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179 Cards in this Set

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What is the origin of the Pectoralis Major muscle?
Medial 2/3 of clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages of ribs 1-6, aponeurosis of external oblique
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis Major muscle?
Lateral lip of the bicipital groove (intertubercular crest of the greater tubercle) of the humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Pectoralis Major muscle?
Clavicular head--lateral pectoral neve--C5/6/7; Sternal head--medial pectoral nerve--C8/T1
What are the actions of Pectoralis Major?
Adduction; horizontal adduction; internal rotation of the arm; assist with flexion; assist extension from full flexion; depress scapula; inferiorly rotate scapula
What muscles are part of the pectoral group?
Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, subclavius, serratus anterior
What is the origin of the Pectoralis Minor muscle?
Ventral aspect of ribs 3-5
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis Minor muscle?
Coracoid process of scapula
What nerve(s) innervate the Pectoralis Minor muscle?
Medial pectoral nerve--C8/T1
What are the actions of the Pectoralis Minor muscle?
Depresses and protracts shoulder (stabilizes)
What is the origin of the Subclavius muscle?
Superior aspect of rib 1
What is the insertion of the Subclavius muscle?
The inferior surface of the clavicle
What are the actions of the Subclavius muscle?
Depresses clavicle
What is the origin of the Serratus Anterior muscle?
Anteriolateral surfaces of ribs 1-8
What is the insertion of the Serratus Anterior muscle?
Costal (anterior) surface of medial border of the scapula (mostly at the inferior angle)
What nerve(s) innverate the Serratus Anterior muscle?
Long thoracic--C5/6/7
What are the actions of the Serratus Anterior muscle?
Protract scapula; assist upward rotation; depress shoulder (lower fibers); prevent winging
What bones make up the shoulder girdle?
Clavicle and scapula
How many bony articulations connect the shoulder to the axial skeleton and what are their names?
1--Sternoclavicular joint
What are the bones of the sternum, as well as their prominant features?
Manubrium--sternal notch; Body of sternum--connects to manubrium at sternal angle; Xiphoid process
What are the joints that involve the clavicle?
Sternoclavicular and Acromioclavicular
What ligaments are involved in the sternoclavicular joint?
Anterior and Posterior sternoclavicular ligaments (intrinsic); Interclavicular ligament; Costoclavicular ligament (to rib 1)
What muscle(s) have their origins on the clavicle and where?
Pectoralis Major--Anteriomedial 2/3; Deltoid--Anteriolateral 1/3; Sternocleidomastoid--Superiomedial 1/3; Sternohydoid--Inferiomedial near costoclavicular ligament attachment
What muscle(s) have their insertions on the clavicle and where?
Subclavius--subclavian groove on inferior surface; Trapezius--Posteriolateral 1/3
What ligaments are involved in the acromioclavicular joint?
Superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments (intrinsic); coracoclavicular ligament, composed of trapezoid ligament and conoid ligament (attach to trapezoid line and conoid tubercle, respectively)
The sternum and clavicle fit poorly together at the sternoclavicular joint--what development allows this joint to move freely, and in what directions does it move?
Articular disc (separates two synovial cavities); up-and-down, anterior-posterior; some rotation
Describe the clavicle and name its features.
S-shaped bone, smoother superiorly, rougher inferiorly; Articulates with sternum medially and scapula laterally; inferior medial surface has impression for attachment of costoclavicular ligament; middle inferior surface has subclavian groove; lateral inferior surface has trapezoid line anteriolateral to conoid tubercle
Describe the bony features of the scapula.
Superior, inferior, and lateral angles; superior, medial, and lateral borders; glenoid fossa with supra- and infra-glenoid tubercles; coracoid process; acromion, curves around posteriorly to become spine of scapula; infraspinous and surpaspinous fossae; subscapular fossa; suprascapular notch
Describe the bony features of the proximal end of the humerus.
Head, anatomical neck, greater tubercle (lateral), lesser tubercle (anterior/inferior to greater tubercle), bicipital (intertubercular) groove, deltoid tuberosity (anteriolateral), radial (spiral) groove (posterior)
What muscle(s) separate the chest wall from the anterior surface of the scapula?
subscapularis and serratus anterior
What is the name of the fibrocartilagenous rim that attaches to the joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint?
Glenoidal labrum
What ligaments stabilize the glenohumoral joint, and are they intrinsic or extrinsic?
Intrinsic--Superior, Middle(anterior), and Inferior Glenohumeral ligaments, Coracohumeral ligament, Transverse humeral ligament; Extrinsic--Coracoacromial ligament (forms a "roof" over the joint)
What muscle is the most important muscle in protraction of the scapula?
Serratus anterior
What phenomenon is characteristic of a weak serratus anterior?
Winging of the scapula
What are the muscles in the Vertebral muscle group?
Trapezius, Rhomboid Major, Rhomboid Minor, Levator Scapulae, Latissimus Dorsi
What is the origin for the Trapezius muscle?
External occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T12
What is the insertion for the Trapezius muscle?
Spine of scapula, acromion, posteriolateral 1/3 of clavicle (U-shape from clavicle around to spine of scapula)
What nerve(s) innervate the Trapezius muscle?
accesory (cranial XI)-motor; C3/4-sensory
What are the actions of the Trapezius?
Retract scapula; adduct scapula; upward rotation of scapula (via elevation of lateral angle); upper fibers--elevate shoulder, upward rotation of scapula, sidebend neck ipsilaterally; middle fibers--retract scapula; lower fibers--depress shoulder, upwardly rotate scapula (via depression of medial aspect of spine of the scapula--lateral angle rotates upward)
What is the origin for the Rhomboid Major muscle?
Spinous processes of T2-5
What is the insertion for the Rhomboid Major muscle?
medial border of scapula (between spine and inferior angle)
What nerve(s) innervate the Rhomboid Major muscle?
Dorsal scapular--C5 (4)
What are the actions of the Rhomboid Major muscle?
Retract/adduct scapula; downward rotation of scapula; elevate and fix medial border of scapula
Which is superior to the other, Rhomboid Major or Rhomboid Minor?
Rhomboid Minor
What is the origin of the Rhomboid Minor muscle?
Spinous processes of C7-T1
What is the insertion of the Rhomboid Minor muscle?
The base of the spine of the scapula
What nerve(s) innervate the Rhomboid Minor muscle?
Dorsal scapular--C5
What are the actions of the Rhomboid Minor muscle?
Retract/adduct scapula; downward rotation of the scapula; elevate and fix medial border of scapula (same as Rhomboid Major)
What is the origin for the Levator Scapulae muscle?
Transverse processes of C1-4
What is the insertion for the Levator Scapulae muscle?
Medial border of scapula between superior angle and base of spine
What nerve(s) innervate the Levator Scapulae?
Possible branch of dorsal scapular--C3/4
What are the actions of the Levator Scapulae?
Elevate scapula, tilt neck ipsilaterally
What is the origin of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle?
Spinous processes of T7-T12, the spinous processes of lumbar and sacral vertebrae via the lumbosacral fascia, the iliac crest, and the lower four ribs
What is the insertion of the Latissimus Dorsi muscle?
Floor of bicipital (intertubercular) groove of humerus
What nerve(s) innverate the Latissimus Dorsi?
Thoracodorsal--C6/7/8
What are the actions of the Latissimus Dorsi?
Extension; adduction; internal rotation; depress scapula/shoulder; downward rotation of scapula/shoulder (strong pull on scapula via insertion on humerus)
What muscles are in the Scapular Group?
Deltoid, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Teres Major, Subscapularis
What is the origin of the Deltoid muscle?
Anteriolateral 1/3 of clavicle; acromion; spine of scapula (U-shape around clavicle, acromion and spine, just inferior to U-shaped insertion of trapezius on the same area)
What is the insertion of the Deltoid muscle?
Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Deltoid?
Axillary--C5/6
What are the movements of the Deltoid?
Anterior fibers--flexion, internal rotation; Middle fibers--abduction; Posterior fibers--extension and external rotation
What is the origin for the Supraspinatus muscle?
The supraspinous fossa of the scapula
What is the insertion for the Supraspinatus muscle?
The superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Supraspinatus muscle?
Suprascapular--C5/6
What are the actions of the Supraspinatus muscle?
Abduction; Fixes head of humerus in glenoid fossa
What is the origin of the Infraspinatus muscle?
The infraspinous fossa of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Infraspinatus muscle?
The middle facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Infraspinatus muscle?
Suprascapular--C5/6
What are the actions of the Infraspinatus muscle?
External rotation; stabilize head of humerus in glenoid fossa
What is the origin of the Teres Minor muscle?
Upper 2/3 of posterior surface of lateral border of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Teres Minor muscle?
Lowest facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Teres Minor?
Axillary--C5/6
What are the actions of the Teres Minor muscle?
External rotation; assist adduction
Which is superior to the other, Teres Minor or Teres Major?
Teres Minor
What is the origin of the Teres Major muscle?
Posterior surface of inferior angle of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Teres Major muscle?
Medial lip of bicipital (intertubercular) groove (crest of lesser tubercle) of humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Teres Major muscle?
Lower subscapular--C5/6
What are the actions of the Teres Major muscle?
Extension (including hyperextension); adduction; internal rotation
What is the origin for the Subscapularis muscle?
Subscapular fossa of the scapula
What is the insertion of the Subscapularis muscle?
Lesser tubercle of humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Subscapularis muscle?
Upper and Lower Subscapular--C5/6
What are the actions of the Subscapularis muscle?
Internal rotation; stabilization of glenohumoral joint
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm?
Biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis
What is the origin of the Biceps Brachii?
Short head--tip of coracoid process; long head--supraglenoid tubercle
What is the insertion of the Biceps Brachii?
bicipital tuberosity of radius, via bicipital aponeurosis to deep fascia of medial forearm
What nerve(s) innervate the Biceps Brachii?
musculocutaneous--C5/6
What are the actions of the Biceps Brachii?
flex forearm; supination to neutral from pronated position of the forearm
What is the origin of the Brachialis muscle?
Distal half of anterior surface of humerus, and intermuscular septum
What is the insertion of the Brachialis muscle?
Coronoid process and ulnar tuberosity
What nerve(s) innervate the Brachialis muscle?
Musculocutaneous--C5/6
What are the actions of the Brachialis muscle?
Flex forearm
What is the origin of the Coracobrachialis muscle?
tip of coracoid process of scapula
What is the insertion of the Coracobrachialis muscle?
middle third of medial shaft of humerus
What nerve(s) innervate the Coracobrachialis muscle?
Musculocutaneous--C5/6/7
What are the actions of the Coracobrachialis muscle?
Flexion; Adduction; helps stabilize glenohumeral joint
What is the origin of the Triceps Brachii muscle?
Long head--infraglenoid tubercle; lateral head--posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; medial head--posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
What is the insertion of the Triceps Brachii muscle?
Olecranon process of the ulna
What nerve(s) innervate the Triceps Brachii muscle?
Radial--C6/7/8
What are the actions of the Triceps Brachii?
extend forearm; long head aids extension and adduction of arm
What muscles are innervated by the C2 level?
Sternocleidomastoid
What muscles are innervated by the C3 level?
Trapezius; levator scapulae; sternocleidomastoid (sometimes)
What muscles are innervated by the C4 level?
Trapezius; Rhomboid Major (possibly); Rhomboid Minor (possibly); Levator scapulae
What muscles are innervated by the C5 level?
Upper head of pec major; serratus anterior; rhomboid major; rhomboid minor; deltoid; supraspinatus; infraspinatus; teres major; teres minor; subscapularis
What muscles are innervated by the C6 level?
Upper head of pec major; serratus anterior; latissimus dorsi; deltoid; supraspinatus; infraspinatus; teres major; teres minor; subscapularis; biceps brachii; brachialis; coracobrachialis; triceps brachii
What muscles are innervated by the C7 level?
Upper head of pec major; serratus anterior; latissimus dorsi
What muscles are innervated by the C8 level?
lower head of pec major; pec minor; latissimus dorsi; triceps brachii; anconeus
What muscles are innervated by the T1 level?
lower head of pec major; pec minor
What muscles are innervated by the Lateral Pectoral nerve?
upper head of pec major
What muscles are innervated by the Medial Pectoral nerve?
Lower head of pec major; pec minor
What muscles are innervated by the Long Thoracic nerve?
Serratus anterior
What muscles are innervated by the Accessory nerve?
Trapezius; sternocleidomastoid
What muscles are innervated by the Dorsal Scapular nerve?
Rhomboid Major; rhomboid minor; levator scapulae (possibly)
What muscles are innervated by the Thoracodorsal nerve?
Latissimus dorsi
What muscles are innervated by the Axillary nerve?
Deltoid; Teres Minor
What muscles are innervated by the Suprascapular nerve?
Supraspinatus; infraspinatus
What muscles are innervated by the Lower Subscapular nerve?
Teres Major; Subscapularis
What muscles are innervated by the Upper Subscapular nerve?
Subscapularis
What muscles are used to adduct the arm?
PLTt (Adduct to PLay Table tennis)--Pec major, Latissimus dorsi, Teres Major, Teres Minor (assist)
What muscles are used to abduct the arm?
mDS (Abduct the MDs and drain their knowledge!)--middle fibers of the Deltoid, Supraspinatus
What muscles are used to horizontally adduct the arm?
Pectoralis major
What muscles are used to internally rotate the arm?
SPLAT--Subscapularis, Pec major, Latissimus dorsi, anterior fibers of the deltoid, teres major
What muscles are used to externally rotate the arm?
PIT--Posterior fibers of the Deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor
What muscles are used to flex the arm?
aDuP (flexion... "anD uP" we go)--anterior fibers of the Deltoid, Upper head of pec major (assist)
What muscles are used to extend the arm?
LpDTlP (When there are LPs around, it's Dancing Time--extend an invitation to dance! The lady and her majors stay together)--Latissimus dorsi, posterior fibers of the Deltoid, Teres Major, lower head of the pec major (assist)
What muscles form the rotator cuff that stabilizes the glenohumeral joint?
SITS--Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis
What muscles depress the scapula?
SaLTPp (Having SalT & pePper hair is depressing)--Serratus anterior, Latissimus dorsi, lower fibers of the Trapezius, Pec major, Pec minor
What muscles elevate the scapula?
uTLsRr (elevating up To Learn since Rhomboids rock)--upper fibers of the Trapezius, Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid Major, Romboid Minor
What muscles protract/abduct scapula?
PAS-pSa--Protract/Abduct scapula-pec minor/Serratus anterior
What muscles retract/adduct scapula?
TRMm (Taste the Rainbow... M&M's... oops, retract that, that's Skittles)--Trapezius (middle fibers), Rhomboid Major and minor
What muscles inferiorly/downwardly rotate the scapula?
PLRr (PLease Read & Review before putting it down)--Pec major, Latissimus dorsi, Rhomboid Major, rhomboid minor
What muscles superiorly/upwardly rotate the scapula?
SaaulT (Texans are superior :) and they say "SaaulT" for "salt")--Serratus anterior assists upper and lower Trapezius
What muscles depress the clavicle?
Subclavius
What muscle prevents winging?
Serratus anterior
What muscles sidebend the neck ipsilaterally?
S-TL (St. Louis was lateral to where I went to college)--Sidebend-Trapezius(upper) and Levator Scapulae
What muscles fix the medial border of the scapula?
Rr (I've been working on the Railroad...hopefully it's fixed by now)--Rhomboid Major, rhomboid minor
What is the origin of the Anconeus muscle?
Posterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus
What is the insertion of the Anconeus muscle?
lateral surface of olecranon and superior part of posterior surface of the ulna
What nerve innervates the Anconeus muscle?
Radial nerve--C7/8
What are the actions of the Anconeus muscle?
Assists triceps in forearm extension; supports lateral side of elbow joint when contracting
What is the apex of the axilla?
Directed into the base of the neck; bounded in front by the clavicle, behind by the superior angle of the scapula, and medially by the outer border of the 1st rib
What is the base of the axilla?
Formed by skin stretching between the anterior axillary fold (lower border of pec major) and posterior axillary fold (lower border of teres major)
What forms the anterior wall of the axilla?
pec major and minor
What forms the posterior wall of the axilla?
subscapularis, lat dorsi, teres major
What forms the medial wall of the axilla?
upper 4/5 ribs and intercostal spaces covered by serratus anterior
What forms the lateral wall of the axilla?
coracobrachialis and biceps brachii in the intertubercular groove of humerus
What vessels run through the axilla?
Axillary atrtery/axillary vein
What vessel does the axillary artery become at the inferior border of teres major?
Brachial artery
What vessel becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the 1st rib?
Subclavian artery
What nerve group is found in the axilla?
Brachial plexus
Draw the brachial plexus.
(See book)
What does the lateral stem of the median nerve innervate?
flexor muscles in the forearm (except flexor carpi ulnaris)
What does the medial brachial cutaneous nerve innervate?
skin of medial arm
What does the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve innervate?
Skin of medial forearm
What does the ulnar nerve innervate?
some forearm flexor muscles and most muscles of the hand
What does the medial stem of the medial nerve innervate?
some intrinsic muscles in the hand
What does the radial nerve innervate?
extensors muscles of the upper limb, and brachioradialis
Describe the distal end of the humerus.
Capitulum, trochlea, coronoid fosse, radial fossa, olecranon fossa, medial and lateral epicondyles
Describe the proximal radius.
head, neck, bicipital tuberosity
Describe the proximal ulna.
Radial notch, olecranon process, trochlear notch, coronoid process, ulnar tuberosity
What nerves innervate the skin of the arm?
Medial brachial cutaneous, upper and lower lateral cutaneous, posterior cutaneous
What is a dermatome?
the area of skin innervated by a particular spinal level
What is a myotome?
the group of muscles innervated by a particular spinal level
What is a sclerotome?
The area of deep tissue (bones and joints) innervated by a particular spinal level
Where would you do a sensory test to check C3 fibers?
just above mid-clavicle
Where would you do a sensory test to check C4 fibers?
skin over AC joint
Where would you do a sensory test to check C5 fibers?
over insertion of the deltoid
Where would you do a sensory test to check C6 fibers?
dorsum of thumb
Where would you do a sensory test to check C7 fibers?
middle finger
Where would you do a sensory test to check C8 fibers?
little finger
Where would you do a sensory test to check T1 fibers?
skin over medial epicondyle of humerus
What dermatome is the lateral arm?
C5
What dermatome is the lateral forearm?
C6
What dermatome is the superior medial arm?
T2
What dermatome is the inferior medial arm and superior medial forearm?
T1
What dermatome is the inferior medial forearm and medial wrist/hand?
C8
What dermatome is the middle hand, including the middle digit (usually digits 2-4)?
C7
How does the Anconeus muscle affect pronation/supination of the forearm?
(look this up and type it here)
What are the branches off the brachial artery?
Deep brachial artery, ulnar collateral arteries
What does the brachial (deep) fascia become?
medial and lateral intermuscular septae
What nerve/level innervates the skin of the axilla/armpit?
Intercostalbrachial cutaneous nerve/T2