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83 Cards in this Set

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When do electrons release photons? When the electrons:
a. move to higher levels of energy
b. return to their original energy level
c. increase orbital speed around the nucleus
d. are released by the atom
e. explode
Helium was discovered on the sun in 1868, almost 30 years before it was discovered here on the earth. How could that be possible?
a. Investigation of light from the sun revealed a spectrum not yet found in known elements.
b. Captured cosmic rays from the sun contained helium.
c. Investigation of the size of solar flares suggested that they consisted of material twice the mass of hydrogen.
d. Meteorites that had traveled through the suns atmosphere contained helium.
Solubility data for four different salts in water at 60¡C are shown in the table below.

Salt Solubility in Water at 60 ¡C
A 10 grams/50 mL H2O
B 20 grams/60 mL H2O
C 30 grams/120 mL H2O
D 40 grams/80 mL H2O
Which salt is the most soluble at 60 ¡C?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
The force of gravity is directly proportional to the mass of the objects being attracted. More massive objects attract more strongly. Less massive objects, that have a minimal amount of energy, can easily escape a weak gravitational force. Where would you expect to find a higher proportion of hydrogen compared to other atoms?
a. on the moon
b. on the earth
c. on Jupiter
d. on the sun
Assumptions arising from the “Big Bang” theory suggest that the universe originally consisted of almost all hydrogen. If that is correct, where did other elements, like those found on earth, come from?
a. fission (splitting) of heavy elements
b. fusion (joining) of light elements
c. chemical reactions between hydrogen atoms
d. diffusion from other parts of the universe
Experiments performed to reveal the structure of atoms led scientists to conclude that an atom’s
a. positive charge is evenly distributed throughout its volume
b. negative charge is mainly concentrated in its nucleus
c. mass is evenly distributed throughout its volume
d. volume is mainly unoccupied
According to Dalton's Atomic theory, how are compounds formed?
a. two nuclei attract each other
b. ions are converted into the excited state
c. the joining of two or more atoms
d. through the process of distillation
e. through the release of alpha particles
An energy beam was sent from the cathode to the anode. Which of the following did J. J. Thomson study using a cathode ray tube?
a. atoms
b. electrons
c. neutrons
d. nucleus
e. quarks
Which of the following ideas is probably the oldest in terms of the development of atomic theory?
a. all matter is made of smaller particles
b. the atom is mostly empty space
c. atoms contain smaller particles
d. atoms are discontinuous
e. all particles of matter are charged
The modern model of the atom shows that electrons are:
a. orbiting the nucleus in fixed paths
b. found in regions called orbitals
c. combined with neutrons in the nucleus
d. located in a solid sphere covering the nucleus
An experiment in which alpha particles were used to bombard thin sheets of gold foil led to the conclusion that an atom is composed mostly of
a. empty space and has a small, negatively charged nucleus
b. empty space and has a small, positively charged nucleus
c. a large, dense, positively charged nucleus
d. a large, dense, negatively charged nucleus
Rutherford of England passed a beam of positively charged particles through a thin sheet of gold foil. The particles caused a phosphorescent screen placed behind the gold foil to glow when the particles hit it. Some of the particles were seen to be deflected from the original path. Rutherford concluded:
a. atoms are mostly empty space
b. all atoms are the same size
c. electrons form clouds around d the nucleus
d. protons and neutrons have the same mass
e. the nucleus is less dense than the electron cloud
Why is it improbable that a student would be asked to draw an atom to scale?
a. atom too small
b. nucleus much smaller than atom
c. electrons do not orbit the nucleus
d. nucleus too small to draw
e. electrons move too rapidly
As an atom becomes an ion, its mass number
a. decreases
b. increases
c. remains the same
Which statement about the mass of an electron is correct?
a. The mass of an electron is equal to the mass of a proton.
b. The mass of an electron is less to the mass of a proton.
c. The mass of an electron is equal to the mass of a neutron.
d. The mass of an electron is less to the mass of a neutron.
What are the characteristics of a neutron?
a. It has no charge and no mass.
b. It has no charge and a mass of 1 amu.
c. It has a charge of +1 and no mass.
d. It ahs a charge an +1 and a mass of 1 amu.
Which statement best describes electrons?
a. They are positive subatomic particles and are found in the nucleus.
b. They are positive subatomic particles and are found surrounding the nucleus.
c. They are negative subatomic particles and are found in the nucleus.
d. They are negative subatomic particles and are found orbiting the nucleus in energy levels.
Which list of particles is in order of increasing mass?
a. proton electron alpha particle
b. proton alpha particle electron
c. electron proton alpha particle
d. alpha particle electron proton
The mass of a proton is approximately equal to the total mass of 1,836
a. electrons
b. neutrons
c. helium nuclei
d. alpha particles
What is the nuclear charge of an iron atom?
a. +26
b. +30
c. +56
d. +82
What is the charge and mass of a proton?
a. charge of +1 and mass of 1 amu
b. charge of +1 and mass of 1/1836 amu
c. charge of ∆1 and mass of 1 amu
d. charge of ∆1 and mass of 1/1836 amu
What is the atomic number of an element that has six protons and eight neutrons?
a. 6
b. 2
c. 8
d. 14
Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged according to their
a. atomic number
b. atomic mass
c. relative activity
d. relative size
What is the molar mass of Ca3(PO4)2?
a. 196 g
b. 214 g
c. 245 g
d. 310 g
Which quantity of particles is correctly represented by the formula H2SO4?
a. 1.0 mole of ions
b. 1.0 mole of molecules
c. 6.0 x 1023 ions
d. 6.0 x 1023 atoms
One mole of O2 has approximately the same mass as one mole of
a. CH4
b. S
c. LiH
d. Cl2
What is the total number of neon atoms contained in 20.2 grams of neon gas?
a. 1.01 x 1024
b. 2.02 x 1024
c. 3.01 x 1023
d. 6.02 x 1023
What is the total number of atoms contained in a 1.00-mole sample of helium?
a. 1.00 atom
b. 2.00 atoms
c. 1.20 x 1024 atoms
d. 6.02 x 1023 atoms
The number of moles in a 12.0 gram sample of Cl2 is
a. 12.0/35.5 mole
b. 12.0/71.0 mole
c. 12.0 moles
d. 12.0 x 35.5 moles
The molar mass of NH4Cl is
a. 22.4 g/mole
b. 28.0 g/mole
c. 53.5 g/mole
d. 95.5 g/mole
Which of the following organic compounds has the highest molar mass?
(Atomic mass in grams/mole: C = 12.01, O = 16.00, 14.01, H = 1.008)
a. C5H11NO3
b. C7H11NO
c. C9H18
d. C6H11NO2
e. C4H8N2O4
Which of the following organic compounds has the lowest molar mass?
(Atomic mass in grams/mole: C = 12.01, O = 16.00, 14.01, H = 1.008)
a. C5H11NO3
b. C7H11NO
c. C9H18
d. C6H11NO2
e. C4H8N2O4
Which of the following organic compounds has the lowest molar mass?
(Atomic mass in grams/mole: C = 12.01, O = 16.00, 14.01, H = 1.008)
a. C7H10O
b. C7H14
c. C4H8O4
d. C6H10O2
e. C5H10O3
In which list are the elements arranged in order of increasing atomic mass?
a. Cl, K, Ar
b. Fe, Co, Ni
c. Te, I, Sb
d. Ne, F, Na
Describe the accomplishemnts of Amodeo Avogadro.
He was an Italian physicist who used Dalton's observations about matter to develop his own hypothesis. Avogadro worked with gases and their volume under various conditions. He is credited with the conclusion that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure have the same number of molecules.
Describe the accomplishemnts of Robert Millikan
Robert Millikan, an American Scientist, was the first to accurately measure the charge on an electron. He used an instrument he made. The instrument had an atomizer that sprayed a mist of oil, electrons were transferred from the atomizer to the oil droplet. The droplet of oil passed through a charged plate in a vacuum chamber. The charged plate was adjusted to offset the force of gravity. From the movement of the droplet in the vacuum and the strength of the charge on the plate he was able to calculate the charge on the droplet. He determined the charge on each electron and that all electrons have the same charge.
Describe the accomplishemnts J. J. Thomson
Thomson was English and a professor at Cambridge University. He did research with various inert gases using a cathode-ray tube, and a power source. He studied the rays produced in the tube using magnets and observed how the rays were affected by a magnetic field. Using the data from his own experiments, as well as other scientist's data, he was able to isolate the electron and the proton.
Describe the accomplishemnts of Marie Curie
Marie Curie, a native of Poland, worked in a laboratory in Paris. She worked with her husband Pierre Curie by conducting research on radioactive substances. She had been studying a pitchblende which contained uranium, but the radioactivity of the substance was much higher than expected, so she decided the pitchblende must contained a new, unknown element. Eventually they found there were two new elements: Polonium and Radium. They decided to get a pure sample of radium. Marie gathered the pitchblende in large pots, and after four years of labor, she obtained enough radium to fill the tip of a teaspoon. The radiation from this pure radium was so intense it burned her fingers, so she and her husband thought it might be able to destroy cancerous cells in the body, allowing healthy cells to grow back. They were right, and the new process was called ACurie therapy@. In 1903 Marie and Pierre shared the Nobel Prize for physics with Henri Becquerel for their discovery. Later, Marie Curie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for chemistry, the first time a Nobel Prize had been awarded to the same person twice.
Explain how Dalton came up with his "model" of the atom. Include in your answer where his model was inaccurate.
Dalton read the work of other scientists and based his model of the atom on their results. He came to his conclusions by research and deduction not through experimentation. One wrong conclusion he came to was that the atom was the smallest unit of matter and could not be further broken down.
Compare and contrast the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom and state which model is more accurate.
Bohr's model of the atom has the electrons as particles located in definite positions or energy levels around the atom. The electrons can travel around the nucleus of the atom in curved paths without losing energy. The orbits or energy levels are in fixed positions around the nucleus.

The quantum mechanical model does not show the electrons in orbits or paths around the nucleus. Electrons are located in the most probable position based on energy. Electrons are shown as a diffuse cloud of negative charge, the cloud being the thickest where the electron could probably be. Each energy level in this model has sub levels (orbital) that are occupied by as many as two electrons. The quantum mechanical model is most accurate.
Explain 3 limitations of using atomic models to demonstrate the structure of a particular atom.
Possibly answers include: Size - is important when building molecules and crystals.
Electron representations - become difficult in the higher energy levels.
Shape - Doesn't show how the shape of an atom changes when it combines with other elements or compounds.
Color - models cannot show some important physical features.
Reactivity - how the atom will react under various conditions of temp, pressure etc.
Summarize the relationship between the electron and the photon. Include the effect of energy transfer and release.
Electrons are arranged around the outside of atoms in energy levels / shells. Each electron maintains its position because of the amount of energy it contains, its interactions with other electrons and the nucleus. When electrons are bombarded with energy from outside they may momentarily absorb some of that energy and move to a higher energy state. Energy is absorbed in discrete packets of energy. When that energy is released by the electron to return to its original or more stable state, the excess energy absorbed is released as a discrete packet of energy, or quantum, in the form of light. This quantum is called a photon. Different amounts of energy absorbed then released by electrons accounts for the different colors of light seen. The electron is a producer of photons. Photons of light have been found to exhibit particle properties.
Could an element be found that would “fit” between Na and Mg on the periodic table? Justify your answer.
No. Na is #11, which means it contains 11 protons. Mg is #12, which means it contains 12 protons. An element could not contain a portion of a proton. The periodic table is arranged by # of protons.
What is the atomic number of this element?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 8
d. 13
e. 25
Which symbol represents this element?
a. He
b. Li
c. O
d. Al
e. Mn
3. What is the mass number of this element?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 8
d. 13
e. 27
1. What is the atomic number of this element?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 8
d. 13
e. 25
2. Which symbol represents this element?
a. He
b. Li
c. O
d. Al
e. Mn
3. What is the mass number of this element?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 8
d. 16
e. 25
How many protons does Be have?
a. two
b. four
c. five
d. nine
Use your periodic table to answer this question.
Which of these elements has physical and chemical properties most similar to silicon (Si)?
a. germanium (Ge)
b. silver (Ag)
c. phosphorus (P)
d. chlorine (Cl)
Use your periodic table to answer this question:
The number of neutrons in Antimony 122 is?
a. 51
b. 71
c. 94
d. 122
e. 172
What is the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of potassium-42?
a. 15
b. 19
c. 39
d. 42
As a Ca atom undergoes oxidation to Ca2+, the number of neutrons in its nucleus:
a. decreases
b. increases
c. remains the same
An atom of carbon-12 and an atom of carbon-14 differ in:
a. atomic number
b. atomic mass
c. nuclear charge
d. number of electrons
All the isotopes of a given atom have:
a. the same atomic mass and the same atomic number
b. the same atomic mass but different atomic numbers
c. different atomic mass but the same atomic number
d. different atomic mass and different atomic numbers
Which pair of nuclear symbols illustrates different isotopes of the same element?
90 92
Sr Sr
38 38
This is the correct answer
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons but a different
a. number of electrons
b. number of neutrons
c. atomic number
d. nuclear charge
What is the structure of a krypton-85 atom?
a. 49 electrons, 49 protons, 85 neutrons
b. 49 electrons, 49 protons, 49 neutrons
c. 36 electrons, 36 protons, 85 neutrons
d. 36 electrons, 36 protons, 49 neutrons
An atom of fluorine has an atomic mass of 19. The total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus is
a. 9
b. 10
c. 19
d. 28
The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom can be determined by
a. adding the atomic number to the atomic mass
b. subtracting the atomic number from the atomic mass
c. adding the atomic mass to the atomic mass
d. subtracting the atomic mass from the atomic number
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are classified as:
a. charged atoms
b. charged nuclei
c. isomers
d. isotopes
Use your periodic table to answer this question.
Which element would you expect to have chemical properties similar to calcium (Ca)?
a. strontium, Sr
b. potassium, K
c. rubidium, Rb
d. sodium, Na
Use your periodic table to answer this question.

Which element would you expect to have chemical properties similar to arsenic (As)?
a. germanium, Ge
b. selenium, Se
c. antimony, Sb
d. krypton, KR
Which element is classified as a noble gas at STP?
a. hydrogen
b. oxygen
c. neon
d. nitrogen
Which two elements have chemical properties that are most similar?
a. Cl and Ar
b. Li and Na
c. K and Ca
d. C and N
Use your periodic table to answer this question.
Lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium are all members of the
a. alkali metals
b. lanthanides
c. halogens
Use your periodic table to answer this question.
Which of the following elements would you expect to be an unreactive gas?
a. phosphorus, P
b. calcium, Ca
c. argon, Ar
d. carbon, C
Which of the following elements has the strongest attraction for electrons?
a. boron
b. aluminum
c. oxygen
d. sulfur
Which of the following elements would you expect to have similar reactive properties to magnesium?
a. iron
b. nickel
c. strontium
d. cadmium
e. zirconium
As the elements in Group 17 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, the chemical reactivity of each successive element:
a. decreases
b. increases
c. remains the same
Which Group of the Periodic Table contains atoms with a stable outer electron configuration?
a. 1
b. 8
c. 16
d. 18
The properties of carbon are expected to be most similar to those of
a. boron
b. aluminum
c. silicon
d. phosphorus
Which elements are both classified as metalloids?
a. Ge and As
b. Bi and Po
c. B and C
d. Si and P
A characteristic of a nonmetal is
a. high melting points
b. high electronegativity
c. high electrical conductivity
d. the ability to form positive ions
Use your periodic table to answer this question.
An example of an element that can be classified as a metalloid is
a. arsenic, As
b. cobalt, Co
c. sodium, Na
d. bromine, Br
Which element in Period 4 is classified as an active nonmetal?
a. Ga
b. Ge
c. Br
d. Kr
Pure silicon is chemically classified as a metalloid because silicon
a. is malleable and ductile
b. is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity
c. exhibits hydrogen bonding
d. exhibits metallic and nonmetallic properties
Most of the groups in the Periodic table of the Elements contain
a. nonmetals, only
b. metals, only
c. nonmetals and metals
d. metals and metalloids
Which group contains a metalloid?
a. 1
b. 11
c. 15
d. 18
Arsenic and silicon are similar in that they both
a. have the same ionization energy
b. have the same covalent radius
c. are transition metals
d. are metalloids
1. Determine from the periodic table which set of elements represents exclusively metals.
a. 0, N, Cl, Br
b. Fe, Mn, Cl, He
c. Cu, Fe, Sn, Li
d. Rn, 0, P, S
e. Au, Ag, Na, Br
2. Determine from the periodic table which set of elements represents exclusively gases.
a. O, N, Ne
b. Al, Na, Cl
c. Sr, Ar, Zn
d. C,P,O
e. S, Fe, Ra