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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Common causes of Post-gonnococcal urethritis
Chlamydia*, mycoplasma, and ureplasma; Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies visualized by Iodine staining or Direct fluorescent antibody tests
Presentation: symmetrical swelling of distal joints, large subcutaneous nodules on extensor surfaces of both arms, autoantibodies (IgG, IgM, or rarely IgA) against constant region of autologous IgG
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoantibodies against histones
Drug-induced Lupus
Muscles that externally rotate the shoulder
infraspinatus, teres minor, and posterior fibers of the deltoid muscles
muscle that adducts and internally rotates the humerus
pectoralis major
muscle that abducts and externally rotates the shoulder
How is the ventral horn of the spinal cord arranged with respect to limb enlargements?
alpha motor neurons to trunk and proximal muscles are located medially; distal muscles, laterally; extensors, anteriorly; flexors, posteriorly. (i.e. anterolateral herniation would damage distal extensor muscles of limb)
90% colonic polyps?
hyperplastic polyp - no malignant potential
what antibiotic will react with antacids in the stomach?
Example of a fibrocystic change that implies an increased risk for subsequent invasive breast cancer
Sclerosing adenosis - a proliferative fibrocystic disease; proliferation of small ducts and myoepithelial cells near the terminal duct lobular unit; fibrosis that distorts the glands and lobules into a whorled pattern.
Examples of benign non-proliferative changes in the breast -- NON-cancerous
blue-domed cyst of Bloodgood (dark fluid filled cysts), duct ectasia (associated with periductal inflammation, fibrosis, common in elderly women), apocrine metaplasia (transformation of ductal epithelial cells to eosinophilic cells, to look like apocrine sweat gland epithelium), intraductal papilloma (occurs in subareolar ducts, solitary, middle aged, mimics cancer and associated with nipple discharge)
Cell Marker for NK cells
Most common breast mass in men, under 25 years of age; presents as painless, firm, mobile mass beneath the nipple without fluid expression
Gynecomastia: a benign proliferation of ductal and stromal elements
What is the most toxic portion of the Gram negative bacterium's cell wall
Lipopolysaccharide, particularly Lipid A
enzyme produced by C.perfringens to damage cell membranes
Presentation: Malaise, Jaundice, Increased serum alkaline phosphatase compared to AST and ALT. markers antimitochondrial antibodies (especially M2 subtype)
Primary biliary cirrhosis (associated with systemic sclerosis aka scleroderma, Sjogrens, RA, thryoiditis, celiac disease, and glomerulonephritis.
Markers for SLE
Anti-ds-DNA AND anti-phospholipid antibodies
Markers for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid factor, which IS anti-self IgG
Presentation: low weight infant, short for age, cleft palate, nonspecific rhinitis, widespread desquamating maculopapular rash; positive for antibodies that flocculate mammalian cardiolipin; post-penicillin tx -> Endotoxic Shock (purple ecchymoses, spiking fever, and hypotension)
Congenital syphyllis
decrease in change in oncotic pressure indicates an increase or decrease in RBF?
Increased RBF
Presentation: Atypical pneumonia due to the overreplication of type II pneumocytes and their production of surfactant-rich exudates, which fill alveolar sacs and cause death by asphyxiation
P. jiroveci (EXTRACELLULAR organism; it also causes destruction of type I pneumocytes, but noncontributory to thickening of alveolar septa or interstitial pneumonia)
Symptom: multiple masses located at the gray-white matter junction
possibility (almost certainty) of metastatic disease
Where can you find the Great Saphenous Vein?
In the superficial fascia, passing anterior to the medial malleolus at the ankle and posterior to the medial side of the knee; then it passes through the saphenous hiatus of the fascia lata to empty into the femoral vein below the inguinal ligament
Presentation: hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, tachycardia, hypertension, and diaphoresis; patient is taking one medication
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome; patient taking an antipsychotic or antidepressant, like Amoxapine
Presentation: Colorectal cancer patient develops septicemia and complicated by endocarditis
Group D Strep (S.bovis); verify organism by presence of glycerol teichoic acid cell wall
Presentation: precocious sexual development, irregularly shaped pigmented skin macules, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with unmineralized whorls of connective tissue
McCune-Albright Syndrome