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75 Cards in this Set

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Gram - bacillus
Curved, small
Growth on Campy agar
Urease +
H. pylori
Urease + breath test
H. pylori
Associated with 100% of Duodenal Ulcers
H. pylori
H. pylori treatment
BMT = Bismuth + Metronidazole + Tetracycline
Gram - bacillus
Curved, small
Growth on Campy agar
Urease -
Campylobacter jejuni
Grows at 42' C in microaerophilic conditions
C. jejuni
Gram - associated with Guillain-Barre Syndrome
C. jejuni

Inflammation & demyelination of peripheral nerves & motor fibers of ventral roots, causing symmetric ascending muscle weakness beginning in distal lower extremities
only Gram - without typical Endotoxin
Bacteroides
Gram - strict anaerobe
Bacteroides

**others = ABC
-Actinomyces
-Bacterioides
-Clostridium
After abdominal surgery patient has ABSCESSES
Bacteroides fragilis
4 clinical presentations of H. influenza
HaEMOPhilus

Epiglotitis
Meningitis
Otitis media
Pneumonia
Requires Factors X (hemin) and V (NAD) on Chocolate agar to grow
H. influenza
H. influenza meningitis DOC
Ceftriaxone
Charcoal yeast extract with Iron and Cysteine
Legionella pneumophila
-Heavy smoker complaining of the "flu"
-Watery diarrhea
-Sputum: many neutrophils but no bacteria
-CXR: nodular infiltrates

Other disease caused by this microbe?
Legionella pneumophila = Legionaire's disease

Pontiac Fever = acute flu-like illness lasting 2-5 days
Gram - that stains poorly, must use Silver stain

Transmission?

Rx?
Legionella

Aerosol transmission from environmental water source...no P-to-P

Erythromycin
Pertussis toxin MOA
ADP-ribosylates Gi = uninhibited AC = high cAMP
Infant with severe bouts of coughing
-attack of many coughs on a single expiration followed by a deep inspiration
Bordetella pertussis
Only stage in which B. pertussis can be treated with Erythromycin
Catarrhal = flu-like symptoms
What are the antibodies generated from vaccine targeted against for B. pertussis?
Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA)
-Goat cheese consumption
-Caseating granulomas and abscess formation
-Fever that climbs during the day and declines at night
Brucella = Undulating fever
-Black ulcer from tick bite
-Axillary lymph nodes on same side are enlarged
-microbe requires Cysteine for growth
Francisella tularensis
Cellulitis and Osteomyelitis after Cat/dog bite
Pasteurella multocida
2 obligate intracellular bacteria
Chlamydia and Rickettsia
-Chronic cough
-Night sweats
-CXR: cavitations with air-filled levels in the apex of left lung
M. tuberculosis
Immune response to M. TB
DTH
Reservoir in Armadillo
M. leprae
-thickened cheeks + deformed nose
-sensory loss in hands and legs
-testicular atrophy
-posterior tibial and ulnar nerves are palpable

Would this person have a + or - test? Why?
M. lepromatous leprosy

Negative b/c they don't have the proper T cell response
What do you give a patient who, due to treatment of leprosy, develops Erythema Nodosum Leprosum?
Thalidomide
Tabes Dorsalis
Treponema pallidum = Syphillus
Neonate with deafness, saddle nose, and teeth deformities
Congenital Syphilis
1. Painless chancre
2. Condylomata lata
3. Gummas
T. pallidum
Aortitis or Ascending Aortic Aneurysm
Treponema Pallidum

**remember Syphillitic aneurysm?
Jarish-Herxheimer reaction
Lysis of Treponeme -> release of endotoxin -> fever, chills, myalgias
Meningitis:
-high lymphocytes
-low PMNs
Treponema pallidum
Yaws genus
Treponema
FTA-ABS ??
anti-treponemal Ab detection
Symptoms of stage 2 Lyme Disease
CNS: Bell's palsy, Aseptic meningitis

CV: Myopericarditis

Myalgias & transient Arthritis
Primary symptom of Lyme Disease
Erythema Chronicum Migrans = "bulls-eye" rash
Stage 3 symptoms of Lyme Disease
Chronic Polyarthritis
How is Lyme Disease acquired?
Ixodes tick
Lyme Disease microbe
Borrelia burgdorferi
How is Relapsing Fever (Borrelia recurrentis) acquired?
Human body louse
Why does Borrelia recurrentis cause Relapsing Fever?
Antigenic variation of outer membrane proteins by rearrangement and expression of silent genes
Stains used for Spirochetes
Giemsa and Wright stains
How are Treponemes visualized?
Darkfield Microscopy and Fluorescent Antibody staining
Weil's disease = vasculitis w/ hemorrhagic complications, kidney damage with renal failure, liver damage with jaundice
Leptospira interrogans
Appearance: hooked end described as "ice tongs"
Leptospira
Culture of this microbe on Eaton agar has "fried-egg" appearance
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Cold hemagglutination
Mycoplasma
Only bacteria with Cholesterol in membranes
Mycoplasma
Describe Atypical pneumonia
-diffuse interstitial infiltrate
-slow onset
-non-productive cough
Atypical pneumonia transmitted by birds
Chlamydia psittaci
Difference between Chalymdia and Rickettsia intracelluar replication
Chlamydia replicate in Inclusion Bodies

Rickettsia replicate freely in cytoplasm
Vaginal discharge detecting numerous PMN's but no organisms on Gram stain
Chlamydia Trachomatis
Serovars that cause Trachoma (Chronic conjunctivitis) -> corneal scarring -> blindness
A-C
Serovars that cause Lymphogranuloma Venereum
L1-L3 (C. trachomatis)
-Diffuse interstitial infiltrate
-Gram stain shows PMN's but no organisms
-Giemsa stain reveals intracytoplasmic inclusions in epithelial cells
Chlamydia pneumonia
Diagnosis confirmed by Weil-Felix test
R. rickettsii
Tick that transmits RMSF
Dermacentor
Rash on palms and soles that spreads centrally to trunk
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rash that begins on the trunk and begins to spread outwards but sparing the palms and soles
R. prowazekii = Epidemic Typhus
Brill-Zinsser Disease
R. prowazekii = recovery without antibiotics with latents microbes within cells causing recurrent, mild epidemic typhus
Microbe that causes Atypical Pneumonia but exists extracellulary as a spore
-Weil-Felix negative
Coxiella burnetii
Patient whose eye accomodates to near objects but does not react to light. Diagnosis?
Argyll Robertson Pupil = Tertiary Syphillis = T. pallidum
What patients may have positive VDRL? Why? What is the next step if you suspect Syphillis?
SLE & Infectious Mono

Anti-cardiolipin Ab's

FTA-ABS is a more specific test
Explain the life cycle of Chlamydia
Elementary Bodies = enters the cell via Endococytosis

Reticular Body = Replicates in teh cell by fission
Sexually transmitted -> painless ulceration at site of infection -> ulcers heal spontaneously but bacteria spread to regional lymph nodes -> lymphadenopathy weeks later -> buboes fuse, soften & suppurate -> creates multiple draining sinuses -> may lead to proctitis, rectal stricture
L1-L3 Lymphogranuloma Venereum of Chlamydia Trachomatus
22-year old student presents with nonproductive cough, fever, sore throat. CXR demonstrates diffuse interstitial infiltrate. Sputum Gram stain shows many PMNs but no organisms, & a Giemsa stain reveals intracytoplasmic inclusions in epithelial cells. Doxycycline treatment is begun
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Rash that begins on palms & soles and then spreads centrally to the trunk
Rickettsia rickettsii
2 obligate intracellular parasites
Rickettsia & Chlamydia

**it's Really Cold outside
Vector or RMSF
Dermacentor tick
What 3 agents cause a Palm & Sole rash?
RMSF

Syphillis

Coxsackie virus
Person was bit by a flea & then developed a rash that began on the trunk & then spread to the extremities, but sparing palms & soles
R. typhi = Endemic typhus
A cattle farmer goes to his doctor complaining of a mild cough & fever. He says that the fever began abruptly several days ago. His occupation as a cattle slaughterer leads the doctor towards a diagnosis, & tetracycline is administered. The diagnosis is confirmed by serology & a negative Weil-Felix test
Coxiella Burnetii = Q fever
-atypical pneumonia
-carried in cattle, sheep, goat & shed in animal products
-inhaled as a spore