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107 Cards in this Set

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What is Ritter's Syndrome?
When S. aureus colonizes the Umbilicus of neonate and releases EXFOLIATIVE TOXIN = Scalded Skin Syndrome
Novobiocin sensitive
S. epidermidis
Treatment for S. epidermidis
Vancomycin

*most strains are resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins
Novobiocin resistant
S. saprophyticus
-"Sandpaper" rash that begins on the trunk and spreads outward
-"Strawberry" tongue within first 2 days
-Desquamation of palms and soles after rash subsides
S. pyogenes Scarlet Fever
Explain Toxic Strep
-Cellulitis infection
-systemic release of Exotoxin A = Superantigen
-Polyclonal activation of T cells
Cause of Necrotizing Fasciitis due to Exotoxin B (a protease)
-rapid necrosis along fascial planes, sparing muscles
S. pyogenes
Gram + cocci, Catalase - that grows in 40% bile and 6.5% NaCl
Enterococcus faecalis = highly drug resistant
All Enterococci strain are resistant to what drug?
Cephalosporins
Gram + coccus which grows in bile but is susceptible to salt
-causes Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
-associated with Colon Cancer
Strep BOVIS
Optochin sensitive
S. pneumo
Rusty-colored sputum with right lower lob consolidation
S. pneumo
2 deficiencies that would make one susceptible to S. pneumo infections
Asplenic

IgG2
Age group in which S. pneumo is the most common cause of Meningitis
> 60 years
Optochin resistant microbe that causes dental caries and Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Strep mutans (Viridians)
Optochin resistant microbe that causes brain/liver abscesses and Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Strep. Intermedius
Food poisoning after eating reheated rice
BAcillus cereus
What are you ingesting after eating Bacillus Cereus reheated rice?
Spores = bacteria form protective spores during high temperature cooking
Has a Poly-D glutamic acid capsule
B. anthracis
3 toxins produced in B. anthracis
1. Protective antigen (PA): binds cell membrane and mediates endocytic entry of EF or LF

2. Edema Factor (EF): activates Adenylate Cyclase

3. Lethal Factor (LF): cell death
Non-motile Clostridium species
Perfringens
Bacteria with Terminal Spores
Clostridia
Clostridia toxin that travels retrogradely on axons of peripheral motor neurons
Tetanus
Spastic paralysis
Tetanus
Double vision + Ptosis
C. botulinum
Toxins present in Canned foods
C. botulinum
What does infant ingest in Floppy baby syndrome?
SPORES of C. botulinum
What does an adult ingest in Adult Botulism?
Heat-labile TOXINS
Inhibits GABA release
C. tetanus
Inhibits Acetycholine release
C. botulinum
How does C. difficile survive antibiotic treatment?
forms spores which germinate after antibiotic treatment is over
How does C. difficile cause Watery diarrhea and Pseudomembranous Colitis?
Diarrhea = toxin A alter fluid secretion

PMC = Toxin B is cytotoxic to epithelial cells

*only release toxins in LOG phase
Air bubbles below the skin that generate a crackling sound when touched (crepitus)
C. perfringens
Lecithinase (alpha toxin) that causes muscle cell necrosis
C. perfringens
Gas gangrene
C. perfringens
Gram + rod with tumbling motility
Listeria
Only Gram + with endotoxin
Listeria
Listeria and B-hemolytic Strep appear similar on blood agar...how do you differentiate?
Listeria is Catalase +
Tellurite agar
C. diphtheria
Gram + rod with "chinese letter" appearance
C. diphtheria
Where is Diphtheria toxin derived?
Phage
Gram + filament
Obligate Anaerobe
Actinomyces israelii
Yellow Sulfur granules
Actinomyces
Draining sinus tracts after dental work
Actinomyces
Gram + filament that forms abscesses in mouth, lungs, GI, GU
Actinomyces
Gram + filament that is weakly acid fast
Nocardia
Caseous granuloma in lung containing Gram + filaments
Nocardia
-Obligate Aerobe

**Nagging Pests Must Breathe
Kidney-bean shaped diplococci
N. meningitidis
Maltose and Glucose oxidizer
N. meningitidis
Most common cause of meningitis in 6-60 year olds
N. meningitidis
Thayer-Martin media
Neisseria
Meningococcemia with petechial rash
N. menigitidis
Site where B-lactamases reside
periplasmic space
Most common cause of septic arthritis in sexually active people
N. gonorrhoeae
Dysuria + yellow urethral discharge
N. gonorrhoeae
Glucose oxidizer only
N. gonorrhoeae
What does N. gonorrhoeae specialized Pili provide?
1. ANTIGENIC VARIATION
2. mucosal attachment
3. prevents phagocytosis
Ophthalmia Neonatorum = risk for blindness

How to prevent?

Why is vaccine difficult?
N. gonorrhoeae

prophylactic Erythromycin eye drops for neonates

pili antigen variation
What is Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome?
when N. gonorrhoeae spill into the Peritoneal cavity from the fallopian tubes and infect the Liver Capsule
Treatment for N. gonorrhoeae
Ceftriaxone
When is there a higher incidence of infection with N. gonorrhoeae?
Menstruation
Alcoholic produces bloody "currant-jelly" sputum

CXR shows Right Upper Lobe inflammation with cavities

Rx?
Klebsiella pneumonia

3rd generation Cephalosporin = Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Ceftazadime
Gram - rods
Lactose fermenter
large Capsule
Klebsiella
E. coli LT toxin mode of action
ADP ribosylates Gs = activates Adenylate Cyclase = high cAMP = watery diarrhea
E. coli ST toxin mode of action
activates Guanylate cyclase = high cGMP = low cotransport of NaCl into cells = water remains in lumen = watery diarrhea
E. coli shiga-like toxin mode of action
inactivates 60S ribosome = block protein synthesis = cell death
2 E.coli species that produce Shiga-like toxin
EHEC

EIEC
Gram - rod that is motile and produces H2S
Salmonella
Gram - rod that causes Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell patients
Salmonella typhi
Fever with enlarged spleen and generally tender abdomen with red macules
Salmonella typhi
Stored in Gall bladder
S. typhi
Vi polysaccharide capsule
Salmonella = allows it to survive in phagocytes in Peyer's Patches
Diarrhea and vomiting after playing with a turtle
Salmonella Enteritidis
Non-motile Gram - rod
Lactose -
Oxidase -
Shigella
Microbe whose antigen is used to diagnose Rickettsia in the Weil-Felix reaction
Proteus vulgaris O antigen
-the antigens cross-react with a patient's serum Ab's against Rickettsia
Urease +
Gram - rod
"swarming growth"
Proteus Mirabilis
Most common cause of UTI in nursing home patients with indwelling catheters
Providencia
Gram - rods
Lactose fermenter
large Capsule
Klebsiella
E. coli LT toxin mode of action
ADP ribosylates Gs = activates Adenylate Cyclase = high cAMP = watery diarrhea
E. coli ST toxin mode of action
activates Guanylate cyclase = high cGMP = low cotransport of NaCl into cells = water remains in lumen = watery diarrhea
E. coli shiga-like toxin mode of action
inactivates 60S ribosome = block protein synthesis = cell death
2 E.coli species that produce Shiga-like toxin
EHEC

EIEC
Gram - rod that is motile and produces H2S
SalMonella = capital M = motile
Gram - rod that causes Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell patients
Salmonella typhi
Fever with enlarged spleen and generally tender abdomen with red macules
Salmonella typhi = Typhoid Fever
Stored in Gall bladder
S. typhi
Vi polysaccharide capsule
Salmonella
Diarrhea and vomiting after playing with a turtle
Salmonella Enteritidis
Non-motile Gram - rod
Lactose -
Oxidase -
Shigella
Microbe whose antigen is used to diagnose Rickettsia in the Weil-Felix reaction
Proteus vulgaris O antigen
Urease +
Gram - rod
Proteus Mirabilis
Most common cause of UTI in nursing home patients with indwelling catheters
Providencia
Rice water diarrhea after eating raw seafood
V. parahaemolyticus
Grows yellow on TCBS agar
Comma-shaped Gram - rod with single flagella
Vibrio cholera
Cholera toxin mode of action
ADP ribosylates Gs = activates AC = high cAMP = cells secrete Cl- = fluid follows = watery diarrhea

**carried on a Bacteriophage
**BCDE
-Botulinum toxin
-Cholera toxin
-Diphtheria toxin
-Erythrogenic toxin of S. pyogenes
Gram - bacillus
Lactose -
Oxidase +
Glucose +
Vibrio cholera

*Pseudomonas is Glucose -
P. aeruginosa Exotoxin A MOA
ADP ribosylates EF-2 = inhibits protein synthesis
Endemic in SE Asia and infected Vietnam veterans
-fever
-bloody sputum
-pneumonia
P. pseudomallei
Osteomyelitis in Diabetic or IV drug user
P. aeruginosa
Malignant External Otitis
P. aeruginosa
Folliculitis after a night in the hot tub
P. aeruginosa
Blue/green colonies with fruity odor
P. aeruginosa
Gram - bacilli
Lactose -
Motile at 25' C, not at 37' C
Blood diarrhea
Y. enterocolitica
Mesenteric adenitis mimicing Apendicitis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Safety-pin bipolar staining appearance
Y. pestis
transmitted to humans from rodents by fleas -> phagocytosed -> transported to regional lymph nodes -> multiplies & stimulates inflammation -> regional lymphadenitis often in groin

within macrophages capsular F1 antigen prevents phagocytosis -> intracellular replication, spread -> invades spleen, skin, liver, lungs -> endotoxin causes DIC -> cutaneous hemorrhagic necrosis causing black color (Black Death = Bubonic Plague)
y. pestis
What do vaccines for Y. pestis produce antibodies against?
F1 capsular antigen