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51 Cards in this Set

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Respiratory Diverticulum or Laryngotracheal dierticula froms from
ventral wall of foregut to make brocnial buds
Tracheoesophageal septum divides the
Foregut to
Esophagus and trachea
90% of TE fistulas occur in
Distal thid of trachea
TE fistulas associated with
Esophageal atresia and polyhydramnios
Adcucts vocal fold
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Posterior cricoarytenoid
ABducts vocal fold
cricothyroid
tenses vocal fold
thryroarytenoid
relaxes vocal fold
Cricothyroid is innervated by
EXTERNAL laryngeal nerve (branch of superior laryngeal of VAGUS)
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles are supplied by
Recurrent branch of vagus nerve
Space occupied by lingula of left lung during inspiration
costomediastinal recess
right lobe has
oblique and horizontal fissures.
Superficial drainage of Lungs
Bronchopulmonary nodes
drains to
tracheobronchial nodes
Know lung volumes
page 261
Muscles of Inspiration
Diagphragm,
External Intercostals (up and out)
Accessory muscles (1,2, ribs and sternum)
Muscles of Expriation
Passive (during quiet breathing)
Abdomnal muscles
Internal intercostal muscles (ribs downward and inward)
Compliance =
Distensibility of Lungs
v/P
Increased compliance
Emphysema
Decreased COmpliance
Fibrosis, RSD
Pneumothroax
PIP (intrapleural pressuer) becomes 0mm Hg and lungs collapse while chest wall expands
Laplace concept
liquid molecutes are stronge than liquid and gas, creating a collapsing pressure
Laplace Law
P= 2T/r
t: surface tension
r= radius of alveoli
Atelectasis
Smaller alveoli tend to collapse
Surfactant produced by Type II cells
Increases compliance
Airflow equation
Q=P/R
Airway Resistance
R= 8nl/ TT r^4
Differnce between Obstructive and REstrictive is
FVC and TLC
In Obstrucitve
If TLC: High, FVC= Low
all other values aer high
Restrictive=Low
If TLC: Low, FVC low
Perfusion limited gases
(equilibraie between alveolar gas and pulmonary cap)
O2, N2O, and CO2
Diffusion limited gases
Fibrosis, emphysema, exercise, low O2 gas mixture
Pulmonary diffusing capacity measured by
CO
Oxygen Transport Curve
SHIFT TO RIGHT
Increase in Temp
Increase PCO2
Exercise
LOW PH
HIGH DPG
SHIFT TO LEFT
LOW TEMP
LOW PCO2
LOW DPG
HIGH PH
CO POISONING
Shift to Right facilitates
unloading.
LOWEST AT APEX
HIGH AT BASE
Blood Flow
Ventilation
Generates breathing rhythm and expiratory center
Medulla
Apneustic center (prolonged inspiration)
Pneumotaxic center (Terminated inspiration)
regulated by
POns which regulated medulla
High altitude causes a
Right shift
Capsule, IGA protease
Gram +, Catalase -
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Treatment for Strep, pneumoniae
Penicillin
Gram - rod, chococlate agar
Bacteria and Treatment
H. influenza
Amoxiciliin
B lactamase producer.
Gram - coccus
Moraxella catarrhalis
M. catarrhalis
Treat with Ceftriaxone
Gram + yeast, germ tube test
Candida albicans
Treatment of Candida albicans
Nystatin, miconazole
Rapid antigen test, Gram +, catalase - coccus, B-hemolytic
Strep pyogenes
Treat with Penicillin
Heterophile +, Downey Type II cells. attaches on CD 21
EBV
Inactivates EF-2.
Gram + non motile, ELEK teswt
Corneybacterium diptheriae
Treatment with Penicllin
Gram +, Cat + Coagulase +
staph. aureus.
B-lactamase penicillin
Gram - rod
Urease +
Proteus
Polyribitol phosphate capsue. IGA protease, Gram - rod, rRequires hemin and NAD
H. influenza
Treatment: ceftriaxone