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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Innermost covering or the retina
Sensory Tunic
Has millions of receptor cells
Retina
outlines and gray tones
Rods
color vision; 3 types
Cones
rods and cones respond to light
Photoreceptors
nerve that leaves through the back of the eye; “blind spot”
Optic Nerve
tiny spot with only cones; area of greatest visual activity or sharpest point of vision.
Fovea Centralis
interference with rod function and ability to see at night
Night Blindness
lack of the three types of cones
Total Color Blindness
lack of one type of cone
Partial Color Blindness
Retina, Optic Nerve, Fovea Centralis, Night Blindness,
Total or Partial Color Blindness: All part of the:
Sensory Tunic
-Flexible biconvex crystal structure
-Focuses the light that enters the eye
Lens
Lens: it is transparent and hard jelly texture in:
young people
Lens: it is hard and opaque in;
elderly
vision is hazy; requires surgical removal
Cataracts
The lens divides the eye into two chambers (segments)
1.Anterior Segment (aqueous)
Posterior Segment (vitreous)
Cataracts occur on the:
Lens
clear watery fluid; helps keep eye shape; provides nutrients
Aqueous Humor
Aqueous Segment
Located:
Anterior to the lens
Vitreous Segment
Located:
Posterior to the lens
gel-like substance that prevents the eye from collapsing
Vitreous Humor or Body
occurs when aqueous humor is blocked and creates pressure in the eye
Glaucoma
-compresses the retina and optic nerve
-causes pain and possible blindness
Glaucoma
-progresses slowly in older people
-should be tested beginning at the age of 40
Glaucoma
-the bending of light rays
-caused by the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor
Light Refraction
the ability of the eye to focus on close objects
Accommodation
GREATER THE LENS BULGE
the more the light bends
FLATTER THE LENS
the less the light bends
the image formed on the retina as a result of light bending (upside down, reversed, and smaller)
Real Image
“harmonious vision”
Emmetropia
when the eye focuses images correctly on the retina
Emmetropia
Cataracts occur on the:
Lens
clear watery fluid; helps keep eye shape; provides nutrients
Aqueous Humor
Aqueous Segment
Located:
Anterior to the lens
Vitreous Segment
Located:
Posterior to the lens
gel-like substance that prevents the eye from collapsing
Vitreous Humor or Body
occurs when aqueous humor is blocked and creates pressure in the eye
Glaucoma
-compresses the retina and optic nerve
-causes pain and possible blindness
Glaucoma
-progresses slowly in older people
-should be tested beginning at the age of 40
Glaucoma
-the bending of light rays
-caused by the cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor
Light Refraction
the ability of the eye to focus on close objects
Accommodation
GREATER THE LENS BULGE
the more the light bends
FLATTER THE LENS
the less the light bends
the image formed on the retina as a result of light bending (upside down, reversed, and smaller)
Real Image
“harmonious vision”
Emmetropia
when the eye focuses images correctly on the retina
Emmetropia
nearsightedness or short vision
Myopia
eyeball is slightly flattened
Myopia
distant objects are blurry
Myopia
when the parallel light rays from distant objects fail to reach the retina and are then focused in front of the retina
Myopia (horizontal oval eye)
farsightedness or far vision
Hyperopia (verticle oval eye)
when the parallel light rays from distant objects are focused behind the retina
Hyperopia (verticle oval eye)
eyeball is slightly short or “lazy”
Hyperopia (verticle oval eye)
-Extrinsic Muscles
-Convergence
-Photopupillary Reflex
-Accommodation Pupillary Reflex
Eye Reflex
pupil constricts but done to view a close object more acutely
Accommodation Pupillary Reflex
pupils constrict due to bright light
Photopupillary Reflex
when both eyes aim toward the near object
Convergence
control eye movement
Extrinsic Muscles
HEARING and BALANCE=
HEARING and BALANCE
receptors sensitive to mechanical pressures
Mechanoreceptors
Anatomy of the Ear
-Tympanic Cavity=
Middle Ear
-Also called the auricle
-Referred to as the ear; shell-shaped
Pinna
Collects and directs sound waves into the canal for animals
Pinna
-In temporal bone
-Short boney chamber
External Auditory Canal
-Tympanic Membrane
-Ceruminous Glands
Are located in the:
External Auditory Canal
secrete waxy yellow earwax or cerumen in skin walls
Ceruminous Glands
eardrum; where sound waves hit; end of the canal and outer ear
Tympanic Membrane
small air-filled cavity in temporal bone
Middle Ear or Tympanic Cavity
Three small bones of the middle ear=
Malleus (hammer)
Incus (anvil)
Stapes (stirrup)
hammer
Malleus
anvil
Incus
stirrup
Stapes
where the stapes pushes to send vibrations
Oval Window
small opening that leads to the inner ear
Round Window
links middle ear and throat
Auditory Tube
inflamed middle ear due to a sore throat
Ottis Media
tube is placed in the ear to rupture the eardrum and rid it of fluid
Myringotomy
-Auditory Tube
-Round Window
-Oval Window
All are located in the:
Middle Ear or Tympanic Cavity
-maze of bony chambers
-called the “osseous” or “bony chamber”
Inner Ear
Inner Ear has three divisions:
1. Cochlea
2. Vestibule
3. Semicurcular canals
snail shape
Cochlea
between cochlea and semicircular canals
Vestibule
three curls
Semicurcular canals
fluid that fills the entire inner ear
Perilymph
Name 2 Mechanisms of Hearing
1. Organ of Corti
2. Cochlear Nerve
LAST SENSE TO LEAVE OUR AWARENESS
Hearing
where hair cells transmit the impulses
Cochlear Nerve
contains hearing receptors or hair cells
Organ of Corti
equilibrium receptors of the inner ear
Vestibular Apparatus
Vestibular Apparatus has 2 functional arms
Static Equilibrium
Dynamic Equilibrium
Mechanism of Equilibrium
Vestibular Apparatus
deals with the pull of gravity when the body is not moving
Static Equilibrium
deals with head movements when rotating (ex. dancing in circles without falling)
Dynamic Equilibrium
hearing loss of any degree
Deafness
Conduction deafness =
mechanical failure
3 causes of
Conduction deafness
wax build-up
ossicles fused
ruptured eardrum
Deafness that:
-is temporary or permanent
-interferes with sound vibrations =
Conduction deafness
Sensorineural deafness is due to :
a nervous system failure
Deafness caused by listening to loud sounds
Sensorineural deafness
Deafness caused by degeneration or damage to receptor cells
Sensorineural deafness
TASTE and SMELL are
____________ Senses
CHEMICAL
receptors for taste and smell because they respond to chemicals=
Chemoreceptors
Smell and Taste __________ each other.
compliment
-Not as good as other animals
-Some tasters, tea, coffee, wine, etc
= Sense of:
Smell/Taste
receptors for the sense of smell
Olfactory Receptors
found on the roof of each nasal cavity
Olfactory Receptors
Olfactory Receptors in sniffing used to increase
smell
neuron with olfactory hair
Olfactory Receptor Cells
hair picks up odor and sends it to the olfactory nerve
Olfactory Receptor Cells
first cranial nerve
Olfactory Nerve
goes to the brain and interprets the smell
Olfactory Nerve
emotional-visceral brain part
Limbic System
-Smell of pipe tobacco reminds you of your grandfather.
-Smell of cookies baking reminds you of your grandmother.
Are Examples of the:
Limbic System
-Smell of a certain perfume reminds you of your girlfriend.
-Smell of a certain cologne reminds you of your boyfriend.
Are Examples of the:
Limbic System
-loss of chemical senses
-olfactory disorder
Anosmias
usually caused by head injury, cold, smoking
Anosmias
Zinc deficiency
Anosmias
Latin for “Taxare” meaning to touch, estimate, or judge
Taste
considered the most pleasurable of our special senses
Taste
-specific receptors for sense of taste
Taste Bud
projections on the dorsal part of the tongue
Papillae
-found mostly on the tongue but also on the soft palate and inner cheeks
Taste Bud
# of Taste Buds
approximately 10,000
3 types of Papillae
-filiform
-fungiform
-circumvallate
filiform Papillae are
sharp
fungiform Papillae are
round
circumvallate Papillae are
on back of tongue
-supporting taste buds
-dissolve chemicals in saliva
Gustatory Cells
-microvilli
-come out through taste pore
Gustatory Hair
4 Basic Taste Sensations
-Sweet Receptors
-Sour Receptors
-Bitter Receptors
-Salt Receptors
Taste Sensations
Metal ions=
Salt Receptors
Taste Sensations
Alkaloids=
Bitter Receptors
Taste Sensations
Sugar, saccharine,
amino acids=
Sweet Receptors
Taste Sensations
Acidic solution=
Sour Receptors
Taste is stimulated by (3)
AROMAS, TEMPERATURES, and TEXTURES
-cold food is:
mealy:
pasty:
greasy:
bland
apple
avocado
burger
“hot” foods excite _____ receptors
Pain
Special senses are a part of the ______ ______and they develop early in the _______ development.
-nervous system

-embryonic
_______ develop in fourth week as an outgrowth of the brain
EYES
Congenital Eye Problem
Strabismus
“crossed eyes” or unequal eye muscle pull
Strabismus
2 Maternal(mother)Infections that can cuase problems with a fetus
1.Rubella (Meassles)
2.Gonorrhea
results in blindness or cataracts
Rubella (Meassles)
results in ophthalmia neonatorum, which is a conjunctivitis; red and swollen; low silver nitrate; antibiotic
Gonorrhea
the only special sense not fully functional when born
Vision
1. the eyeball grows until the age of:
2. the lens grows:
1. 8 or 9yrs old
2. throughout life
At birth, only _____ _____ are seen and eyes are ___________.
-gray tones
-uncoordinated
1. At 5 months, you can focus acuity of:
2. At 5 years, you can focus acuity of:
- 20/200
- 20/30
3. At 70 years, acuity is:
- lower
HEARING:
Congenital abnormalities
1. partial or missing
pinna
HEARING:
Congenital abnormalities
2. astest or closed
external ear canal
HEARING:
Congenital abnormalities
3. rubella in mother causes
sensorineural deafness
newborns hear at
first cry
at 3 or 4 months, you are able to
turn to familiar voices
as a toddler, you develop
listening skills
in early life, you may experience
otitis (ear inflammations)
in your 60’s, you experience deterioration of the
organ of corti
Presbycusis:
sensorineural deafness
Ostosclerosis:
ossicles fuse
CHEMICAL SENSES
(taste and smell)
Are ______ at birth
Sharp
CHEMICAL SENSES
(taste and smell)
Taste and smell diminish at ____'s and ____'s
40's and 50's
CHEMICAL SENSES
(taste and smell)
Can't smell at all and taste is poor at age
80+
There are 5 senses
TOUCH (general)
TASTE (traditional)
SMELL (traditional)
SIGHT (traditional)
HEARING (traditional
Which senses are traditionl and which are general?
TOUCH (general)
TASTE (traditional)
SMELL (traditional)
SIGHT (traditional)
HEARING (traditional
The SPECIAL SENSES are
smell, taste, sight, and hearing
The 5th SPECIAL SENSE is
EQUILIBRIUM, in the ear
The most studied sense.
Vision
70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye.
Vision
Sense that requires the most learning.
Vision
Anatomy of the Eye
__________ in shape.
___ _____ in diameter.
Spherical

1 inch
protects anterior of the eye
Eyelid
come out of the eyelid border; hairs
Eyelashes
produce oil to lubricate the eye
Meibomian Glands
modified sweat glands between the eyelashes
Ciliary Glands
release diluted salt (tears)
Lacrimal Glands
6 external eye muscles allow your eyes to move
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
lines the eyelid and covers the outer eyeball; secretes mucus to lubricate the eye and keep it moist
Conjunctiva membrane
inflamed conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis
infectious form of conjunctivitis by bacteria or a virus
Pink Eye
tears spill over into the nasolacrimal duct, causing conjestion
Sniffles
a hollow sphere with 3 tunics (coats) and a fluid called humor
Eyeball
3 tunics (coats) of the eyeball
-Sclera
-Choroid
-Sensory Tunic
-outermost covering of eye
-made of connective tissue
-Sclera
thick; called the “fibrous tunic” or the “white of the eye”
-Sclera
-transparent window where light enters the eye
-central anterior part of the sclera
Cornea
only tissue of a body that can be transplanted without a fear of rejection.
Cornea
1. middle coat
2. rich in blood
3. has a dark pigment so light won’t scatter in the eye
Choroid
where the lens is attached
Ciliary Body
pigmented with round opening
Iris
opening in iris where light passes
Pupil
circular muscle contracts and the pupils constrict
CLOSE VISOIN AND BRIGHT LIGHT
fibers contract to dilate the pupil
DISTANT VISION AND DIM LIGHT