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12 Cards in this Set

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During the absorptive state, the primary source of energy for liver cell functions is
A) keto acids derived from amino acids.
B) ketone bodies derived from fatty acids.
C) lactic acid derived from muscle glycogen.
D) glucose derived from intestinal absorption.
E) pyruvate derived from glycolysis.
A) keto acids derived from amino acids.
Insulin:
A) facilitates the transport of glucose into most brain cells.
B) increases blood glucose levels to assure adequate nourishment for the brain.
C) promotes fat storage in the body.
D) secretion is stimulated by a lowered blood glucose level.
E) is described by none of the above.
C) promotes fat storage in the body.
Glucagon:
A) is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets.
B) is secreted in response to a fall in blood glucose.
C) is, in general, antagonistic to all of the other hormones that regulate metabolism.
D) increases fat stores by inhibiting the enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of triacylglycerol.
E) is described by all of the above.
B) is secreted in response to a fall in blood glucose.
Epinephrine and sympathetic nervous stimulation:
A) inhibit insulin secretion.
B) inhibit glucagon secretion.
C) inhibit glycogenolysis in liver and skeletal muscle.
D) A and B.
E) B and C.
A) inhibit insulin secretion.
Which of the following does NOT characterize Type 1 diabetes mellitus?
A) Increased glucose utilization due to excessive glucose availability.
B) Excessive urination due to the osmotic effect of glucose in the urine.
C) Acidosis due to excessive levels of ketones (ketone bodies) in the blood.
D) Dehydration.
E) Hyperglycemia
A) Increased glucose utilization due to excessive glucose availability.
Cortisol:
A) is produced by the adrenal medulla.
B) concentrations in plasma will increase during stress
C) has effects opposite to those of insulin
D) A and B
E) B and C
E) B and C
Which of the following is NOT a target of the hormone insulin?
A) Muscle tissue
B) Brain tissue
C) Adipose tissue (fat)
D) Liver
E) All of the above are targets
B) Brain tissue
Which of the following is NOT a long-term consequence of untreated diabetes?
A) Osteoporosis
B) Heart disease
C) Blindness
D) Kidney disorders leading to kidney failure
E) Peripheral neuropathy
A) Osteoporosis
A human physiology student had learned all about diabetes and its symptoms. She was presented with a case of an obese, middle-aged patient, recently diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. Indicate which of the following symptoms does NOT apply to this patient:
A) Hyperglycemia
B) Glucose present in the urine
C) Insulin resistance
D) Marked plasma insulin deficiency
E) Excessive urine production
D) Marked plasma insulin deficiency
Which of the following are the effects of adrenal medullary hormones (catecholamines):
A) Increased glycogenolysis in the liver
B) Dilation of pulmonary bronchioles
C) Increased heart rate
D) Increased basal metabolic rate
E) All of the above
E) All of the above
Cortisol is a hormone secreted in response to stress. Which of the following best describes a well-known 1) target and 2) action of this hormone respectively.
A) Bone; mineralization
B) Muscle; vasodilation
C) Liver; gluconeogenesis
D) Hypothalamus; TRH release
E) Brain; activation
C) Liver; gluconeogenesis
Which of the following diseases or disorders occur when cortisol is secreted in excess amount?
A) Cushing’s disease
B) Addison’s disease
C) Acromegaly
D) Adrenogenital syndrome
E) None of the above
A) Cushing’s disease