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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define a carrier
person colonized by a potential pathogen withhout overt disease
bacteria in bloodstream without overt clinical signs
bacteria in bloodstream (multiplying) with clinical symptoms
normal flora of blood and internal organs
none, generally sterile
normal flora of cutaneous surfaces inculding urethra and outer ear
staph. epidermidis
normal flora of nose
staph. aureus
normal flora oropharynx
Viridans streptococci, including Strp. mutans (cause of dental plaques)
normal flora of gingival crevices
Anaerobes: Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Actinomyces
normal flora of stomach
normal flora of colon (microaerophilic/anaerobic)
Babies; breast-fed only: Bifidobacterium
Adult: Bacteroides/Provotella (predominant organism) E.coli, Bifidobacterium
normal flora of vagina
Lactobacillus (group B strp, may infect the infant during delivery, causing septicemia and or meningitis, as may E.coli from fecal flora)
Encapsulated bacteria:
Some Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules: Strep. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans
Diphtheria toxin
EXOTOXIN: corynebacterium diptheriae (g+)--> ADP ribosyl transferase, inactivates EF-2; inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis---> targets the heart/nerves/epithelium
Exotoxin A
EXOTOXIN:Pseudomonas aeruginosa (g-)--> ADP ribosyl transferase; inactivates EF-2-->inhibits prtn synthesis-->targets the liver
Shiga Toxin
EXOTOXIN: Shigella dysenteriae (g-)-->interferes with 60s ribosomal subunit; inhibits prtn synthesis, enterotxic, cytotoxic, and neurtoxic--->may lead to HUS
Verotoxin (a shiga-like toxin)
EXOTOXIN: enterohemorrhagic E.Coli (EHEC)(g-)-->interferes with 60s ribosomal subunit;inhibits prtn synthesis-->primary cause of HUS
Tetanus Toxin
Exotoxin: closteridium tetani (g+)--> blocks the neuroTmitters glycine and GABA-->lack of inhibition of muscle contraction at synapses
Botulinum toxin
exotoxin: closteridium botulinum (g+)-->blocks the release of Ach; inhibits cholinergic synpasis-->flacid paralysis
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin -1 (TSST)
exotoxin that enhances ENDOTOXIN: staph. aureus (g+)-->pyerogenic, decreases liver clearance of LPS(endotoxin), suprantigin-->fever, increased susceptiblity to LPS, rash , shock, capillary leakage
Exotoxin A, a.k.a: erythrogenic or pyrogenic toxin
exotoxin that enhances ENDOTOXIN: strep. pyogenes (g+)-->pyerogenic, decreases liver clearance of LPS(endotoxin), suprantigin-->fever, increased susceptiblity to LPS, rash , shock, capillary leakage, cardiotoxicity
Heat labile toxin (LT)
exotoxin: Enterotoxic E.coli (g-)-->stimulates an adenlyate cyclase by ADP ribosylation of GTP binding prtn-->both LT and ST promotee secretion of secretion of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal epithelium
Cholera toxin
exotoxin: vibrio cholera (g-)-->stimulates an adenlyate cyclase by ADP ribosylation of GTP binding prtn-->profuse, watery diarrhea
Anthrax toxin (3 prtns make 2 toxins)
exotoxin: bacillus anthracis (g+)--> EF=edema factor=adenylate cyclase; LF=lethal factor; and PA=protective antigen (B component for both)--> decreases phagocytosis; causes edema, kills cells
Pertussis toxin
exotoxin: Bordetella pertusis (g-)-->ADP robosylates Gi (neg. regualtor of adenylate cyclase)-->increased cAMP-->histamine-sensitizing, lymphocytosis promoting, and islet activating
Alpha Toxin of clostridium
exotoxin: closteridium perfringens (g+)--> produces lecithinase-->damages cell membranes-->myonecrosis
Alpha of staph.
exotoxin: staph. aureus (g+)-->toxin intercalates forming pores-->cell membranes become leaky