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75 Cards in this Set

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What are the two major functions played by erythrocytes?
1) carry hemoglobin to body tissues
2) carry oxygen to body tissues
what does PCV and TP stand for? What are these lab procedures used for?
PCV=packed cell volume
tells you % of RBCs in circulating blood
TP= total protein
measures trace proteins in WBCs and platelets
What do the following RBC indices stand for? MCV and MCHC
MCV= mean corpscular volume
MCHC= mean corpscular hemoglobin concentration
Why are MCV and MCHC important to evaluate?
RBC indices are important to evaluate bc it tells you how much and the size of hempglobin levels in the blood which is important to differentiating between anemias
Two advantages for using veterinary reference laboratories?
1) wide range of tests not found in house
2) economical for some tests
some lab tests are more economic to run in house. Name 4.
1)CBC
2)urinalysis
3)blood chemistry
4)fecals
What is a blind basis?
No comparison to normal or expectations of changes that would lead to bias in reporting results
what is poikilocytosis?
abnormally shaped RBCs
What is anisocytosis?
variation in size of RBCs
two examples of morphological abnormalities seen in WBCs
vacuoles
foaminess
What are the three leukocytes that make make up the group of granulocytes?
1)basophil
2)eosinophil
3) neutrophil
How do you determine the absolute count of neutrophils following a differential WBC count?
multiplying % of neutrophils by total WBC count
Lymphocytes of the primary lymphoid organs include?
bone marrow
thymus
Lymphocytes of the secondary lymphoid organs inculde?
lymph nodes
spleen
bronchus-associated lymph tissue
Functions of an eosinophil
control of parasitic infections
modulation of hypersensitivity reactions
what are the vet techs responsibilities?
collect blood samples
prepare lab specimens
examine the samples after collection
report results
What are the most common cells found in the blood
Erythrocytes
What leukocyte is the presursor of marcophages
monocytes
what is the importance of lab tests
help tract course of a disease
help establish a diagnosis
help identify patients risks before general anesthesia
What is predominately circulating granulocyte?
Neutrophil
Heterophils are reptiles, avians and some small mammal species version of what kind of WBC
Neutrophils
What are the classes of immunoglobulins?
IgG
IgA
IgM
IgE
What are some examples of immunologic lab tests?
ELISA
latex agglutination
Coomb's
Antibody titer
Morphology alterations of toxic neutrophiils include
foaminess
vacuoles
cytoplasmic basophilla
Which leukocyte is the main producer of immunoglobulins?
B lymphocytes
what is the life span of a RBC
2-5 months
what is rouleau formation?
arrangement of RBC in a stack or column
what is agglutination?
clumping of cells
What is polychromasia?
RBCs with many colors
What is an acanthocyte?
RBC with spiny projections of varying lengths distributed irregularly over its surface
what is an echinocyte?
RBC with multiple small projections evenly spaced out over its surface
What makes up the buffy coat?
WBC and platelets
what are 3 common measurements of RBCs
PCV
hemoglobin concetration
RBC count
what are the 6 different kinds of WBCs?
1) neutrophil
2)eosinophil
3)monocyte
4)lymphocyte
5)basophils
6)band cell
what is a leukogram
process of making a blood smear and counting the WBCs
Penia
decrease # of cells
Cytosis or Philia
increase # of cells
Left shift
incerease # of immature neutrophils in the blood
Leukemia
neoplastic cells in the blood or bone marrow
Leukemoid response
marked leukocytosis and is usually the result of inflammation or disease
functions of neutrophils
seek out
ingest
kill
and digest invading microorganisms
Functions of eosinophils
modulation of hypersensitivity reactions and control parasitic infections
Functions of macrophages
phagocytosis
antigen processing
release inflammatory mediator cells that recruit Neutros, monos, and lymphos
Where are monocytes found?
the peripheral blood
What is nuclear hyposegmentation?
congenital defect where all granulated nuclei are hyposegmented
what causes toxic neutrophils?
inflammation
infection
drug toxicity
What are smudge cells?
dying WBCs
What is another name for the immunocytic immune system?
specific immune system
what makes up the specific immune system?
lymphocytes
effector cells
memory cells
what are effector cells?
cells that present antigens to marcrphages to kill infections
what are memory cells?
cells that respond to antigens that the body has already been exposed to
what are the two classes of effector cells?
T-cell lymphocytes
B-cell lymphocytes
what are T- cell lymphocytes?
cells that release lymphkines and play a major roll in cell-mediated immunity
what are B-cell lymphocytes?
produce immunoglobulins
constitute humoral immune system
what is the humoral immune system responsible for?
producing lymphocytes in the bone marrow
what is the first antibody to appear?
IgM
what does IgE do?
mediates hypersensitivity reactions found in allergic and parasitized patients
How do animals receive passive immunity?
maternal antibodies
by receiving preformed antibodies by injection
how do animals become resistant to diseases?
developing antibodies after having the disesase
being vaccinated
what is blast transformation?
when lymphocytes are are stimulated by antigens
What are characteristics of reactive lymphocytes?
increased basophilia and abundant cytoplasm
what is a leukon?
all leukocytes in the animal
what is leukopoises?
making of WBCs
what are stem cells
cells that can differeniate into any type of cell and that are capable of self renewal
what are platelets most important role?
hemostasis
what % of bleeding disorders in dogs and cats result from platelet function abnormalities?
90%
what are platelets
thrombocytes are pieces of cytoplasm of megakarocytes
what removes dead platelets?
monocyte/macrophage continuum
What is the primary function in hemostasis?
froming primary platelet plug
serving as a scaffold for fibrin disposition
influencing a clot retraction
what is platelet activation?
platelet adherence to damaged vessels walls
change shape to increase surface area
platelet to platelet interation to form plug
what is Disseminated Intravascular caoagulation (DIC)
wxcessive stimulation of the coagulation cascade that leads to peripheral consumption of platelets
what animal has the lowest platelet concentration?
horses
what is a reticulocyte?
immature RBC that contains organelles (ribosomes)
what is the aggregate form of reticulocytes?
large clumps of reticulum
what is the punctate form of reticulocytes (unique to cats)
isolated clusters