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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the study of looking at cells from living patients?
What is the study of looking at diseases and tumors of the blood and lymphatic systems?
Describe the layers of a blood vessel.
1- intima
2- internal elastic lamina
3- media
4- external elastic lamina
The media is comprised of ____.
smooth muscle
The inner aspect of the media gets its nutrients by _____.
by direct diffusion by the endothelium.
The outer aspect of the media gets it nutrients by ___?
the small blood vessels in the adventitia.
Describe 4 functions of the endothelium.
1- provides a non-thrombogenic surface
2- allows for diffusion of O2 and nutrients
3-has a synthetic and metabolic role
4- contains Weible-Palade bodies (vWF)
What are 3 functions of the smooth muscle in the blood vessel?
1- controls vasoconstriction and dilation.
2- produces the growth factors and cytokines.
3- responds to injury
What is the response to endothelial injury?
SMC proliferation and migration into the intima.
What contributes to the intimal thickening.
1- the proliferation of SMC
2- the SMC secretes a matrix material.
____ is a disease that effects the small vessels. It is very important in the kidneys.
Arteriosclerosis is associated with ____?
_____ is medial calcificaton of the vessels?
Monckeberg medial sclerosis (MMS)
T or F: MMS does NOT cause lumenal narrowing.
T: does NOT, therefore it is not a problem clinically
T or F: Atherosclerosis contributes to over half of deaths in western society.
Name 5 arteries most affected in atherosclerosis.
1- aorta
2- carotid
Atherosclerosis is the result of ____ to the endothelium.
The first visible sign of Atherosclerosis?
the fatty streak
T or F: even babies over 1 year can have fatty streaks.
What is the earliest true lesion of atheroscerosis?
fibrous plaque
The fibrous plaque will progress to a ___?
complicated plaque
Describe a complicatied plaque.
the surface has been disrupted. there is no endothelium preventing thrombosis. it could rupture.
With plaque rupture you may get:
thrombosis, hemorrhage, weakening of vessel, calcifications
What are 3 sources of endothelial injury.
1- hyperlipidemia
2- hypertension
3- smoking (most common cause)
What other types of cell (other than SMC) migrates into the intima?
macrophages and inflammatory cells.
You can see a fatty streak b/c ___ accumulate.
What substance is also laid down (by the SMC) in the intima during atherosclerosis?
What are the non-modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis?
2- being male
3- genetics
What are the modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis?
1- hyperlipidemia
2- hypercholesterolemia
3- hypertension
4- smoking
5- diabetes (b/c it induces hypercholesterolemia)
Risk factors in general are _____?
additive. 2 risk factors = 4 times the risk
Hypertension is defined as:
systolic >140 and diastolic >90
HTN is an important risk factor for __ and __?
coronary heart disease and CVA
____ can cause HTN.
renal disease
Desribe malignant HTN.
1-rapidly progressing htn.
2- diastolic > 120
3- systolic >200

(Very hard to control)
The equation for blood pressure is ____?
BP = CO x Peripheral resistance
What major organ regulates blood pressure?
the kidney
angiotensin II causes ____ in attempt to elevate Blood pressure.
____ causes Na reabsorption which leads to increases blood pressure.
Name 2 types of arteriosclerosis.
1- hyaline art.
2- hyperplastic art.
The typical type of arteriosclerosis in repsonse to injury is ___?
hyperplastic arteriosclerosis.
Desribe the cyclical nature of arteriosclerosis.
HTN causes vascular damage to the arteriole feeding the glomerulus. This results i narrowing of the lumen--which will decrease the amount of bllod flow through the glomerulus. The glomerulus thus elevates the blood pressure created more damage = cycle.
____ is a dilatation of a blood vessel or heart wall.
The major cause of AAA is _____?
cystic medial degeneration can cause -____?
an aortic aneurysm
cystic medial degeneration is seen in ____ syndrome.
Cystic medial degeneration is a change in ____?
the elastic walls of the arteries.
T or F: Infections like Salmonella can cause aortic aneurysms.
True, syphilis used to be a major cause as well
Trauma can cause ___ and ____formation.
aneurysm, aortic dissection
Obstructions in blood flow can cause ______ blood flow. This leads to the formation of _____?
turbulent, thrombosis
An embolus can ____ distal arteries and cause _____ of distal tissues.
plug, necrosis
_____ is the most significant event that can happen to an aneurysm.
The risk of rupture is related to the ___ of the aneurysm.
Does an aneurysm of < 4cm pose a high risk?
no, not a high risk. it has a risk of <1% per year.
Aneurysms present as ____?
pulsatile abdominal masses. they expand with each heartbeat.
A dissecting aneurysm is when _____ goes into the ____ of the blood vessel.
blood, media
____ is the major risk factor for dissecting aneuryms.
A dissecting aneuryms presents with ______ pain.
sudden, sharp pain
What medication are patients with dissecting aneuryms treated with to prevent rupture?
Name the order of events during aortic dissection.
1- medial damage
2- intimal tear
3- blood under high pressure dissects down into the media
4- the blood tracks along the lenbth of the aorta.
_____ is inflammation of the vessel walls.
What 3 things classify vasculitis?
1- location
2- size of vessel involved
3- ANCA production (Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody)
What are the 2 forms of ANCA?
1- cANCA (Cytoplasmic)
2- pANCA (periplasmic)
Patients with vasculitis present with ___?
fever, muscle pain, joint pain, feeling tired
_____ AKA "temporal" arteritis is the most common vasculitis.
Giant cell arteritis. (we will see this!!) Most common site is temporal artery.
Giant cell arteritis occurs in _____ people and is caused by ______ of the arterial wall.
old, granulomatous inflammation
Patients with giant cell arteritis will complain with ____.
T or F: giant cell arteritis can cause blindness.
____ is characterized by weakened pulses. This affects the ______ of the aortic arch.
Takayasu Arteritis, branches
Patients with Takayasu arteritis will have ____ pressure in their arms than in the legs.
Takayasu arteritis causes renal ______ and therefore also leads to ______.
narrowing, and HTN
Is Takayasu arteritis more common in males or females?
young females
______ affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs, mouth, and throat.
Wegener's Granulomatosis
Wegener's granulomatosis is a __________ vasculitis.
The triad of Wegener's histological findings are:
1- vasculitis
2-granuloma formation
3-geographic necrosis
______ is positive in 95% of Wegener's patients.
T or F: Wegener's is more common in males.
Patients with Wegener's granulomatosis present with:(4 things)
1- cough and fever
2- chronic sinusitis
3- mucosal ulceration
4-renal disease
Varicose veins are ___ veins of the upper and lower ____.
dilated, legs
T or F: Varicose veins are rarely clinically significant.
Alcoholism leads to ______. (talking about veins in this question.)
esophageal vairces
______ is a clinically significant affect to the deep leg veins.
Patients with thrombophlebitis present with:
1- edema in lower legs
2- heat and tenderness
3-Homan sign (pain with dorsiflexion of foot)
4- **may lead to pulmonary embolism**
_____ patients are at risk for pulmonary embolism.
A lung tumor can cause ________.
inferior vena cave syndrome (compression of IVC)
A thymic tumor could cause ___?
superior vena cava syndrome
Compression of the vena cava causes ____ and _____.
cyanosis, venous dilatation
____ is caused by group A beta-hemolytic strep.
____ is an inflammatory process involving the lymphatics.
______ is a very common vascular neoplasm. It is benign.
_____ is a malignant vascular neoplasm seen in AIDS/ immunocompromized patients.
Kaposi's sarcoma
Karposi's sarcoma is also associated with ____?
Human Herpes virus 8
____ is a maligant vascular neoplasm and can be found in the heart.