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138 Cards in this Set

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hst-1 & int-2
ca of stomach, breast, bladder, melanoma - via overexpression of fibroblast growth factors
sis
astrocytoma via overexpression of PDGF
erb-B1
SCC of lung via overexpression of GFR
erb-B2
breast, ovary, lung via amplicification of EGFR (her2-neu, herceptin sensitive)
erb-B3
breast ca via overexpression of EGFR
ret
MEN II and III, medullary thyroid ca via point mutation in Glial neurotrophic factor R.
abl
CML and ALL via t(9:22) bcr-abl fusion with TK activity
Ki-ras
lung, pancreas, colon ca via point mutation in GTP binding protein
c-myc
burkitt lymphoma via t(8:14) nuclear regulatory protein
L-myc
SCC of lung via amplification of nuclear reg protein
N-myc
neuroblastoma via amplification of nuclear reg protein
cyclin D
mantle cell lymphoma via t(11:14) cyclin protein
CDK4
melanoma, GBM via amplification of cylin dependent kinase
what does p53 do?
prevents a DNA damaged cell from entering S-phase
what does Rb do?
prevents a cell from entering S-phase until the appropriate growth signals are present.
Germ line mutation of Rb on ch. 13
familial retinoblastoma: high rate of retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma
Germ line mutation of p53 on ch. 17
Li-Fraumini syndrome: high rate of many tumors
VHL
3p25: von Hippel Lindau dx, renal cell carcinoma
WT-1
11p13: wilms tumor
WT-2
11p15: wilms tumor
Rb
13q14: retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
p53
17p13.1: lung, breast, colon, others
BRCA-1
17q12-21: hereditary breast and ovarian ca
BRCA-2
13q12-13: hereditary breast cancer (only breast)
APC
5q21: adenomatous polyps and colon ca
DCC
18q21: colon cancer
NF-1
17q11.2: neurofibroma
NF-2
22q12: acoustic neuroma, meningioma
DPC
18: pancreatic cancer
what does bcl-2 do?
prevents apoptosis
t(14:18)
follicular lymphoma - bcl2:Ig heavy chain = overexpression of bcl-2 (no apoptosis)
what do bax, bad, bcl-xS, and bid do?
promote apoptosis
what does c-myc do?
promotes cellular proliferation, leads to apoptosis when associated with p53 but inhibits apoptosis when associated with bcl-2
a tumor with keratin is likely a?
carcinoma (epithelium)
a tumor with vimentin is likely a ?
sarcoma (mesenchymal cells)
a tumor with desmin is likely of what origin?
lieomyoma or rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle)
a tumor with neurofilament is likely of what origin?
pheochromocytoma or neuroplastoma (nervous tissue)
a tumor with GFAP is likely of what origin?
astrocytoma or ependyoma (glial cells)
increased AFP indicates?
hepatoma, nonseminoustaous testicular germ cell tumor, yolk sak tumor
increased hCG indicates?
trophoblastic tumor or choriocarcinoma
CEA is a useful marker for what tumors?
carcinomas of lung, pancreas, stomach, breast, and colon
CA-125 is a useful marker for what tumor?
ovarian cancer
CA19-9 is a useful marker for what tumor?
pancreatic cancer
PAP is a useful marker for what tumor?
seminoma
PSA is a useful marker for what tumor?
prostate cancer
what two markers are useful for monitoring prostate cancer?
PSA and prostatic acid phsophatase
when might you see increased AFP?
hepatoma, yolk sac tumor, twin pregnancy, or with a neural tube defect?
in what circumstance would AFP be decreased?
a pregnancy with downs syndrome
neoplasms associated with Down syndrome?
ALL, AML
neoplasms associated with tuberous sclerosis?
astrocytoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma
neoplasm associated with Plummer-Vinson syndrome (atrophic glossitis, esophageal webs, anemia; all due to iron deficiency)
squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
neoplasms associated with Paget's disease fo bone
secondary osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
neoplasm associated with immunodeficiency states
malignant lymphoma
neoplasms associated with AIDS
aggressive malignant lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's) & Kaposi's sarcoma
neoplasms associated with acanthosis nigricans
visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)
abl
CML (oncogene)
c-myc
Burkitt's lymphoma (oncogene)
bcl-2
follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas (inhibits apoptosis) (oncogene)
erb-B2
breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas (oncogene)
ras
colon carcinoma (oncogene)
L-myc
Lung tumor (oncogene)
N-myc
neuroblastoma (oncogene)
ret
MEN II & III (oncogene)
Rb
13q; retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma (tumor suppressor)
BRCA1 and 2
17q, 13q; breast and ovarian cancer (tumor suppressor)
p53
17p; most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (tumor suppressor)
p16
9p; melanoma (tumor suppressor)
APC
5q; colorectal cancer (tumor suppressor)
WT1
11q; Wilms' tumor (tumor suppressor)
NF1
17q; Neurofibromatosis type I (tumor suppressor)
NF2
22q; Neurofibromatosis type II (tumor suppressor)
DPC
18q; pancreatic cancer (tumor suppressor)
DCC
18q; colon cancer (tumor suppressor)
PSA
prostatic carcinoma
CEA
carcinoembryonic antigen; very nonspecific but produced by about 70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers; also produced by gastric and breast carcinomas
alpha-fetoprotein
hepatocellular carcinomas; nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testes (e.g. yolk sac tumor)
beta-HCG
Hyatidiform mole, Choriocarcinomas, and Gestational trophoblastic tumors
CA-125
ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors
S-100
melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytomas
alkaline phosphatase
metastases to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Paget's disease of bone
bombesin
neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer
TRAP
tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; hairy cell leukemia, a B cell neoplasm
HTLV-1
adult T cell leukemia
HBV, HCV
hepatocellular carcinoma
EBV
Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma
HPV
cervical carcinoma (16, 18), penile/anal carcinoma
HHV-8
Kaposi's sarcoma, body cavity fluid B cell lymphoma
aflatoxins
liver (hepatocellular carcinoma)
vinyl chloride
liver (angiosarcoma)
CCL4
liver (centrilobular necrosis, fatty change)
nitrosamines
esophagus, stomach
asbestos
lung (mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma)
arsenic
skin (squamous cell carcinoma)
naphthalene (analine) dyes
bladder (transitional cell carcinoma)
alkylating agents
blood (leukemia)
t(9;22)
CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(14;18)
follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(15;17)
M3 type of AML - responsive to all-trans retinoic acid
t(11;22)
Ewing's sarcoma
t(11;14)
mantle cell lymphoma
cyst - distention of unruptured graafian follicle - may be associated with hyperestrinism and endometrial hyperplasia
follicular cyst
cyst - hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum; menstrual irregularity
corpus luteum cyst
cyst - often bilateral/multiple; due to gonadotropin stimulation; associated with choriocarcinoma and moles
theca-lutein cyst
most common malignant germ tumor of the ovaries
dysgerminoma
most common malignant germ tumor of testes
seminoma
sheets of uniform cells, increased hCG; increased risk wiht cryptorchidism; presents as painless testicular enlargemnt
seminoma
aggressive malignancy in ovaries, testes, sacrococcygeal area of young children; Schiller-Duval bodies, primitive glomeruli, increased AFP
yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor
2nd most common testicular germ cell tumor; painful mass; glandular with papillary convolutions
embryonal carcinoma
what type of teratoma is malignant in females?
immature
what type of teratoma is malignant in males?
mature - painful; can present with gynecomastia
what does struma ovarii contain?
functional thyroid tissue
20% of ovarian tumors; frequently bilateral, lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium; benign
serous cystadenoma
50% of ovarian tumors; malignant and frequently bilateral
serous cystadenocarcinoma
multilocular ovarian cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium; benign
mucinous cystadenoma
malignant ovarian tumor; pseudomyxoma peritonei - intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor
mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
benign ovarian tumor that resembles bladder epithelium
Brenner tumor
triad of ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax
Meigs' syndrome
ovarian tumor that secretes estrogen, causing precocious puberty in kids; can cause endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in adults; Call-Exner bodies
granulosa cell tumo
small follicles lined with eosinophilic secretions
Call-Exner bodies
benign testicular tumor containing Reinke crystals; androgen producing - gynocomastia in men & precocious puberty in boys
Leydig cell tumor
benign, androblastoma from sex cord stroma
sertoli cell tumor
most common testicular cancer in older men
lymphoma
fibrocystic breast disease showing hyperplasia of breast stroma
fibrosis
fibrocystic disease showing fluid filled cysts
cystic
fibrocystic disease with increased acini and intralobular fibrosis
sclerosing
fibrocystic disease showing increase in number of epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule; increased risk of carcinoma with atypical cells; occurs >30 years
epithelial hyperplasia
most common benign breast tumor <25 years; small, mobile, firm mass with sharp eges
fibroadenoma
large, bulky mass of connective tissue and cysts; tumor may have leaflike projections; benign breast tumor
cytosarcoma phyllodes
benign tumor of lactiferous ducts - presents with nipple discharge
intraductal papilloma
early malignant breast tumor without basement membrane penetration
ductal carcinoma in situ
firm, fibrous mass; common malignant breast tumor
invasive ductal, no specific type
ductal breast cancer, with cheesy consistency due to central necrosis
comedocarcinoma
malignant breast tumor with lymphatic involvement & poor prognosis
inflammatory
fleshy, cellular, lymphocytic infiltrate w/ good prognosis (malignant breast tumor)
medullary
eczematous patches on nipple
Paget's disease of the breast
large cells with clear halo
Paget cells
from where do malignant breast tumors arise?
mammary duct epithelium or lobular glands