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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The body produces (blank) to destroy invading, pathogens, antigens and malignancies.
Name the three types of immunity:
Natural immunity which passes through the mothers antibodies.
Acquired Immunity which is long term and develops as a result to exposure to certain diseases.
Artificial: acquired through immunizations.
What are "T" lymphocytes and what do they do?
T cells belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors (TCR). The abbreviation T, in T cell, stands for thymus, since this is the principal organ responsible for the T cell's maturation.
Small white blood cells that form antibodies after exposure to an antigen are called (blank).
"B" lymphocytes
The immunoglobulin responsible for releasing histamine and other the chemicals that cause allergic and anaphylactic reactions is:
Another name for "antibodies" is:
Which antibody is released due to the presence of allergens?
What are the most common causes of anaphylaxis?
1. Medicines
2. Insects
Histamine is released from (blank) cells.
What aspect of annaphyaxis causes abdominal pain and diahrria?
Smooth muscle spasms cause abdominal cramping, diahrria and broncho spasms.
What happens in an allergic reaction?
In an allergic reaction—the immune system’s hypersensitivity reaction to usually harmless foreign substances (called antigens in this context) that enter the body—mast cells release histamine in inordinate amounts. Immune system proteins called antibodies, which are bound to mast cells, bind to the antigens to remove them, but in the process the mast cells are stimulated to release their histamines. This causes the visible symptoms of a localized allergic reaction, including runny nose, watery eyes, constriction of bronchi, and tissue swelling.
Histamine also contributes to generalized allergic conditions such as anaphylaxis, a severe, immediate, and often fatal response to exposure to a previously encountered antigen.
Histamine works by binding to histamine receptors on the surface of cells. Antihistamines block those receptors.
(Blank) is an itch or a sensation that makes a person want to scratch.
Facial swelling is called:
Angioedema is the rapid swelling (edema) of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue,[1] mucosa and submucosal tissues. (UTSW defines it as "facial swelling"). It is very similar to urticaria, but urticaria, commonly known as hives, occurs in the upper dermis.[1]Angioedema: Apart from the common form, mediated by allergy, it has been reported as a side effect of some medications, in particular ACE inhibitors.
Death that occurs in anaphylaxis is usually caused by (blank and blank)
Airway obstruction and low resistance shock.
Benadryl blocks (blank) but won't reverse dyspnea or shock.
histamine receptors
Why can't an allergic reaction occur at first exposure to an antigen?
Because the body must first over react and mistake a harmless substance for a threatening one. After this happens, it releases IgE antibodies which attach themselves to mast cells and await the NEXT exposure of the same harmless substance to enter the body. When the "allergen/antigen is encountered again, histamine and other chemicals are released from the mast cells - these chemicals create the s/s of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.
What are the routes of entry for allergens?
Injected, absorbed, ingested, inhaled.
What are the three main reactions histamine has on the body.
1. Smooth muscle spasms and contractions. 2. Vessel dilation. 3. Capillary permeability.
During allergic reaction and anaphylaxis, smooth muscle relaxing causes these harmful and dangerous effects on the body.
Bronchospasm, bronchoconstriction, and abdominal cramping and diarrhea.
Four reactions due to allergic reaction and/or anaphylaxis are:
1. Vessel Dilation causing decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased pre-load, after-load, stroke volume, cardiac output and BP, low resistance shock, red, flushed skin from superficial capillary dilation. 2. Increased capillary permeability causing urticaria, angioedema, edema of upper airway, throat, tongue, laryngeal edema and hypotension. 3. Stimulates production of gastric, nasal and lacrimal secretions causing itchy watery eyes, increased salivary, intestinal, nasal, and bronchial secretions. 4. Stimulates secsory nerve endings causing pruritis and hot burning sensations.
(Blank) reverses bronchoconstriction, peripheral vasodilation and capillary permeability.
(Blank) blocks histamine receptor sites and stops the continuation of the reaction.
Decadron, Solu-Medrol and methylprednisolone are all (blanks) and are useful for treating allergic reactions by:

Suppressing inflammatory response. relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, stabilizing mast cells, and decreasing capillary permeability. (often tested on NREMT)
Cellular immunity
Special leukocyytes called "t" lymphocytes fight infections due to biological agents such as tuberculosis, pneumonia etc.
The immunity that is associated with allergic responses and is derived from "B" lymphocytes is called:
Humoral immunity: It results in the formation of special proteins called antibodies after exposure to an antigen.
Any substance that when introduced into the body and causes the formation of antibodies is called a/an (blank).
When peanuts or other typically harmless substances enter the body and an are incorrectly identified by the body as harmful invaders, they become "antigens" and cause the production of harmful antibodies which cause an overreaction called: (blank and blank)
allergic reaction and anaphylaxis.
The normally protective substances formed in the body as a result of contact with an antigen is called a/an:
During times of allergy or anaphylaxis, (blanks) overreact and become harmful to the body.
Final look at allergic reaction and anphylaxis: "in a nut shell - as I see it"
A typically unharmul substance such as a peanur or medication enters the body via inhalation, ingestion, injection or absorption. The body (for some unknown reason), incorrectly identifies it as a harmful substance and labels it forever as an antigen. At this point, it becomes an "antigen" forever. It could be a peanut, medicine or any other substance that the body misinturprets. The "antigen" then causes the body to produce antibodies which attack the antigens and attach themselves to mast cells and await another
"invasion" of the "antigen" in the future. When the peanut (now and forevermore identified by the body as an "antigen") enters the body again, the antibodies signal the mast cells to produce histamine which causes capillary dilation, permiability and smooth muscle spasms and constriction. Thus allergic reaction and/or anaphylaxis. (in a nut shell)