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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the vector for most arboviruses?
Arthropod vectors
What are the three major families of arboviruses?
1. Togaviridae
2. Flaviviridae
3. Bunyaviridae
What is the most common human disease caused by arbovirus in the United States?
What animal tends to transmit the virus to arthopods that end up infecting humans?
What is the most common procedure used to diagnose arbovirus infection?
Lumbar puncture looking for IgM antibodies specific for arboviri.
What prevention measures are used in combating arbovirus?
1. Vectors avoidance
2. Vector elimination
What arboviri have available vaccines?
1. Yellow fever
2. Japanese B encephalitis
What are the four cardinal manifestations of encephalitis?
1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Altered mental status
4. Focal neurological signs
Alpha virus is part of what family of viruses?
Do alphaviruses have surface glycoproteins?
Yes they have 2-3.
What kind of genome does alphavirus have?
Non-segmeneted (+) ssRNA
What are three alpha viruses endemic to the US?
1. EEE
2. WEE
3. Venezuelan EE
How long is EEE's incubation peroid? What is its mortality rate?
1. 1 Week
2. 30% to 40%
How does the patient present with EEE?
Symptoms of encephalitis
What are two poor prognostic factors of EEE?
1. High WBC in CSF
2. Hyponaturemia
What is the cause of hyponaturemia in EEE?
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
What is common among 30% of survivors of EEE?
Sequelae of CNS symptoms
What is flavivirus' genome?
Non-segmented (+) ssRNA
What is the major antigen used in testing for flavivirus infection?
E glycoprotein (hemagglutinin)
What are the four classes of flaviviruses?
1. Misquito-borne encephalitis
2. Dengue
3. Yellow fever
4. Tick borne encephalitis
What is special about transmission of flavivirus in ticks?
They exhibit transovarial transmission.
Before WNV, what was the major cause of viral encephalitis in the US?
St. Louis Encephalitis
How can you tell the difference between SLE and WNV?
In SLE the birds do not die while they do die in WNV.
What is the species of the vector in SLE?
Culex mosquito.
What is the incubation time in SLE?
1-2 weeks
What are the three cardinal syndromes of SLE?
1. Fever, stiff neck and headaches
2. Aseptic meningitis
3. Overt encephlitis
What is the mortality of SLE?
What is the incubation period in WNV?
3-14 days
Most cases of WNV are _________?
Asymptomatic - 80%
What are the CBC, Hct, and WBCs like in WNV?
What levels are high in WNV?
IgM levels in CSF
What is the best method to prevent WNV?
Don't raise misquitos.
What is the mortality rate of Japanese B Encephalitis?
20% to 50%
What should be considered if you are going to travel into the countryside of Japan?
Vaccine to Japanese B Encephalitis
How many cases of Dengue are seen worldwide?
100 million
What is the principal vector of Dengue? An alternative vector?
1. Aedes aegypti
2. Aedes albopictus
How many serotypes does Dengue have and what problem does this present?
1. 4
2. With multiple serotypes you increase the risk of Dengue Shock Syndrome.
What is another name for Dengue fever?
Break-bone fever - associated with painful arthralgias.
What is important about the temporal presentation of dengue?
It is biphasic.
What is one of the classic signs of dengue?
Macular rash - scarlotina
What is a consequence of dengue shock syndrome?
Increased hematocrit
What is the primary host in Dengue?
What are the two cycles of yellow fever?
Urban - Vector: Aeges aegypti; Host: Humans

Jungle - Vector: mosquitos; Host: Monkeys
How long is the incubation period for YF?
Less than a week
What are two tell tale signs of YF?
1. Jaundice
2. Black vomit
What is the classical association with YF?
Faget's sign - bradycardia with a high fever
How do you diagnose YF? What do you see?
Liver biopsy - councilman bodies
What disease are councilman bodies seen in?
Yellow fever
What is the only tick-born flavivirus disease seen in the US?
What is special about the Bunyavirudea?
Has segmented (-) ssRNA
What is the most common cause of endemic arbovirus infection?
LaCrosse encephalitis
What is the vector in Colorado Tick Fever?
Dermancentor andersoni