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71 Cards in this Set

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Vit A defeciency causes
- night blindness
- scaly rash
- xerophthalmia
- bitot spots
- increased infections
Vit A toxicity causes
- pseudotumor cerebri
- bone thickening
- teratogenicity
Vit D defeciency causes
- rickets
- osteomalacia
- hypocalcemia
Vit D toxicity causes
- hypercalcemia
- nausea/vomiting
- renal stones
Vit E defeciency causes
- anemia
- peripheral neuropathy
- ataxia
Vit E toxicity causes
necrotizing enterocolitis in infants
Vit K defeciency causes
- hemorrhage
Vit K toxicity causes
- hemolysis/kernicterus
B1 is aka
thiamine
thiamine is aka
B1
Thiamine deficiency causes
- cardiac failure
- peripheral neuropathy
- Wernicke/Korsakoff syndrome
Wet beriberi is
high output cardiac failure from thiamine deficiency
Dry beriberi is
peripheral neuropahty from thiamine deficiency
B3 is aka
niacin
Niacin is aka
B3
Niacin defeciency causes
- pellagra: dementia dermatitis, diarrhea
B6 aka
pyridoxine
Pyridoxine aka
B6
Pyridoxine defeciency causes
- peripheral neuropathy
- cheilosis
- stomatitis
- convulsions in infants
- microcytic anemia
- seborrheic dermatitis
Only B vitamin with known toxicity
B6
B6 toxicity causes
peripheral neuropathy
B12 is aka
cobalamin
cobalamin is aka
B12
B12 defeciency causes
megaloblastic anemia with neurological symptoms
Folic acid defeciency causes
megaloblastic anemia without neurological symptoms
Vitamin C defeciency causes
- scurvy
- poor wound healing
- hyperkaratotic hair follicles
- bone pain from periosteal hemorrhage
Iodine defeciency causes
- goiter
- cretinism
- hypothyroidism
Iodine toxicity causes
- myxedema
Fluorine defeciency causes
cavities
Fluorine toxicity causes
- mottling of teeth
- bone exstoses
Zinc defeciency causes
- decrease taste
- rash
- slow wound healing
Copper deficiency causes
Menke's disease (X-linked, kinky hair and mental retardation)
Boy with kinky hair and mental retardation likely has
copper deficiency with Menke's disease
Copper toxicity is seen in this disease
Wilson disease
Selenium deficiency causes
- cardiomyopathy
- muscle pain
Selenium toxicity causes
loss of hair and nails
Manganese toxicity causes
"madness"
Manganese toxicity occurs in
miners of ore
Chromium defeciency causes
impaired glucose tolerance
what causes craniotabes?
rickets
What is rachitic rosary?
costochondral beading in rickets
Where do bony changes of rickets first occur?
at ends of the radius and ulna
What is the most common cause of B12 defeciency?
pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia is what type of disorder?
autoimmune
Pernicious anemia is associated with what other disorders
Other autoimmune:
- vitiligo
- hypothyroid
- hypoadrenalism
What parasite causes B12 defeciency?
Diphyllobothrium latum (tapeworm)
Removal of this will cause B12 defeciency
the ileium
What test is used to determine the cause of B12 defeciency?
Schilling test
What does perinatal Vitamin K prevent?
hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
How do you treat high INR in liver disease
- with FFP, Vit K does not work because need synthetic function of the liver
Screening for colon cancer
* Above age 50
- stool occult blood every year
- sigmoidoscopy or double contract enema every 5 years
OR
- colonoscopy every 10 years
Screening for prostate cancer
* above 50
- annual rectal exam
- offer annual PSA
Screening for cervical cancer
Age 18-65
- each year, if normal x2 then can do pap every 3 years
Screening for gynecologic cancers
- age 20-40 pelvic q 3 years
- over 40 pelvic every year
Screening for endometrial cancer
endometrial biopsy once at menopause
Screening for breast cancer
-20+ monthy self exam
- 20-40 exam q 3 years
- over 40 exam q year and mammography annually
Screening for thryoid cancer
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
Screening for testicular cancer
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
Screening for ovarian cancer
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
Screening for thymphoma
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
Screening for oral cancer
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
Screening for skin cancer
20-40 exam every 3 years
40+ exam every year
What adults should get Hep B vaccine?
Anyone who wants it; anyone at high risk (health care)
What adults should get influenza vaccine?
- over 50
- high risk
- pregnant during flu season
- contacts of high risk patients
What adults should get pneumococcus vaccine?
- over 65
- high risk, including DM
What adults should get rubella vaccine
- women of childbearing age who are not immune
- OK in HIV but not other immunocompromised
- no pregnancy within 3 months of vaccine
What adults should get Td vaccine
All adults every 10 years
Top 3 causes of infant death
- congenital malformations
- prematurity/low birth weight
- SIDS
Top 3 causes of maternal mortality (within 42 days of birth of child)
- pulmonary embolism
- hypertension
- hemorrhage
How does prevalence affect PPV of a test?
higher prevalence = greater PPV
How does sensitivity affect NPV of a test?
more sensitive = greater NPV