Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how should blood be preserved after collection
refridgerated. - brought to room temperature before analysis and gently remixed.
what is the differance between plasma and serum
plasma does not contain fibrin and does not clot in an edta tube, serum is collected in a serum seprator and contains fibrin
What is sreum, how is it stored?
the fluid squeezed out of a blood clot. it can be refridgerated or frozen
What can long centrifugation times result?
hemolysis of cells.
why is heparin the prefered anticoagulant? and how does it work?
it causes less interferance with chemical assays. inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
What is the best anticoagulant for hematologic studies but not recommended for chemical assays? and how does it work?
EDTA(ethylenediaminetraacetic acid). insoluble complex with calcium, which is needed for clot formation.
what is a disadvantage of using Oxolates?
they bind to certain metallic ions, which can alter enzyme activity.
why would you need to collect more blood from a dehydrated animal for a sample?
because a dehydrated animal yeilds a smaller ratio of fluid to cells.
Give three reasons why you might need extra samples?
instrument failure
sample dilution
technician error
need to send sample to lab
what is hemolysis and what are some potential causes?
hemolysis is the destruction of rbc's which releases hemoglobin. potential causes are blood drawn into moist syringe, blood sample forced through small gauge syringe, sample that is mixed too vigorously
what effect can hemolysis have on the sample?
it can interfere with results.
what is albumin. What do decreased albumin levels indicate?
serum protein, binds calcium, transports fatty acids. malnutrition, malabsorbtion, enteritis, glomularnephritis
what do decreased Bicarbonates indicate
what does increased bilirubin indicate?
liver disease, hemolytic disease ( anemia)
what does BUN stand for and What does an increased bun indicate?
Blood Urea Nitrogen level. increased indicates: Azotemia, Uremia
What are some potential causes of increased BUN
Pre renal: Heart disease, hypoadrenocortiicism,
Post renal: Uretral obstruction, Bladder rupture, Urethral laceration
renal causes: Glomular, tubular, or intersitial disease, nonfunctional nephrons. (70%)
Why would Bun levels decrease?
starvation or chronic liver disease.
When do high levels of creatinine appear in the blood? and where is creatine produced?
when 75% of the kidney becomes non functional. creatinine is a product of muscle metabolisim.
what does a creatinin BUN ratio that is higher than 20:1 indicate. A low ratio?
azotemia, liver failure
what do increased globulin levels indicate?
chronic inflamation
what do increased glucose levels indicate?
diabetes, stressed animals also have a higher glucose level.
What does plasma protein indicate?
level of dehydration. a decrease in TP indicates glomular disease, liver disease, starvation, malabsobtion
What is ALT and what does an increased ALT indicate?
Alanine transaminase. Hepatocyte damage, muscle damage, hemolysis
What does AST stand for and what do high levels indicate?
Aspartate transaminase. hepatocyte damage, musle damage, hemolysis
Lactate dehydrogenase increased levels indicate?
hepatocyte damage, muslce damage hemolysis
increased Alkaline phosphate indicates?
colostral ALP, Hepatocyte damage, biliary damage, osteoblast damage
Gama Glutarytransferase (GGT) indicates?
hepatocyte damage
Increased levels of Creatine Kinase?
Damage muscle fibers, sign of necrosis of muscle cells
Amylase increase indicates?
pancreatic acinar cell damage, acute pancreatitis
lipage increase?
Acute pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasia, decreased renal activity/excreation