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21 Cards in this Set

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An experiment has internal validity if...
...a causal relationship can be established
3 parts of a causal relationship
temporal precedence, relationship between the two variables, no alternative explanations
fixing selection bias threat to internal validity
random assignment
fixing history threat to internal validity
including control group
fixing history threat to external validity
hard to do
fixing participant mortality threat to internal validity
hard to do
threat to longitudinal designs
external: history
fixing instrumentation threat to internal validity
counterbalancing/randomizing order of experimental conditions
selection by maturation
differences between individuals in treatment groups that produce changes in groups at different rates
fixing selection by maturation threat to internal validity
use random assignment/control groups
counterbalanced design controls for:
internal: contamination and carryover
experimental design validity threat:
external
experimental design controls for:
internal validity threats
Randomized two-group design controls for:
Internal: Selection, maturation, history, instrumentation threats
Pretest-posttest two-group design controls for:
Internal: Selection, maturation, history, instrumentation threats
Pretest-posttest two-group design validity threats:
When the pretest affects both conditions equally, it’s a threat to external validity. When it affects conditions differentially, it’s a threat to internal validity.
Solomon Four-Group Design controls for:
Selection, maturation, history, instrumentation threats to internal validity
Static Group Comparison validity threats:
Selection, temporal precedence (internal validity)
Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent Control Group Design validity threats:
Selection, but pretest helps
One Group Pretest-Posttest Design controls for:
Temporal precedence threats to validity; sometimes history, maturation, testing, instrumentation (internal)
Replicated Interrupted Time-Series Design controls for:
Threats to internal validity; especially sometimes history, maturation, testing, instrumentation (internal); alternate explanations