her features had first been formed.
Anita Brookner.
autobiography... the shape of a well-lived, well-told life we can discern the lineaments of the day and even the age.
every repulsive lineament of poverty, every loathsome indication of filth, rot, and garbage; all these ornament the banks of Folly Ditch.
Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist
lineamentum, "feature, lineament," from linea, "line."
NATURAL KINDS
A natural kind is a family of "entities possessing properties bound by natural law; we know of natural kinds in the form of categories of minerals, plants, or animals, and we know that different human cultures classify natural realities that surround them in a completely analogous fashion". Brought into contemporary philosophy by W. V. Quine in his essay "Natural Kinds", where any set of objects forms a kind only if (and perhaps if) it is "projectible", meaning judgments made about some members of that set can plausibly be extended by scientific induction to other members. Hence "raven" and "black" are natural kind terms, because any black raven consistutes at least some evidence that all ravens are black. But "nonblack" and "nonraven" are not, because a nonblack nonraven (say, a red herring) is not evidence that all nonblack things are nonravens.
NATURAL KINDS
Natural Kinds

Natural kinds are described rather than defined. We have learned about lemons and experienced them as small, yellow fruit. However, this knowledge does not permit an iff definition. Lemons differ from other fruit in ways we don't yet know about. There is no continuous gradation from lemons to oranges. On the other hand, geneticists could manage to breed large blue lemons by tinkering with the genes, and there might be good reasons to call the resulting fruit lemons.
COUNTERFACTUAL
Counterfactuals

An intelligent program will have to use counterfactual conditional sentences, but AI needs to concentrate on useful counterfactuals. An example is ``If another car had come over the hill when you passed just now, there would have been a head-on collision.'' Believing this counterfactual might change one's driving habits, whereas the corresponding material conditional, obviously true in view of the false antecedent, could have no such effect. Counterfactuals permit systems to learn from experiences they don't actually have.
STANCES
Four Stances
DD named three stances one can take towards an object or system. The first is the physical stance in which the physical structure of the system is treated. The second is the intentional stance in which the system is understood in terms of its beliefs, goals and intentions. The third is the design stance in which the system is understood in terms of its composition out of parts. One more stance we'll call the functional stance. We take the functional stance toward an object when we ask what it does without regard to its physics or composition. The example I like to give is a motel alarm clock. The user may not notice whether it is mechanical, an electric motor timed by the power line or electronic timed by a quartz crystal.gif Each stance is appropriate in certain conditions.
GRAMMATICAL INFLEXIONS
GRAMMATICAL INFLEXIONS
GRAVAMEN
GRAVAMEN
LEXEME
word as an item of meaning
GRAVAMEN
gra·va·men
Burden,gravare to burden, from gravis: the material or significant part of a grievance or complaint.
RAVITASG
gravitas
: high seriousness (as in a person's bearing or in the treatment of a subject)
RABELAISIAN
Ra·be·lai·sian
Pronunciation:
1 : of, relating to, or characteristic of Rabelais or his works
2 : marked by gross robust humor, extravagance of caricature, or bold naturalism.
SYLLEPSIS
A trope. GK "to gather" or "put together." That describes the use of a word in the same grammatical relation to two adjacent words, with the literal sense in one and a metaphorical sense in the other. Flanders and Swann: "She lowered her standards by raising her glass, her courage, her eyes, and his hopes."
CHANCE

PROBABILITY

ODDS
Chances, probability, and odds
Odds refers to the probability that one thing is so or will happen rather than another. Probability names the chance that a given event will occur. And chance is the possibility of a particular outcome in an uncertain situation. Chances are, the odds are such that the probability of half heads, half tails (and probability also refers to the ratio of the number of outcomes in an exhaustive set of equally likely outcomes that produce a given event to the total number of possible outcomes) is excellent.
JIM CROW
Jim Crow.
Jim Crow refers to ethnic discrimination, especially against blacks, by either legal enforcement or traditional sanctions. Although Jim Crow personified discrimination, there was no real person by that name. The term comes instead from an 1828 blackface song-and-dance—the precursor to minstrel shows—entitled Jump Jim Crow. Popularized by the white entertainer T.D. "Daddy" Rice, Jump Jim Crow was translated into French and mistaken, according to 19th-century diplomat and explorer John Lloyd Stephens, for the national anthem of the young United States.
ICTUS
ICTUS
The recurring stress or accent in a rhythmic or metrical series of sounds; also, the mark indicating the syllable on which such stress or accent occurs.

(See Arsis)
(See also Cadence, Modulation, Rhythm, Sprung Rhythm)
IM PRO VISITORE
IMPROVISITORE
An improviser of verse, usually extemporaneously.
(Compare Jongleur, Minstrel, Meistersingers, Minnesingers, Troubadour, Trouvere)
PASTICHE
PASTICHE
An artistic effort that imitates or caricatures the work of another artist.
In a pastiche, the imitation of another work is an end in itself. Imitation with the intent to mock the original is a parody.
(Compare Cento)
PICARESQUE
PICARESQUE
The term applied to literature dealing sympathetically with the adventures of clever and amusing rogues.
PURPLE PATCH
PURPLE PATCH
A term used to describe a passage or section which is in marked contrast to the context and style of the rest of the work, by the obvious heightening of language, diction, and figures of speech.
ZEUGMA
ZEUGMA (ZOOG-muh)
A figure of speech in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, is used in the same grammatical and semantic relationship with two or more other words, as in "my father wept for woe while I for joy," or Pope's:

Obliged by hunger, and request of friends.

(See also Syllepsis)
(Compare Ellipsis, Hendiadys, Prolepsis)

A B C D
PROLEPSIS
PROLEPSIS (proh-LEP-sus)
The application of an adjective to a noun in anticipation of the action of the verb, as in, "while plows turn the furrowed field."

(Compare Syllepsis)
PERIPHRASIS
PERIPHRASIS
The substitution of an elaborate phrase in place of a simple word or expression, as "fragrant beverage drawn from China's herb" for tea. James Thomson's "the bleating kind," for sheep, in The Seasons, and Milton's "he who walked the waves," for Jesus in Lycidas. May be used as a euphemism, embellishment or humor.(Compare Epithet, Kenning)
PET
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging technique that exploits the unique decay physics of positron-emitting isotopes. The isotopes of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and fluorine have been used in the development of diagnostically useful biologic compounds that are available for PET imaging in order to provide a functional or metabolic assessment of normal tissues or disease conditions.
CUT AND RUN
Cut And Run. Term used towards the end of the 18th century when actors cut their lines and left the stage, for one reason or another.
REPERTORY
Repertory Abbrev. to Rep. A form of theatre production company, usually with a permanent company of actors, where each production has a run of limited length. At any time there is normally one production in performance, one in rehearsal, and several in varying degrees of planning.
KILO
HECTO
DEKA
DECI
CENTI
MILLI
NANO
kilo- (k-)
10(3)
1 thousand
hecto- (h-)
10(2)
1 hundred
deka- (da-)**
10
1 ten
deci- (d-)
10-1
1 tenth
centi- (c-)
10-2
1 hundredth
milli- (m-)
10-3
1 thousandth
micro- (µ-)
10-6
1 millionth
nano- (n-)
10-9
1 billionth
MICROGRAM
MILLIGRAM
GRAM
1000 micrograms = 1 milligram, and 1000 milligrams = 1 gram.
FANCIES
FANCIES, sub. love-songs, or songs in general
FANCY, v .t. to love
MACULATE, adj.
MACULATION
MACULATE, adj. stained, impure
MACULATION, sub. stain, the spot of guilt
TERMAGANT
TERMAGANT, sub. ft supposed Mahomedan female
deity, represented in our old plays as a most
violent character
POLITY
Polity is a general term that refers to political organization of a group. It is often used to describe a loosely organized society such as a tribe or community, but can mean any political group including a government or empire, corporation or academy. Subtypes of polities include hierarchical, presbyterial, and congregational.
Aristotle described a polity as rule by the many, who are neither wealthy nor poor, in the interests of the whole community. He believed it to be the ideal form of government somewhere between oligarchy and democracy.
POLITY
In any country, a far greater number of individuals descended from the same parents can be supported, when greatly modified in different ways, in habits constitution & structure, so as to fill as many places, as possible, in the polity of nature, than when not at all or only slightly modified.
TORT
tort.
French for "wrong," a civil wrong or wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury occurs to another.Includes all negligence cases as well as intentional wrongs which result in harm.One of the major areas of law (along with contract, real property and criminal law) and results in more civil litigation than any other category. Some intentional torts may also be crimes, such as assault, battery, wrongful death, fraud, conversion (a euphemism for theft) and trespass on property and form the basis for a lawsuit for damages by the injured party. Defamation, including intentionally telling harmful untruths about another-either by print or broadcast (libel) or orally (slander)-is a tort and used to be a crime as well.
CORPUS DELICTI
corpus delicti
n. (corpus dee-lick-tie) Latin for the substantial fact that a crime has been committed, and in popular crime jargon, the body of the murder victim.
MATERIAL
material
relevant and significant. In a lawsuit, material evidence is distinguished from irrelevant evidence or of such minor importance that the court will either ignore it, rule it immaterial if objected to, or not allow lengthy testimony upon such a matter. A material breach of a contract is a valid excuse by the other party not to perform. However, an insignificant divergence from the terms of the contract is not a material breach.
TERM OF ART
words of art
n. 1) specialized language with meaning peculiar to a particular profession, art, technical work, science or other field of endeavor. 2) jargon known only to people who specialize in a particular occupation.
PROBATIVE
probative
adj. in evidence law, tending to prove something. Thus, testimony which is not probative (does not prove anything) is immaterial and not admissible or will be stricken from the record if objected to by opposing counsel.
See also: probative facts probative value
RECUSE
recuse
to refuse to be a judge in a lawsuit or appeal because of a conflict of interest or other good reason (acquaintanceship with one of the parties, for example).
FELON
felon
n. a person who has been convicted of a felony, which is a crime punishable by death or a term in state or federal prison.
See also: felony
TENEMENT
tenement
n. 1) a term found in older deeds or in boiler-plate deed language which means any structure on real property. 2) old run-down urban apartment buildings with several floors reached by stairways.
ENJOIN
enjoin
... for a court to order that someone either do a specific act, cease a course of conduct or be prohibited from committing a certain act. injunction ... file a petition for a writ of injunction, serve it on the party he/she/it hopes to be enjoined ...at court hearing... the judge will either grant the writ or deny it. If granted the court will issue permanent injunction.
BOILERPLATE
boilerplate
n., adj. slang for provisions in a contract, form or legal pleading which are apparently routine and often preprinted. The term comes from an old method of printing. Today "boilerplate" is commonly stored in computer memory to be retrieved and copied when needed. A layperson should beware that the party supplying the boilerplate form usually has developed supposedly "standard" terms (some of which may not apply to every situation) to favor and/or protect the provider.
FUNGIBLE
fungible things
sometimes merely called "fungibles," goods which are interchangeable, often sold or delivered in bulk, since any one of them is as good as another. Grain or gravel are fungibles.
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE
grandfather clause
1) a clause in a statute or zoning ordinance (particularly a city ordinance) which permits the operator of a business to be exempt from restrictions on use if the business continues to be used as it was when the law was adopted. Upon passage of the regulation, the specific property may be referred to as "grandfathered in." Example: the city passes an ordinance which does not permit retail businesses in a particular zone, but any existing store can continue to function in the area, even with new owners. However, if the premises stop being a retail outlet then the grandfather clause will lapse. 2) southern state constitutional amendments in the late 1800s to keep blacks from voting, "grandfather clauses" denied voter registration to people who were illiterate, who did not own property or could not pass a test on citizenship obligations, unless their grandfathers had served in the Confederate Army.
MILLENARIANISM
MILLENARIANISM
Millenarianism is the belief that, before the final judgment of all mankind, Christ will return to the earth and, together with resurrected saints, will reign over a glorious kingdom which will last a thousand years. The authority for this belief is Revelation 20:1-5, which relates how the cosmic bat-
tles between the divine and the Satanic powers will in part end with the fall of the latter's stronghold,
“Babylon.” An angel will come down from heaven and
imprison the “dragon” for a thousand years (Revised
Standard Version). After this millennium Satan is to
be loosed once more. He will gather the nations of
the earth for one grand last stand, at “Armageddon,”
but he will be defeated. Then he will be thrown into
the “lake of fire” and the universal judgment will
occur, followed by the establishment of the eternal
heavenly state. Events often incorrectly associated with
the millennium, such as the coming of a “new heaven
and a new earth,” are to occur only after this final
victory of God.
VOLKSGEIST
VOLKSGEIST
Volksgeist (also Volksseele, Nationalgeist or Geist der
Nation, Volkscharakter, and in English “national char-
acter”) is a term connoting the productive principle of a spiritual or psychic character operating in different
national entities and manifesting itself in various crea-tions like language, folklore, mores, and legal order.
ANTINOMY
ANTINOMY
The skeptical method is not skepticism but aims, rather,
at certainty; it is unresolved conflict of assertions which
induces skepticism.
GNOSTICISM
GNOSTICISM
A religious movement which flourished alongside and within Christianity and
Judaism during the first three centuries of the Christian
era. Emphasis knowledge (gnōsis) derived from secret revelations and capable of bestowing salvation on the knower. The term should
be differentiated from “Gnosis,” which refers to any
kind of knowledge of divine mysteries reserved for an
elite. In Gnosticism there is a particular kind of Gnosis,
usually involving the notion of a divine spark in man
which needs to be awakened and reintegrated with its
divine source. The awakening and the movement to-
ward reintegration are provided by a revealer-
redeemer who brings knowledge of the way to return
to the divine source, usually through the heavenly
spheres above.
STOIC ETHICS
ETHICS OF STOICISM
Athens-Zeno of Citium 400 B.C. Divided for the purposes of exposition into three
subjects: physics, logic, and ethics; but between these
there is a fundamental connection which makes
Stoicism an organic unity, a philosophy of rational
coherence. The ethical goal is life in accordance with
nature, physis, and this is achieved by consistently
rational or “logical” action (kata logon zēn). Physics,
or the understanding of nature, provides the field of
morality with its values; logic grasps the relationship
between statements and events, which enables man to
articulate nature for himself and plan his life accord-
ingly. The significance of such familiar Stoic attitudes
as uncomplaining endurance of hardship and inflexible
will cannot be adequately grasped without reference
to their physical and logical basis.
STRUCTURALISM
STRUCTURALISM
entered the vocabulary of biology in the 17C and of language, literature, and philosophy in the 19C. The closely associated notion of “sys- tem” is of course older still. Relate them both to
a third, namely that of “function.” According to the
standard structuralist account, structures are structures of systems; systems function, structures in themselves do not function—but systems function because they
have the structures they do. The system of traffic signals, for example, has the function of controlling traffic; its structure is a binary opposition of red and green lights in alternating sequence. The system may
share its form with other systems having different
functions, but structure is not merely form; form is
something that can be abstracted from matter or con-
tent and considered separately, whereas structure, in the structuralist sense, is precisely the significative (as opposed to the material) content of the system.
MACHIAVELLISM
MACHIAVELLISM
Machiavellism has historically come to mean that
effectiveness alone counts in politics; political actions
should not be restricted by considerations of morality,
of good or evil.
HERMETICISM
HERMETICISM
The HERMETICA is the body of writings given by God to Egypt's Hermes-Mercurius-Trismegistus,
also thrice-great Thoth, to disseminate among the wise
of all lands. It adopts the Platonic-Christian idea that man must strive to transcend matter and rise to heavenly purity. At the same time, the Hermetica affirms a number of nonclassical, non-Christian ideas about chaos and darkness as sources of life and about
man as divinely creative.
CHAOS
chaos


A new branch of science that deals with systems whose evolution depends very sensitively upon the initial conditions. Turbulent flows of fluids (such as white water in a river) and the prediction of the weather are two areas where chaos theory has been applied with some success.
SATISFICING
satisficing
A concept due to Herbert Simon which identifies the decision making process whereby one chooses an option that is, while perhaps not the best, good enough.
TROPE
trope:
A figure of speech using words in nonliteral ways, such as a metaphor.
Latin tropus, from Greek tropos, turn, figure of speech.
OTHER FORMS: tropi·cal
TROPE
TROPE
In rhetoric, a figure of speech which consists in the use of a word or phrase in a sense other than that which is proper to it.
Tropus "a figure of speech," from Gk. tropos "turn, direction, turn or figure of speech," related to trope "a turning" and tropein "to turn," from PIE base trep- "to turn" (cf. Skt. trapate "is ashamed, confused," prop. "turns away in shame;" L. trepit "he turns").
ANSCHAUUNG
Anschauung "sense-perception," c.1856, from Ger., "mode of view," lit. "looking at," from anschauen "to look at," from M.H.G. aneschouwen (related to show (v.)). A term in Kantian philosophy.
CALVIN
Calvinism
Emphasizes predestination and salvation.1) Total depravity: that man is touched by sin in all parts of his being: body, soul, mind, and emotions, 2) Unconditional Election: that God’s favor to Man is completely by God’s free choice and has nothing to do with Man. It is completely undeserved by Man and is not based on anything God sees in man 3) Limited atonement: that Christ did not bear the sins of every individual who ever lived, but instead only bore the sins of those who were elected into salvation 4) Irresistible grace: that God's call to someone for salvation cannot be resisted, 5) Perseverance of the saints: that it is not possible to lose one's salvation.
DIDACHE
Didache
Greek "didoskolos" meaning "teacher." The Didache (did-a-kay). It was possibly written around 65-80 A.D. and is supposed to be what the twelve apostles taught to the Gentiles concerning life and death, church order, fasting, baptism, prayer, etc. There is debate as to its authenticity. The work is cited by Eusebius who lived from 260-341 and Athanasius (293-373). The Didache is not inspired, but is valuable as an early church document.
HAMARTIOLOGY
Hamartiology
The study of the doctrine of sin.
EPIDEICTIC ORATORY
EPIDEICTIC ORATORY
The dedicatory prefaces to early books and manuscripts are a species of epideictic oratory. Patronage made publication possible.Hence the sometimes long-winded flattery of dedicatory epistles and prefaces. One Renaissance entrepreneur inserted some 30 different dedicatory epistles into the front of different copies of his work, attempting to hedge his chances that this epideictic oratory would move at least one of his potential patrons, to whom he presented the copy.
COMMONPLACE
commonplace koinos topos
Commonplace is "a composition which amplifies inherent evils" (originally described as an amplification of either a virtue or vice, but in practice more the latter). A preparation for the following two exercises, encomium and vituperation, the commonplace differed from these by taking up a general virtue or vice, rather than the specific qualities of a single person. Subjects included gambling, theft, adultery, etc. Sometimes it took up the virtues/vices of specific kinds of persons; e.g., tyrants. See also topics of invention (sometimes named the "commonplaces" and proverbs, maxims, and sententia (all of which are sometimes referred to as "commonplaces")
RHETORIC
Encompassing Terms
Kairos
Audience
Decorum
Persuasive Appeals
Logos
Pathos
Ethos
"Branches" of Oratory
Judicial
Deliberative
Epideictic
INVENTION
invention/inventio/heuresis
The five canons: invention
arrangement
style
memory
delivery
Invention is finding something to say (invenire, to find.). Certain common categories of thought became conventional to use in order to brainstorm for material. These common places (places = topoi in Greek) are called the topics of invention. They include, for example, cause and effect, comparison, and various relationships.
Invention is tied to the rhetorical appeal of logos, oriented to what an author would say rather than how this might be said. Invention describes the argumentative, persusive core of rhetoric. Aristotle defines rhetoric primarily as invention, "discovering the best available means of persuasion." An important procedure that formed part of this finding process was stasis.
BARBARISM
barbarism barbarism
bar'-bar-ism from barbarizein, "to act like a foreigner"
barbarismus

The use of nonstandard or foreign speech (see cacozelia); the use of a word awkwardly forced into a poem's meter; or unconventional pronunciation.
Like solecisms, barbarisms are possible according to each of the four categories of change.
Examples
To you he appeals that knew him ab extrema pueritia, whose placet he accounts the plaudite of his pains, thinking his day-labor was not altogther lavish'd sine linea if there be anything of all in it that doth olere Atticum in your estimate. —Thomas Nash, Preface to Greene's Menaphon

Pronouncing "bourgeoisie" as "bur-goy'-zee"
SOLECISM
solecism, solecismos
Gk. speaking incorrectly (referred to those who spoke Greek imperfectly at Soloi)
solecismus, solecismos
inconveniens structura
An element of speech or writing that is incorrect grammatically.
Like barbarisms, solecisms are possible according to each of the four categories of change.
LAW OF THE EXCLUDED MIDDLE
Law of excluded middle
or the principle of tertium non datur, is formulated in traditional logic as "A is B or A is not B ". It is conventional in contemporary logical systems to give the same name to the axiom or theorem of propositional logic that typically takes the syntactic form p ∨ ¬p, where p is a propositional variable, "∨" means "or", and "¬" means "not".
For example, if P is Joe is bald then the inclusive disjunction Joe is bald, or Joe is not bald is true.
This is not quite the same as the principle of bivalence, which states that P must be either true or false. It also differs from the law of noncontradiction, which states that ¬(P ∧ ¬P) is true. The law of excluded middle only says that the total (P ∨ ¬P) is true, but does not comment on what truth values P itself may take. In any case, the semantics of any bivalent logic will assign opposite truth values to P and ¬P (i.e., if P is true, then ¬P is false), so the law of excluded middle will be equivalent to the principle of bivalence in a bivalent logic. However, the same cannot be said about non-bivalent logics, or many-valued logics.
Certain systems of logic may reject bivalence by allowing more than two truth values (e.g.; true, false, and indeterminate; true, false, neither, both), but accept the law of excluded middle. In such logics,(P ∨ ¬P) may be true while P and ¬P are not assigned opposite truth-values like true and false, respectively.
Some logics do not accept the law of excluded middle, most notably intuitionistic logic. The article bivalence and related laws discusses this issue in greater detail.
The law of excluded middle can be misapplied, leading to the logical fallacy of the excluded middle, also known as a false dilemma.
DISTRIBUTION
Distributed
A term in a categorical proposition is distributed if and only if the proposition implies every proposition that results from replacing the term with a more specific term.

Example: The subject term "mammals" in "all mammals are animals" is distributed because the proposition implies "all cats are animals", "all dogs are animals", "all humans are animals", etc. In contrast, the predicate term "animals" is not distributed because the proposition doesn't imply that all mammals are cats.
Distribution
A characteristic of terms in categorical propositions which are either distributed or undistributed.
GDP
GDP
The total value of goods produced and services provided in one year.
GDP
GNP + TOTAL NET INCOME FROM ABROAD
ANAGOGUE
an·a·go·ge also an·a·go·gy n. pl. an·a·go·ges also an·a·go·gies
A mystical interpretation of a word, passage, or text, especially scriptural exegesis that detects allusions to heaven or the afterlife.
[Late Latin anagg, from Late Greek, spiritual uplift, from anagein, to lift up : ana-, ana- + agein, to lead; see ag- in Indo-European roots.]
ENCYCLOPEDIC FORM
Encyclopaedic Form:
A genre presenting an anagogic form of symbolism, such as a sacred scripture, or its analogues in other modes. The term includes the Bible, Dante's Commedia, the great epics, and the works of Joyce and Proust.
MASQUE
Masque:
A species of drama in which music and spectacle play an important role and in which the characters tend to be or become aspects of human personality rather than independent characters.
MELOS
Melos:
The rhythm, movement, and sound of words; the aspect of literature which is analogous to music, and often shows some actual relation to it. From Aristotle's melopoeia.
TRANSLATIVE
tran·sla·tive (trnsl-tv)
adj.
1. Of or relating to the transfer or movement of a person or thing to another place.
2. Relating to or used in the translation of a language.
3. Linguistics Of, relating to, or being the grammatical case indicating the state into which one passes in certain languages, as in Finnish (Tule) terveeksi! "(Get) well!"
n. Linguistics
1. The translative case.
2. A word or form in the translative case.
STASIS
Questions to find Stasis/Kind of Question/Kind of Stasis
Did he do it?/of Fact/Conjectural Stasis
What did he do?/of Definition/Definitional Stasis
Was it just or expedient?/of Quality/Qualitative Stasis
Is this the right venue for this issue?/of Jurisdiction/Translative
Stasis.
STASIS
In rhetorical theory a stasis is the issue on which a case hinges, for example whether something actually happened, or, granted that it happened, whether what happened was a crime, or, granted that it happened and that it was a crime, what degree of blame attaches to it.
LANDSCAPE
Thus they their doubtful consultations dark
Ended, rejoicing in their matchless Chief:
As, when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds
Ascending, while the north wind sleeps, o'erspread
Heaven's cheerful face, the louring element
Scowls o'er the darkened landscape snow or shower,
If chance the radiant sun, with farewell sweet,
Extend his evening beam, the fields revive,
The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings.
No man has ever lived that had enough
No man has ever lived that had enough
Of children’s gratitude or woman’s love.
Yeats
INSTRUMENTAL
all our 'intrinsic' values started out as instrumental values,. This conviction about the primacy of the instrumental is a solemn requirement of science. Cui bono? who benefits — is even more central in evolutionary biology than in the law, and so we must seek the biological utilities of what might otherwise seem like a gratuitous outlay. An anxiety about the reality of nonbiological meanings troubles Dennett's every page.
PURLIEUS
purlieu
noun purlieus
1. The surroundings or immediate neighbourhood of a place.
environment, ambiance, vicinity, area, locale, district, neighbourhood.
purlieus (usually)2. Someone's usual haunts.
purlieus (usually)3. history.
An area of land on the edge of a forest which was once considered part of the forest, and which still remained subject to some of its governing laws, even after separation.
French puralé a going through.
REGRESSION EQUATION
The relationship between a dependent variable (GDP, say) and a set of
explanatory variables (DEMAND, INTEREST rates, CAPITAL, UNEMPLOYMENT,
and so on) is expressed as a regression equation.
PURVIEW
purview
noun
formal or technical:
1. Scope of responsibility or concern, eg of a court of law.
2. The range of someone's knowledge, experience or activities.
3. law.
The body or enacting part of a statute, as distinct from the preamble.
French purveu provided, from porveier to purvey.
PURBLIND
purblind
adj
1. Nearly blind; dim-sighted.
2. Dull-witted; obtuse.
‘completely blind'; from pure + blind.
RECURSION
Recursion
A recursive process is one in which objects are defined in terms of other objects of the same type. Using some sort of recurrence relation, the entire class of objects can then be built up from a few initial values and a small number of rules. The Fibonacci numbers are most commonly defined recursively. Care, however, must be taken to avoid self-recursion, in which an object is defined in terms of itself, leading to an infinite nesting.
STREW
strew
v strewed (past tense), strewed (past participle), strewn, strewing (present participle)
1. To scatter untidily.
Papers were strewn across the floor 2. To cover with an untidy scattering.
The floor was strewn with papers
OE streowian.
ANASARKAS
anasarkas
*A condition in which a person is so swollen that they appear to have no muscles
LESE-MAJESTE
lèse-majesté, lese majesty
(“injured majesty”).“an offense against a sovereign” or, more generally, any slight or insult that wounds someone’s dignity.
BIEN PENSANT
bien-pen·sant
: right-minded : one who holds orthodox views
INGENUOUS
an ingenuous optimism even in these dangerous times.
CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY
Amyloid deposition in the walls of arteries, arterioles, and, less often, capillaries and veins of the central nervous system. 30% > 60yrs. By contrast, 80% to 90% of autopsy-confirmed cases of Alzheimer disease (AD) show at least a mild degree of CAA, and about 25% show moderate to
severe CAA.
Superficial lobar hemorrhage is the main clinical manifestation of CAA,
which otherwise usually remains clinically silent.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy–associated hemorrhage accounts for
approximately 11% of all cerebral hemorrhages among older persons. It can also cause infarction and ischemic leucoencephalopathy. The presence of the apolipoprotein 4 genotype has been identified as an important risk factor for sporadic and AD-related CAA.
PLENARY
PLENARY
1. complete as, plenary authority.
2. Fully attended by all qualified members.
plenary and exclusive power of the President. Plenus, "full." It is related to plenty.
PASTELS
macabre watercolors depicting angels, sarcophagi, moonlit graveyards, arm-linked spirits — rendered in a subtle range of grays, black and pastels.
TATE BRITAIN
That the works may end up scattered is a bitter prospect for Tate Britain, one of the world's most important repositories of Blake's
works.
NEOCONSERVATIVES
Neoconservatism
The most important inheritance from the C.C.N.Y. group was an idealistic belief in social progress and the universality of rights, coupled with intense anti-Communism.
The danger of good intentions carried to extremes was a theme that would underlie the life work of many members
of this group.
ahi dura terra, perché non t'apristi?

INFERNO XXXIII,
ahi dura terra, perché non t'apristi?
Oh, hard earth, why didn't you open up?
DOULA
DOULA
A woman who assists during childbirth labor and provides support to the mother, her child and the family after
childbirth.
postpartum care workers (or doulas) to frazzled new moms.
Unlike midwives, who deliver babies and are licensed to perform medical tasks, labor doulas provide emotional and physical support to the laboring parents.
G doula, "servant-woman, slave."
APOTHEGM
apothegmatic.
APOTHEGM:
A short, witty, and instructive saying. Lord Acton's famous apothegm, "Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely." The rare talent of compressing a mass of profound thought into an apophthegm.
Apothegm Greek apophthegma, from apophthengesthai, "to speak one's opinion plainly," from apo-, intensive prefix + phthengesthai, "to speak." The adjective form is
apothegmatic.
MANSE
manse
1. A large and imposing residence.
2. The residence of a clergyman.
A two-story white Greek Revival manse, with a front porch and a terrace in the back.
living in this weird gothic Victorian manse.
Medieval Latin mansa, "a dwelling," from Latin manere, "to dwell; to remain."
SCRABBLE
scrabble
verb, intr scrabbled, scrabbling
1. To scratch, grope or struggle frantically.
2. To scrawl.
noun
1. An act of scrabbling.
Dutch schrabben, to scratch.
PARVENU
parvenu
One that has recently or suddenly risen to a higher social or economic class but has not gained social acceptance of others in that class; an upstart.
a parvenu with ideas above his station.
However, the Creoles, French, Spanish, and Acadians who preceded the American parvenus were deeply entrenched.
When John Stewart Parnell went up to Magdalene College,
Cambridge in 1865 he found that "the sons of moneyed
parvenus from the North of England tried to liken
themselves to country gentlemen and succeeded in looking like stable boys."
The Progressives were of the educated middle class, angry
at the rule of parvenu financiers and industrialists.
Pervenire, "to come through to, to arrive at, to reach, hence to succeed," from per, "through" + venire, "to come."
CRAPULOUS
CRAPULOUS:
1. Suffering the effects of, or derived from, or suggestive of gross intemperance, especially in drinking; as, a crapulous stomach.
2. Marked by gross intemperance, especially in drinking; as, a crapulous old reprobate.
Crapulous is from Late Latin crapulosus, from Latin crapula, from Greek kraipale, drunkenness and its consequences, nausea, sickness, and headache.
ULULATE
ULULATE, intransitive:
To howl, as a dog or a wolf; to wail; as, ululating jackals.
his grieving family visiting his grave, ululating as only the relatives of martyrs may.
She wanted to ululate and raise her hands to the heavens.
like Janis Joplin she made notes break and ululate.
Ululare, to howl, to yell,
ultimately of imitative origin.
ululation;
ululant.
CONTRADISTINCTION
contradistinction:
Distinction by contrast; as, "sculpture in contradistinction to painting."
American novelists increasingly fixed their boldest inventions on their own early years-- in contradistinction to postwar writers who vigorously peeled away World War II and the social fabric of the 1950's.
The music was breathing constantly, in contradistinction to the willfully suffocated feeling of most heavy music.
Contradistinction is contra-, contra,"against" + distinction, from Latin distinctio, from distinguere, "to distinguish."
PERAMBULATE
PERAMBULATE,
1.to stroll; as, "he perambulated in the park."
1. To walk through or over.
2. To travel over for the purpose of surveying or inspecting.
the New Yorkers slowly perambulate up and down.
At Syon, we perambulate a succession of rooms of the
greatest magnificence.
you can perambulate the shoreline.
She liked to perambulate the room with a duster in her
hand.
per, "through" + ambulare, "to walk."
perambulation.
TOPIARY
Art of creating sculptures in clipped shrubs.
TOPIARIUS An ornamental landscape gardener.
COUNTERMAND
countermand; To revoke (a former command)
noun:
A contrary order.
OF contremander, from
contre-, "counter" (from Latin contra) + mander, "to command" (from Latin mandare).
SIMULACRUM
simulacrum;
simulacra
1.An image; a representation.
2.An insubstantial, superficial, or vague likeness or semblance.
Incorporating simulacra of historic buildings and exotic landscapes the Emperor saw on his extensive travels through his dominions, the villa is high-style multiculturalism.
It becomes harder... to distinguish the genuine from its simulacrum.
a pale simulacrum of the man he had been.
like washed out ghosts of real things, waxen simulacra of themselves.
simulare, "to make like, to
put on an appearance of," from similis, "like." It is related
to simulate and similar.
DILETTANTE
Dilettante comes from the present participle of Italian delittare, "to delight," from Latin delectare, "to delight,"
frequentative of delicere, "to allure," from de- + lacere, "to entice."
LARGESSE
largesse OF largesse, "largeness, generosity,"
L. Largus, "plentiful, generous."
SHEMA
(Hebrew: “Hear”), the Jewish confession of faith made up of three scriptural texts (Deuteronomy 6:4–9, 11:13–21; Numbers 15:37–41), which, together with appropriate prayers, forms an integral part of the evening and morning services. The name derives from the initial word of the scriptural verse “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4).
DIVESTITURE
Britain's Chief Rabbi, Sir Jonathan Sacks, assailed the Church
of England today for supporting divestiture from companies whose
products support Israeli policies in Gaza and the West Bank.
LAPIDATION
Noun
lapidation - pelting with stones; punishment inflicted by throwing stones at the victim (even unto death)
La lapidation est une --- --- dans le Coran et la Sunnah.
La lapidation est une sanction décrétée dans le Coran et la Sunnah.
UNDERCUT
TRANSITIVE VERB: To diminish or destroy the province or effectiveness of; undermine:The partnership between the United States and Western Europe is undercut by diverging economic interests. 2. To sell at a lower price than or to work for lower wages or fees than (a competitor).
PURLIEU
NOUN: 1. An outlying or neighboring area. 2. purlieus Outskirts; the environs. 3. A place that one frequents.
ETYMOLOGY:Middle English purlewe, piece of land on the edge of a forest, probably alteration (influenced by Old French lieu, place) of porale, purale, royal perambulation, from Old French porale, from poraler, to traverse : por-, forth (from Latin pr-; see pro–1) + aler, aller, to go; see alley1.
PROBITY
PROBITY
Complete and confirmed integrity; uprightness.
some probity must be restored.
This exemplar of financial probity was enriching himself at public expense.
Probitas, from probus, "good, upright, virtuous."
PURVIEW
NOUN: 1. The extent or range of function, power, or competence; scope. See synonyms at range. 2. Range of vision, comprehension, or experience; outlook. 3. Law The body, scope, or limit of a statute.
ETYMOLOGY: Alteration (influenced by view) of Middle English purveu, proviso, from Anglo-Norman purveu est, it is provided (from the use of this word to introduce a proviso), past participle of purveier, to provide. See purvey.
ALL OUR ... VALUES STARTED OUT
AS ... VALUES
All our INTRINSIC values started out as INSTRUMENTAL values
UNDERCUT
TRANSITIVE VERB:*1.* To diminish or destroy the province or effectiveness of; undermine: “The partnership between the United States and Western Europe is undercut by diverging economic interests”/ (Scott Sullivan). *2.* To
sell at a lower price than or to work for lower wages or fees than (a competitor).
the court has had to contend with ... witness testimony.
the court has had to contend with flaccid witness testimony
NUMINOUS

It has all the --- force of a ritual.
it has all the numinous force of a ritual.
All Quests are concerned with some numinous Object, the
Waters of Life, the Grail, buried treasure, etc.
Our culture is not much concerned with the numinous, but in
language we preserve many of the marks of a culture that is.
My sense of the numinous is generally keenest upstate, in
the fields and forest that surround my old schoolhouse.
Numen, literally a "nod of the head" (as in giving a command), hence "divine power."
OBLOQUY
ob-, "against" + loqui, "to speak."
LINEAMENT
LINEAMENT:
One of the outlines or distinctive marks of a body.
the lineaments of the day and even the age.
every repulsive lineament of poverty, every loathsome indication of filth, rot, and garbage.
SALUTARY
Salutaris, from salus, salut-, "health."
SPOONY
SPOONY:
Foolishly or sentimentally in love.

Spoony is from the slang term spoon, meaning "a simpleton or a silly person."
CHAOS
cha·os the·o·ry
*theory of apparent randomness: *a theory that complex natural systems
obey rules but are so sensitive that small initial changes can cause unexpected final results, thus giving an impression of randomness.
TENDENTIOUS
Marked by a strong tendency in favor of a particular point of view.
...like political pamphleteering--tendentious.
... art that is tendentious and therefore not terribly artistically interesting.
... All types of social disagreements seem to be routed inexorably into the tendentious jargon of legal reasoning.
tendentia, from tendens, tendent-, present participle of tendere, "to stretch, to direct one's course to, to be inclined." It is related to tendency.
I was ... enough to think her Agrippine very fine.
Henry James, "The Théâtre Français"
I was verdant enough to think her Agrippine very fine.
Henry James, The Théâtre Français.
un point commun entre journalistes et sociologues: ils seraient ... par la ....
un point commun entre journalistes et sociologues: ils seraient phagocytés par la bien-pensance.
OBEDIENCE

OBEYED
*gehiersumnesse*: obedience

*gehiersumodest*: obeyed
GRAINS OF SAND
SANDCEOSOL: grains of sand
Chelsea: in the 16th century it is Chelcith. The later termination ey or ea was associated with the insular character of the land, and the prefix with a gravel bank (ceosol; cf. Chesil Bank, Dorsetshire) thrown up by the river; but the early suffix hythe is common in the meaning of a haven.
SANDCASTLE
CASTELLUM (dim CASTRUM).
CEOSOL
A.S. ceosol, pebble bank
sand-ceosol
Matthew VII 24-27
... þæm dysigan menn, þe getimbrode his hus ofer sand-ceosol. Þa rinde hit, and þær comon flod, and bleowon windas ..
Matthew VII 24-27
Matthew VII 24-27

Ælc þara þe þas min word gehierþ, and þa wyrcþ, biþ gelic þæm wisan were, se his hus ofer stan getimbrode. Þa com þær regen and micel flod, and þær bleowon windas, and ahruron on þæt hus, and hit na ne feoll: soþlice hit wæs ofer stan getimbrod.

And ælc þara þe gehierþ þas min word, and þa ne wyrcþ, se biþ gelic þæm dysigan menn, þe getimbrode his hus ofer sand-ceosol. Þa rinde hit, and þær comon flod, and bleowon windas, and ahruron on þæt hus, and þæt hus feoll; and his hryre wæs micel.
Every one therefore that heareth these my words, and doth them...
And every one that heareth these my words, and doth them not...
Every one therefore that heareth these my words, and doth them, shall be likened to a wise man that built his house upon a rock, 25 And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and they beat upon that house, and it fell not, for it was founded on a rock.

26 And every one that heareth these my words, and doth them not, shall be like a foolish man that built his house upon the sand (þe getimbrode his hus ofer sand-ceosol), 27 And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and they beat upon that house, and it fell, and great was the fall thereof.
SOFT
Gk soft.
Old French amalgame, from Medieval Latin amalgama, probably from Greek malagma, "emollient," from
malassein, "to soften," from malakos, "soft."
The ... of reviewing reviews are ---.
The opportunity costs of reviewing reviews are unjustifiable.
INTERCESSORY PRAYER
You mention the validity of intercessory prayer
ABJECTION
The second of Kristeva's hallmark ideas is what she calls "abjection". Why, Kristeva inquires, are we fascinated by things that disgust and horrify us? As she put it in her essay on the subject: "There looms, within abjection, one of those violent, dark revolts of being, directed against a threat that seems to emanate from an exorbitant outside or inside, ejected beyond the scope of the possible, the tolerable, the thinkable. It lies there, quite close, but it cannot be assimilated. It beseeches, worries, and fascinates desire, which, nevertheless, does not let itself be seduced."
As is well known to every researcher in ... ..., such studies are based on modern genetic data back-projected into historical times using very iffy theoretical models of ... .... The result is that the ... ... are literally thousands of years long in every such study.
As is well known to every researcher in population genetics, such studies are based on modern genetic data back-projected into historical times using very iffy theoretical models of genetic drift. The result is that the error bars are literally thousands of years long in every such study.
OPPORTUNITY COST

THE COST OF THE --- --- --- ---.
THE COST OF THE MOST VALUABLE FOREGONE ALTERNATIVE.
TRADUCE
Calumniate; vilify; defame; slander.
GROOVED JAMBS
Grating or framework of strong bars of wood or iron, sharp-pointed at their lower ends, sliding vertically in the grooved jambs of a fortified portal as a protection in case of assault.
CORMORANT
Cormorants devour fish voraciously, and have become the emblem of gluttony.
A gluttonous, greedy, or rapacious person.
Coleridge was precocious and from the first displayed a voracious appetite for books. He later characterised himself as "a library cormorant."
SUCCOR

---, "to run under, to run or hasten to the aid or assistance of someone," from ---, "---" + ---, "to ---."
Succurrere, "to run under, to run or hasten to the aid or assistance of someone," from sub-, "under" + currere, "to run."
STOLID
STOLID
Having or revealing little emotion or sensibility; not easily excited.
Ulster Protestants are a slow, stolid, quiet, decent,
law-abiding people, unstylish and unfashionable.

Stolid derives from Latin stolidus, "unmoving, stupid."
PATERFAMILIAS
paterfamilias
The male head of a household or the father of a family.
Paterfamilias is from Latin pater, "father" + familias, "of the family or household," the archaic genitive form of familia, "family or household."
AUBADE
AUBADE
A song or poem greeting the dawn; also, a composition suggestive of morning.
He was usually still awake when the birds began to warble their aubade.
F, from aube, dawn + the noun suffix -ade: aube ultimately derives from Latin albus, white, pale, as in "alba lux," the "pale light" of dawn.
INTUITION
In the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, intuition is one of the basic cognitive faculties, equivalent to what might loosely be called perception. Kant held that our mind casts all of our external intuitions in the form of space, and all of our internal intuitions (memory, thought) in the form of time.
COUNTERINTUITIVE
A counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true using intuition or gut feelings.
Scientifically discovered, objective truths are often called counter-intuitive when intuition, emotions, and other cognitive processes outside of deductive rationality interpret them to be wrong. However, the subjective nature of intuition limits the objectivity of what to call counter-intuitive because what is counter-intuitive for one may be intuitive for another.
Flawed understanding of a problem may lead to counter-productive behavior with undesirable outcomes. In some such cases, counter-intuitive policies may then produce a more desirable outcome. For example, a policy of catching large fish and throwing back small ones so may be counter-productive. In response to that policy, evolutionary pressure may select for small fish. A counter-intuitive improvement may be to catch only medium sized fish, leaving the biggest free to breed, creating evolutionary pressure for fish to grow quickly through the medium size.
PARADOX
A situation which is or appears to be true but violates our intuition is called a paradox (a paradox can also be a logical self-contradiction). An example of this is the Birthday paradox.
APORIA
voice of the interlocutor Everything has an essence.
voice of aporia But is this true?
voice of clarity It seems that this notion has been a presumption.
IT GOES HARDEST WITH US
of him, inevitably, it goes hardest with us to be told that we have nothing, or next to nothing.''
TENDERE
Medieval Latin tendentia, from Latin tendens, tendent-, present participle of tendere, "to stretch, to direct one's course to, to be inclined." It is related to tendency.
EMOLLIENT
Emollients are substances which soften and soothe the skin. They are used to correct dryness and scaling of the skin.
SKEWER
Canetti had some reputation as an analyst who could skewer people in a paragraph.
EPATER LE BOURGEOIS
épater le bourgeois.
to shock the middle classes
NIGGARDLY
niggardly
adjective
grudgingly mean about spending or granting.
COSTIVE.
QUESTION
quaestion-, quaestio, from quaerere to seek, ask
a subject or aspect in dispute or open for discussion : ISSUE; broadly : PROBLEM, MATTER c (1) : a subject or point of debate or a proposition to be voted on in a meeting (2) : the bringing of such to a vote d : the specific point at issue
(c/w INQUIRY)
ATONAL
marked by avoidance of traditional musical tonality; especially : organized without reference to key or tonal center and using the tones of the chromatic scale impartially
TONE
vocal or musical sound of a specific quality <spoke in low tones> <masculine tones>; especially : musical sound with respect to timbre and manner of expression
MOBIUS STRIP
A surface is orientable if it has two sides so that, for example, is it possible to paint it with two different colours. A sheet of paper or the surface of a sphere are examples of orientable surfaces. A Mobius strip is a non-orientable surface: you can build one with a strip of paper (twist the strip and glue end together to form a ring) and verify that it has only one side: it is not possible to paint it with two colours.
ERROR BAR
Error bars allow you to graphically illustrate actual errors, the statistical probability of errors, or a general approximation or "spread" in your data. Examples might include experimental errors in measurement or atypical data points in comparison to the rest of the data.

Error bars appear as 2 short dashes for the upper and lower values of the spread, with a line connecting the 2 dashes at their centres. These 3 parts of the error bar are treated as 1 chart element in the chart, so you can, for example, make an all-red error bar, but you cannot make red dashes with a blue connecting line.You can choose error bar options for all data series, or for an individual data series with different parameters for the upper and lower error bars.
AFFECTIVE FORCASTING
when it comes to predicting exactly how you will feel in the future, you are most likely wrong.
impassive, wooden, unemotional, sober, apathetic, indifferent, plodding, unimaginative, unexcitable; obtuse, slow; Antonym: interested, lively.
STOLID
GONZO
GONZO
Sinonimi: credulone, sempliciotto, bestia, coglione, cretino
Contrari: astuto, esperto
CULPA
a bad deed, misdeed, outrage, villainy, crime
culpa, peccatum, delictum, flagitium, scelus, crimen, etc.
ESTOLIDO
es·tó·li·do -da
adj.
dull, stupid
After all the literary-theoretical fuss about ---, ---, --- of meaning, and the endlessness of ---, it is salutary to be reminded that Wittgenstein, unlike Stanley Fish or Jacques Derrida, by no means believed that interpretation goes all the way down.
After all the literary-theoretical fuss about textuality, ambiguity, indeterminacy of meaning, and the endlessness of interpretation, it is salutary to be reminded that Wittgenstein, unlike Stanley Fish or Jacques Derrida, by no means believed that interpretation goes all the way down.
TERMAGANT
-A scolding, nagging, bad-tempered woman; a shrew.

Adjective& N
Overbearing; shrewish; scolding.
The termagant who ruled cytology.
WHETSTONE
WHETSTONE
1.Sharpening stone.
2.A thing that sharpens the senses etc.
TOUCHSTONE
TOUCHSTONE
CONFUTE
CONFUTE
A specious theory is confuted by this free and perfect experiment.
--Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
REFUTARE
... deinde contraria refutare; tum autem alii conclusionem orationis et quasi perorationem conlocant, alii iubent, ante quam peroretur, ornandi aut augendi ...
CONFUTARE
RESTRAIN
BRAVURA
...gradually easing out of certain bravura roles while he could still dance them at top form.
BRAVURA:
1. Music. a florid passage or piece requiring great skill and spirit in the performer.
2. a display of daring; brilliant performance.
3. Music. spirited; florid; brilliant (applied chiefly to vocal but occasionally to instrumental compositions).
It: spirit, dash.
TURGID
Make France's turgid labor laws more flexible.
DRAMATURGY
"lasagna" dramaturgy and "matzo" dramaturgy
DRAMATURGY
Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and staging. Some dramatists combine writing and dramaturgy when creating a drama. Others work with a DRAMATURG, to adapt a work to the stage.
Dramaturgy can also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story or like elements into a form that can be acted. Dramaturgy gives the work or the performance a structure. More than actual writing, a dramaturge's work can often be defined as designing.
DRAMATURGE
dram·a·turge
A writer or adapter of plays; a playwright.
French, from Greek drmatourgos : drma, drmat-, drama; see drama + ergon, work; see werg- .
WERG
WERG IE Roots werg-To do. Oldest form *wer-, becoming *werg- in centum languages.
Derivatives: work, allergy, surgery, wrought, and orgy.
I. Suffixed form *werg-o-. 1a. work; handiwork, from OE weorc, werc, work; b. boulevard, bulwark, from OHG werc, work. Both a and b from Germanic *werkam, work. 2. erg, ergative, –urgy; adrenergic, allergy, argon, cholinergic, demiurge, dramaturge,energy,ergonomics, georgic, lethargy, liturgy, metallurgy, surgery,synergism, thaumaturge, from Greek ergon, work, action.
II. Zero-grade form *wg-. 1. Suffixed forms *wg-yo-, *wg-to-. a. wrought, from Old English wyrcan, to work; b. irk, from Old Norse yrkja, to work. Both a and b from Germanic *wurkjan, to work, participle *wurhta-. 2. Suffixed form *wg-t-. wright, from Old English wryhta, maker, wright, from Germanic *wurhtj-.
III. O-grade form *worg-. a. organ, organon, from Greek organon (with suffix -ano-), tool; b. orgy, from Greek orgia, secret rites, worship (service).
CENTUM
centum ADJ.
Designating those Indo-European languages, including the Italic, Hellenic, Celtic and Germanic subfamilies, that merged the palatal velar stops with the plain velars k, g, gh and maintained a distinction between them and the labiovelars kw, gw, gwh.
ETYMOLOGY: Latin, hundred (a word whose initial sound in classical Latin illustrates the preservation of the Indo-European palatal velar as a velar k).
TONIC
The note upon which a scale or key is based; the first note of a scale or key; the keynote.
SUBLIMINAL
subliminal
adj
subliminally
adverb
from sub + Latin limen threshold.
LIMINAL
liminal
adjective technical
1 relating to a transitional or initial stage.
2 at a boundary or threshold.
liminality noun.
Latin limen ‘threshold’.
liminal, lawless, deprived and depraved.
FoxP2 GENE
FoxP2, mutatation of which is associated with language problems in people.An inability to correctly pronounce words or form them into grammatically correct sentences. What’s more, they have trouble understanding complex language. The team analyzed expression of FoxP2 in a number of bird species, both vocal learners and nonlearners, and in crocodiles, the closest living relative of birds.
In both humans and birds the gene is expressed in the basal ganglia, We found that the levels of FoxP2 seem to be increasing at times just before the bird begins to change its songs, The gene switches on, allowing the song-learning circuitry to become more plastic, which allows the birds to imitate sounds. In nonvocal-learning species, in contrast, the team did not observe any localization or differential levels of FoxP2 activity.
BRICOLAGE
onstruction or something constructed by using whatever
materials happen to be available.
The Internet is a global bricolage
Cooking with leftovers was bricolage--
...no one ever really reads Hamlet for the first time now; we've heard
it all before in bits and pieces, cultural bricolage.
Bricolage comes from the French, from bricole, "trifle; small
job."
CONFLATE
1. To bring together.
2. To combine (as two readings of a text) into one whole.
... a film conflates the present and the past with ingenious use of flashbacks.
...to conflate the various drug abuses into a single dreadful statistic.
. . . lean and mobile military units that conflate the traditional categories of police officers, commandos, emergency-relief specialists, diplomats, and, of course, intelligence officers.
Conflare, "to blow together; to put together," from con-, "with, together" + flare, "to blow."
WETH
1. Sharpen eg scythe by grinding.
2.Stimulate .
(OE hwettan).
WEFT
Weft or woof is the yarn which is shuttled back and forth across the warp to create a woven fabric.
The weft is a thread or yarn of spun fibre. The original fibre was wool, flax or cotton. Nowadays, many manmade fibres are used in weaving. Because the weft does not have to be stretched in the way that the warp is, it can generally be less strong.
The weft is threaded through the warp using a shuttle. Hand looms were the original weaver's tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand. Inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, and the hand loom became the more robust spinning frame with the flying shuttle speeding up production of cloth, and then the water frame using water power to automate the weaving process. The power loom followed in the 19th century, when steam power was harnessed.
The words woof and weft derive ultimately from the Old English word wefan, "to weave". It has given rise to the expression "woof and warp", meaning literally a fabric (the warp being the lengthwise threads, under and over which the side to side threads—the woof—are woven). The expression is used as a metaphor for the underlying structure on which something is built.
APSE
APSE
IMPRINT
IMPRINT
WROUGHT
WROUGHT
archaic past & past part of -work-.
adj: (of metals) beaten out or shaped by hammering.
wrought iron a tough malleable form of iron suitable for forging or rolling.
CAST IRON
A hard alloy of iron, carbon and silicon cast in a mould.
OBTUSE
OBTUSE
IMPRINT
he signed a contract with Free Press, an imprint of Simon & Schuster
APSE
APSE
INFRUCTUOUS
INFRUCTUOUS
UNRELIABLE NARRATOR
the fictional trope of the unreliable narrator.
Some works suggest that all narrators are inherently unreliable due to self-interest, personal bias, or selective memory. The film Rashomon uses multiple narrators to tell the story of the death of a samurai. Each of the witnesses describe the same basic events but differ wildly in the details, alternately claiming that the samurai was killed by accident, suicide, and murder.
RAVEPED
deprave
To debase, especially morally; corrupt.
ME depraven, to corrupt, from OF depraver, from Latin dprvre : d-, de- + prvus, crooked.
depra·vation
LIMINAL
liminal
adjective technical 1 relating to a transitional or initial stage. 2 at a boundary or threshold.
liminality.
Limen ‘threshold’.
INFRUCTOUS
"Infructuous" is a word that is not used very often by native speakers of English, it is however quite popular among newspaper reporters in India. The word means "unprofitable, unfruitful, ineffective". Here are a few examples.
*After several infructuous interviews to find a job, Ashwini turned to crime.
*Gauri made an infructuous appeal to the Chairman to retain the services of Arun.
*Sashidhar made several infructuous attempts to steal the Nizam's diamonds.
EDACIOUS
tempus edax rerum (Ovid)
CUIRASS
the term cuirass commonly is understood to imply the complete body-armour, including both the breast and the back plates.
SCOURING the land OF trees and verdure
The first white settlers in the area started as yeomen,
scouring the land of trees and verdure to create homesteads.
HOMESTEAD
HOMESTEAD
VERDANT
VERDURE
UMBRAGE
VERDANT
VERDURE
UMBRAGE
TRAMMEL
TRAMMEL
free from unnatural trammels.
shaking off the trammels of reason, and running wild after a golden vision.
their freedom is trammelled.
to trammel it with Regulations.
to trammel progress.
Tremaculum, a kind of net for catching fish, from Latin tres, "three" + macula, "a mesh."
TROPE
TROPE
RECENSION
RECENSION
REDACT
REDACT
put into literary form.
edit for publication.
RECUSANT
RECUSANT
RECUSE
RECUSE
CENTO
The author has composed a cento, a collage-poem composed of lines lifted from other sources.
INVIDIOUS
Invidiosus, "envious, hateful, causing hate or ill-feeling," from invidia, "envy," from invidere, "to look upon with the evil eye, to look maliciously upon, to envy," from in-, "upon" + videre, "to look at, to see."
PRAXIS
PRAXIS
accepted practice or custom.
POLITY
POLITY
1.a form or process of civil government or constitution.
2.an organised society; a State as a political entity.
OSCITANT
OSCITANT
yawning, drowsy.
OPPUGN
OPPUGN
to call into question, contradict.
ORDONNANCE
ORDONNANCE
ORDNANCE
ORDNANCE
MALADROIT
MALADROIT
LOGOMACHY
LOGOMACHY
CALLIPYGIAN
CALLIPYGIAN
having beautiful buttocks.
CHAPLET
CHAPLET
CHOP LOGIC
CHOP LOGIC
One who bandies words or is very argumentative.
CONNIVE
CONNIVE AT
CONNIVE WITH
DEUTERAGONIST
DEUTERAGONIST
DYSPHEMISM
DYSPHEMISM
SCABROUS
vs
Scabrous vs Glabrous
RECREANT
RECREANT
1. Cowardly; craven.
2. Unfaithful; disloyal.
Wordsworth compares himself to a truant, a false steward, a
recreant, when he does not write poetry.
the recreant versus the faithful one.
...surrendering your religion and becoming a recreant.
recroire, "to yield in a trial by battle," from re-, "re-" + croire, "to believe," from Latin credere.
RECREANT
RECREANT
1.Cowardly, craven.
2.Unfaithful, disloyal.
1.A coward.
2.An unfaithful or disloyal person.
Wordsworth compares himself to a truant, a false steward, a recreant, when he does not write poetry.
the recreant versus the faithful one.
But was it worth surrendering your religion, hence your honor, and becoming a recreant?
Recreant comes from Old French, from the present participle of recroire, "to yield in a trial by battle," from re-, "re-" + croire, "to believe," from Latin credere.
REFULGENT
RESPLENDENT
MARTINET
MARTINET
NATURA NATURANS
natura naturans
n. creative nature; Creator; God. natura naturata, created nature.
FACINUS
In partic., a bad deed, misdeed, outrage, villainy, crime (syn.: culpa, peccatum, delictum, flagitium, scelus, crimen, etc.)
FACINUS
facinus crime
SCELUS
scelus crime
SBSU
BUSS
a playful kiss; a smack.
transitive verb:
To kiss; especially to kiss with a smack.
Old English basse, from Latin basium,"kiss."
BLANDISHMENT
Latin blandiri, "to flatter, caress, coax," from blandus, "flattering, mild."
ARGUS-EYED
Extremely observant; watchful; sharp-sighted. One who is Argus-eyed is as observant as Argus, a hundred-eyed monster from Greek mythology.
TIMBA
AMBIT
he came within the ambit of the Vienna Circle.
a regulatory regime completely outside the ambit of the Central Bank.
Ambitus, "circuit," from ambire, "to go around," from amb-, "about, around" + ire, "to go."
PLAINTIVE
Expressive of sorrow.
his plight was becoming desperate and his letters increasingly plaintive.
the night birds have begun
their plaintive chorus.
... the plaintive cries of loneliness of the immigrant.
OFplainte, complaint, from Latin planctus, past participle of plangere, to strike (one's breast), to lament.
PLANGENT
mournful; sad.
his letters were increasingly plaintive.
the night birds have begun
their plaintive chorus.
... the plaintive cries of loneliness of the immigrant.
Planctus, past participle of plangere, "to strike (one's breast), to lament."
PETTIFOGGER
The nitpickers, the whiners, the pettifoggers are
everywhere.
PERVIVACIOUS
pertinacious:
1. Holding or adhering obstinately to any opinion, purpose, or design.
2. Stubbornly or perversely persistent.
PECCANT
PECCANT
1. Sinning; guilty of transgression.
2. Violating a rule or a principle.
There must be redemption even for a formerly peccant father.
The peccant fellow is Cliff, who cheats, or tries to cheat, on his wife.
...eyewitnesses to support a criminal case against the peccant clergymen.
Present participle of peccare, "to sin."
PARSE
The American Constitution, for example, says that "Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech."...once we parse notions like "abridging" and "the freedom of speech," perhaps we will decide cases on the basis of an inquiry into two, three, or more relevant considerations.
MISPRISION
MISPRISION
MISPRISION OF FELONY
misprision of a felony
the crime of concealing another's felony (serious crime) from law enforcement officers.
FELONY
FELONY
1) a crime sufficiently serious to be punishable by death or a term in state or federal prison, as distinguished from a MISDIMEANOR which is only punishable by confinement to county or local jail and/or a fine. 2) a crime carrying a minimum term of one year or more in state prison, since a year or less can be served in county jail. However, a sentence upon conviction for a felony may sometimes be less than one year at the discretion of the judge and within limits set by statute.
TROT
tort
Fr, "wrong," a civil wrong or wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury occurs. Torts include negligence & intentional wrongs which result in harm. Tort law is one of the major areas of law (along with contract, real property and criminal law) and results in more civil litigation than any other category. Some intentional torts may also be crimes, such as assault, battery, wrongful death, fraud, conversion (a euphemism for theft) and trespass on property and form the basis for a lawsuit for damages by the injured party. Defamation, including intentionally telling harmful untruths about another-either by print or broadcast (libel) or orally (slander)-is a tort and used to be a crime as well.
SUBORNATION
subornation of perjury
n. the crime of encouraging, inducing or assisting another in the commission of perjury, which is knowingly telling an untruth under oath. Example: lawyer Frank Foghorn is interviewing a witness in an accident case who tells Foghorn that Foghorn's client was jaywalking outside the crosswalk when struck by the defendant's car. Foghorn tells the witness to help his client by saying the accident occurred in the crosswalk and the witness so testifies in court. Foghorn is guilty of subornation of the witness's perjury.
FIDUCIARY
fiduciary relationship
n. where one person places complete confidence in another in regard to a particular transaction or one's general affairs or business. The relationship is not necessarily formally or legally established as in a declaration of trust, but can be one of moral or personal responsibility, due to the superior knowledge and training of the fiduciary as compared to the one whose affairs the fiduciary is handling.
GRAND JURY
Grand Jury
A jury in each county or federal court district which serves for a term of a year and is usually selected from a list of nominees offered by the judges in the county or district. The traditional 23 members may be appointed or have their names drawn from those nominated. A Grand Jury has two responsibilities 1) to hear evidence of criminal accusations in possible felonies (major crimes) presented by the District Attorney and decide whether the accused should be indicted and tried for a crime. Since many felony charges are filed by the District Attorney in a municipal or other lower court which holds a preliminary hearing to determine if there is just cause for trial instead of having the Grand Jury hear the matter, this function is of minor importance in many jurisdictions. 2) to hear evidence of potential public wrong-doing by city and county officials, including acts which may not be crimes but are imprudent, ineffective or inefficient, and make recommendations to the county and cities involved. Example: a Grand Jury may recommend that a new jail is needed, find that there is evidence of favoritism in the sheriff's office, that some city council members are profiting by overlooking drug dealing by city staffers, or that judges are not carrying a full load of cases to be tried.
ESSENTIALISM
"Essentialism and the Grounding of Rights"
Controversy surrounds essentialism and the notion of natural kinds. Defenses of human rights and related notions of dignity and justice tend to have essentialism as a silent premise.
GERMLINE
Gametes derived from primordial germ cells, enter the gonads during development. The primordial germ cells may arise at some
distance from the presumptive gonads, to which they migrate and become established. The formation of the germ line is dependent upon the presence of the *germ plasm*, which is a cytoplasmic component that
causes these cells to become distinct from the *somatic cells*. When the primordial germ cells become established in the gonad, they become stem
cells that divide by mitosis to produce the supply of gametes that the organism requires for reproduction. When they enter the gonads, the germ cells may associate with specific somatic cells that support, nurture and protect them. In the female, these somatic cells are called
*follicle cells*. Various names are applied to the comparable somatic cells in the male gonad. In mammals, they are called *Sertoli cells*.
NEOCONS
The roots of neoconservatism lie in a group of largely Jewish intellectuals who attended City College of New York (C.C.N.Y.) in the
mid- to late 1930's and early 1940's, a group that included Irving Kristol, Daniel Bell, Irving Howe, Nathan Glazer and, a bit later, Daniel Patrick Moynihan The story of this group has been told in a number of places, most notably in a documentary film by Joseph Dorman called "Arguing the World." The most important inheritance from the C.C.N.Y. group was an idealistic belief in social progress and the universality of rights, coupled with intense anti-Communism.
OUGHT FROM IS
The view that an "ought" cannot be derived from an "is" was first put forward by David Hume and is known as Hume's law. Another version of it was formulated by the 20th century Cambridge philosopher G. E. Moore. The claim has been challenged by many philosophers on the grounds that moral deliberation cannot work in a factual vacuum.
PROBABILITY VS NATURAL FREQUENCY
PROBABILITY VS NATURAL FREQUENCY
IRRUPT
irrupt, intransitive verb:
1. To burst in forcibly or suddenly; to intrude.
What sounds are these that sting as they caress, that irrupt into my soul and twine about my heart? --Nikolai Gogol, Dead Souls
Irrumpere, from ir-, in-, "in" + rumpere, "to break."
HIDEBOUND
HIDEBOUND
bigoted, narrow-minded.
FETTER
FETTER
INKHORN
De Cons Phil...was translated ... by Elizabeth I into florid, inkhorn language.
LUDIC
PLAYFUL
...with an entirely recognizable literary
manner, fizzy and playful (I am trying to avoid the words
"pyrotechnic" and "ludic").
LIMINAL

LAWLESS

DEPRAVED
liminal, lawless and depraved.
PERVICACIOUS
obstinate.
One of the most pervicacious young creatures that ever was heard of. (Clarissa).
The language of the bureaucrats and administrators must needs be recognized as an outgrowth of legal parlance. There is no other way to explain its pervading, pervicacious and pernicious meanderings.
pervicac-, "stubborn, headstrong," from root pervic- of pervincere, to carry ones point, maintain ones opinion, per-, "through, thoroughly" + vincere, "to conquer, prevail against" + the suffix -ious, characterized by, full of.
TORRID
torrid
Parched with the heat of the sun; intensely hot.
Scorching; burning: the torrid noonday sun.
Passionate; ardent: a torrid love scene.
Hurried; rapid: set a torrid pace; torrid economic growth.
Latin torridus, from torrēre, to parch. torridity or torridness.
torridly adv.
THE AMYLOID FOLD
The amyloid fold is characterized by a cross-beta sheet quaternary structure; that is, a monomeric unit contributes a beta strand to a beta sheet, which spans across more than one molecule.
RECITATIVO
The "recitativo" style of singing was not abandoned completely in pop culture: in fact raps, when using the ancient musical terminology, could be correctly described as "recitativo accompagnato".
RECITATIVO
Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas is described as a melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words.
Recitative is distinguished from more florid and melismatic arias, as the rhythms and melodic contours of recitative often approximate to those of normal speech, often including repeating pitches. It is used where dialogue or monologue is sung in between the arias, choruses or other numbers, and is intended to help move the story along quickly.
RECITATIVE

recitativo secco
recitativo accompagnato
Recitative often has very simple accompaniment, sometimes nothing more than a continuo instrument (for example, a single harpsichord) playing occasional chords. The terms recitativo secco and recitativo accompagnato (or recitativo stromentato) are sometimes used to distinguish recitative accompanied only by continuo and recitative accompanied by the orchestra.
LOGORRHEA
Logorrhea is derived from Greek logos, "word" + rhein, "to
flow."
PASCERE
pascere, to feed.
Pastus, past participle of pascere.
RE-
pref.
RE-
pref.
1. Again; anew: rebreathing.
2. Backward; back: recurvation.
ATARAXY
at·a·rax·ia
Variant: or at·a·raxy
plural -rax·ias or -rax·ies
: calmness untroubled by mental or emotional disquiet
CLIENTISM
“People are deployed to do jobs that they are not fit to do, and the ‘consensus' means a loyalty to people who do not work, or who are not effective...clientism hinders rational distribution of resources.”
Africa's hegemon
Africa's hegemon
ACCIDENCE
Accidence and substance
MACHINATIONS
Hopes of a new government now depend more on the opaque machinations of Shia politics than on America and Britain.
SHAMBOLIC
Despite its title, the book says little, and almost nothing new, about America's shambolic occupation.
RIVERINE
THE Admiral is a riverboat casino on the waterways of Missouri, where riverine gambling was legalised in May 1994.
DILATORY
dilatory
NESTED RELATIONSHIPS
The brain is not a computer, but a memory system that stores experiences in a way that reflects the true structure of the world, remembering sequences of events and their nested relationships and making predictions based on those memories. It is this memory-prediction system that forms the basis of intelligence, perception, creativity, and even consciousness.
NESTED
nested class

A nested class is a class that is a member of another class. This term should not be confused with composition, which refers to the act of creating classes with member objects. Nesting classes refers to the act of creating classes with member classes.
GERMLINE
The germline of a mature or developing individual is the line of germ cells that have genetic material that may be passed to a child.
For example, sex cells, such as the sperm or the egg, are part of the germline.
But not just the sex cells; Because the sex cells got their genetic material from still other cells. The cells that produced sperm cells, and the cells that produced ovum, (called gametocytes,) are also part of the germline. And the cells that produced those cells, the gametogonia, are part of the germline- all the way back up to the zygote, the first cell that the individual came from.
No cell in your liver will ever make it to your children. Cells that are not part of the germline are called SOMATIC cells.
If there is a mutation or other genetic change in the germline, then the change can be passed to offspring. But if a change happens in a non-germline cell, the change can't be passed to offspring.
ESCULENT
ESCULENT

edible.
ENFILADE
ENFILADE
ENCLAVE
ENCLAVE
EXCLAVE
EXCLAVE
FECULENT
FECULENT
FUGACIOUS
FUGACIOUS
GNOMIC
GNOMIC
VARIABLE REGION
VARIABLE REGION
The portion of the amino terminal of an Ig's heavy and light chains having a variable amino acid sequence.
EJACULATORY

his joy is ejaculatory.
His joy at America's meaner weapons is ejaculatory, and, in the slaughter of thousands of Taliban recruits, unsavoury.
STROPHE
You can take a Russian
teenager and say recite some poetry, and they will give you strophes of Pushkin. The only equivalent for an American under a certain age is literally Dr. Seuss or theme songs.
CADENCES
Rather, he argues, the fault lies with the collapse of the distinction
between the written and the oral. Where formal, well-honed English was
once de rigueur in public life, he argues, it has all but disappeared,
supplanted by the indifferent cadences of speech and ultimately
impairing our ability to think.
ANEL
ELAN
GLOTTOCHRONOLOGY
Glottochronology was invented by the linguist Morris Swadesh in 1952. It
is based on the compiling of a core list of 100 or 200 words that
Swadesh believed were particularly resistant to change. Languages could
then be compared on the basis of how many cognate words on a Swadesh
list they shared in common.

Cognates are verbal cousins, like the Greek podos and the English foot,
both descended from a common ancestor. The more cognates two languages
share, the more recently they split apart. Swadesh and others then tried
to quantify the method, deriving the date that two languages split from
their percentage of shared cognates.
COGNATE
Cognates are verbal cousins, like the Greek podos and the English foot, both descended from a common ancestor. The more cognates two languages
share, the more recently they split apart. Swadesh and others then tried to quantify the method, deriving the date that two languages split from
their percentage of shared cognates.
TONE
TONE
tones that change the meaning of words, which are common in Indonesian but do not exist in European languages—than to realise that elements which are taken for granted in a linguist's native language may be absent from
another.
NOUN CASES
English...until well into the 20th century was thought as having six different noun
cases, because Latin has six. (A noun case is how that noun's grammatical use is distinguished, for example as a subject or as an object.) Only relatively recently did grammarians begin a debate over noun cases in English. Some now contend that it does not have noun cases at all, others that it has two (one for the possessive, the other for everything else) while still others maintain that there are three or four cases. These would include the nominative (for the subject of a sentence), the accusative (for its object) and the genitive (to indicate
possession).
WHORFF HYPOTHESIS
correlations between the way concepts are expressed in languages and how native speakers of these languages think.
This is a test of a hypothesis first made by Benjamin Lee Whorf, an early 20th-century American linguist, that the structure of language affects the way people think. Though Whorf's hypothesis fell into
disfavour half a century ago, it is now undergoing something of a revival.
LIBERTARIAN ZEITGEIST
Friedman and the Chicago School were the economic fathers of the Thatcher and Reagan era and Nozick was their philosophical counterpart. The Guardian claimed that he had set the tone for the Reagan-Thatcher era, whilst the Telegraph also linked him to these governments, proclaiming that Nozick embodied the new libertarian zeitgeist which... ushered in the era of Reagan and Bush, père et fils.
NATURAL FREQUENCY
a cancer screening test information in a probability format (giving percentages for population base rate, test sensitivity, and false-positive rates) and in a natural frequency format ("30 out of every 10 000 people have colorectal cancer. Of these, 15 will have positive haemoccult tests. Of the remaining 9970 patients without colorectal cancer, 300 will still test positive. How many of those who test positive actually have colorectal cancer?").
RUEFUL
RUEFUL

ruefully self-aware
BRAVURA
Mr. Bocca was gradually easing out of certain bravura roles while he could still dance them at top form.
BRAVURA:
1. Music. a florid passage or piece requiring great skill and spirit in the performer.
2. a display of daring; brilliant performance.
–adj.
3. Music. spirited; florid; brilliant (applied chiefly to vocal but occasionally to instrumental compositions).
It: spirit, dash. See BRAVE, -URE.
FIREBRAND
vs
firebrands v. deadwood trope
TART
TART
SPECIAL PLEADING
They suggest that there is something different about the current debate—something that is about precision,semantics, or sleight of hand, depending on your viewpoint. The authors argue that SSRIs elicit "dependency," as evidenced^ by withdrawal phenomena, but that this has been obfuscated by terminology. If feeling worse or experiencing adverse reactions when stopping a drug constitutes dependence, then SSRIs produce it. However, an alternative vocabulary describes such withdrawal phenomena (note the connotation of addiction) as "discontinuation" reactions, a softer sounding term. Furthermore, classically dependence requires euphoria and tolerance. SSRIs evoke neither of these phenomena, but the authors see this as special pleading.
DISJUNCTION
DISJUNCTION
1. the act of disjoining or the state of being disjoined: a disjunction between thought and action.
serving or tending to disjoin; separating; dividing; distinguishing.
syntactically setting two or more expressions in opposition
to each other, as "but" in
poor but happy, or expressing an alternative, as "or" in
this or that.
TERM OF ART
But in Durban, "full'' is a term of art. ie. means otherwise.
"You may think" is a legal term of art in Britain. When uttered by a judge it means the jury must think that way.
LIGHTNING ROD
LIGHTNING ROD
ANTINOMALIST
ANTINOMALIST
Paul carefully protects his message from both legalistic (relying on the law for God's acceptance) and antinomalist (licentious) misinterpretations. To combat legalism, he urges his readers to stand firm in their freedom from the written code . To combat antinomalism, he tells them not to use that freedom as a license for sin, but for loving service that fulfills the entire law through love.
ANTINOMIAN
ANTINOMIAN
flies
verisimilitude
geysering fireplug
shticky bluster
nanotiming —
trolled
When the show opens ...the boat will float down from the flies on chains;
still, for verisimilitude, you could do worse than rehearse the scene in the basement at Lincoln Center, so deep underground it might
pass for Hades.
he was a different man entirely from that geysering fireplug Max
Bialystock, whom he famously played in "The Producers" — Lane has shed Bialystock's shticky bluster in favor of something subtler and more tentative.
flubbing the occasional line
his trademark nanotiming —
he trolled the aisles of the Drama Book Shop
At one point, they thought that they had ... on someone running.
-- At one point, they thought that they had a bead on someone running back and forth between the two buildings.
HEWING
hewing so cautiously to what it knows best
MANNERED
He is not the warmest of men. He can be mannered and smug.
Africa's hegemon
Africa's hegemon
Rule by one state in a confederacy.
FUSTIAN
FUSTIAN
CHAMBERING
chambering, lightnes, and wanton beha-uiour in priuate places
1602
climactericall
climactericall, (g) that which ariseth by de-grees, as the sixtie third yeere is climac- tericall of the seauentie. 1604
CONCINNATE
concinnate, made fit, finely apparelled 1604
CONFOUND
confound, ouerthrow, destroy, mingle to- gether, or disorder. 1604.
cordiall
cordiall, comforting the hart.
1604
ROBERT CAWDREY
ROBERT CAWDREY'S
A TABLE ALPHABETICAL (1604)
TROPE
that words translated, from one signifi-cation to another, (called of the Grecians
Tropes, ) be vsed to beautifie the sentence, as precious stones are set in a ring, to commend the gold.
TRACTABLE
tractable, easie to handle, or easie to be en-
treated 1604
TRANSLATION
translation, altering, chaunging 1604
TRUCULENT
truculent, cruell, or terrible in counte-
nance. 1604
Cawdrey, Robert.
Cawdrey, Robert. (1604). A Table Alphabeticall of Hard Usual English Words.
Legere, et non intelligere, neglegere est.
Legere, et non intelligere, neglegere est.
As good not read, as not to vnderstand.
CYNICAL
cynicall, (g) doggish, froward.1604
DIAPASON
diapason, (g) a concorde in musick of all parts 1604
ETHNICK
ethnick, (g) an heathen, or gentile 1604
CACHOU
cachou

n. lozenge for sweetening the breath.
CANAILLE
CANAILLE

n. the mob; rabble.
caravanserai, caravansary
caravanserai, caravansary

n. Eastern inn, especially for accommodation of caravans.
CATA CHRESIS
catachresis
use of wrong words. catachrestic.
chorale
chorale

n. hymn tune.
CLIMACTERIC
climacteric

a. critical; forming a turning-point or crisis; n. turning-point, especially in life of individual, generally reckoned at 21, 35, 49, 63 and 81 years of age; 'change of life', menopause. grand climacteric, 63rd or 81st year of life. climacterical, a.
CATCHPOLE
catchpole, catchpoll

n. bumbailiff.
GIBUS
gibus

n. opera hat.
RIALG
GLAIR
n. white of egg; any similar substance; v.t. cover with glair. glaireous, a.
GLOMERULE
glomerule

n. compactly clustered flower-head. glomerulate, a.
GLYPH
glyph
n. groove; ancient wall carving. glyphic, a. pertaining to sculpture.
GYMNOSOPHIST
gymnosophist
n. ancient Indian ascetic philosopher; nudist. gymnosophy, n.
MESALLIANCE
mésalliance

n. mistaken marriage; marriage into lower social class.
MACHTPOLITIK
Machtpolitik

n. 'power politics'.
BUMBAILIFF
bumbailiff
server of writs, maker of arrests, etc., 1601, from bum "arse," because he was always felt to be close behind.
Antilapsarianism
Antilapsarianism is the denial of the Jewish or Christian doctrine of the fall of humanity from his perfect physical and moral state in the Garden of Eden.
A Sierpinski triangle
A Sierpinski triangle —a confined recursion of triangles to form a geometric lattice.
the set of all true "reachable" propositions in an axiomatic system.
Another interesting example is the set of all true "reachable" propositions in an axiomatic system.

* if a proposition is an axiom, it is a true reachable proposition.
* if a proposition can be obtained from true reachable propositions by means of inference rules, it is a true reachable proposition.
* The set of true reachable propositions is the smallest set of reachable propositions satisfying these conditions.