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77 Cards in this Set

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which bacterium's capsule made of D-glutamate (not polysaccharide)?
Bacillus anthracis
Who has IgA protease
Neisseria, H. influenzae, Strep. pneumo
Which bugs do NOT Gram stain well?
(These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color); Treponema (too thin); Rickettsia (intracellular); Myobacterium (high lipid content); Mycoplasma (no cell wall); Legionella (mostly intracellular--do Ag stain); Chlamydia (intracellular)
Stability of exotoxin vs endotoxin
exo--destroyed rapidly at ~60C; endo--stable at 100C for 1 hr
Bugs with superantigens
S.aureus (TSST-1, enterotxin); S.pyogenes (erythrogenic toxin); (and EBV??)
which bugs have ADP ribosylating toxins?
C.diphtheriae (EF-2); Pseudomonas (EF-2); V.cholera (AC->cAMP); e.coli (AC->cAMP and GC->cGMP); B.pertussis (inhibits Gi)
double zone of hemolysis seen with?
C.perfringens
Bordet-Gengou agar for who
Bordetella pertussis (increased blood concentration)
What agar for Legionella?
Charcoal yeast extract (needs Fe and cysteine)
What agar for Neisseria?
if sterile site--chocolate; if nonsterile (dick drip)--Thayer-Martin
What agar for H.influenzae?
chocolate with factor X and V
what agar for C. perfringens?
egg yolk (lecithinase degrades yolk ,get insoluble precipitates)
What agar for TB?
Lowenstein-Jenson (has lipids)
What agar for C.diphtheria
tellurite
Bacitracin sensitivity test for?
to distinguish beta hemolytic streps: Strep. pyogenes (sensitive) vs Strep agalactaie (resistant)
Which are the alpha hemolytic streps?
Strep pneumo, Viridans strep (distinguish on basis of bile, optochin sensitivity)
Which bugs are beta hemolytic (green partial hemolysis)?
Staph aureus (cat&coag+); Strep pyogenes (bacitracin sensitive); Strep agalactaie (bacitracin R); Listeria monocytogenes (tumbling, short GPR)
How distinguish Shigella from Salmonella?
(both GNR, non lactose fermenters); Shigella--no gas from glucose fermentation, no H2S, non motile
how distinguish Neisserias?
N. meningitis--ferments glucose and maltose; N. gon--ferments only glucose
Significance of phenylenediamine agar?
turns black if organism is oxidase positive
Red pigmented colonies?
think Serratia
Quellung test
tests for capsule. if capsule, swells
Ag stain used for?
Legionella, fungi, PCP
Ziehl-Nielson stain?
acid fast stain
Giemsa stain best for?
Borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, chlamydia
Which bacterial toxins encoded by lysogenic phage?
botulinim, cholera, diphtheria, strep pyogenes erythrogenic
obligate aerobes?
(Nagging Pests Must Breathe); Nocardia, Pseudomonas, M.tuberculosis, Bacillus
Obligate anaerobes?
Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces
Facultative intracellular bugs?
(Some Nasty Buds May Live FacultativeLY); Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia
"safety pin"
Persinia
Protein A
virulence factor in Staph aureus; binds to Fc-IgG to inhibit complement fixation and phagocytosis
what bug assoc'd with mayonnaise, custard food poisoning?
staph aureus (preformed toxin--starts fast, ends fast)
4 bacterial toxins that induce cAMP?
v.cholera toxin; B.pertussis toxin (via inhibition of Gi); E.coli heat labile toxin; B.anthracis edema factor (bacterial AC)
treatment for Legionella
erythromycin (macrolide, binds 23S of rRNA of 50S; acute cholestatic hepatitis in mom; increases sr[theophylline, oral coag])
Pseudomonas tx
aminoglycoside + extended spectrum penicillin (piperacillin, ticarcillin)
tx for H.pylori
bismuth + metronidazole + tetracycline/amoxicillin OR metronidazole + omeprazole + clarithromycin
Tx for Hansen's dz
dapsone (toxcitiy: hemolysis, methemoglobinemia)
hepatitis + pneumonia, think?
Q fever (Coxiella burnetii, inhaled, no rash)
What is Weil-Felix rxn?
assays for antiRickettsial bs which cross react with Proteus Ag; pos for typhus and RMSF
Vectors for the rickettsial dzs
RMSF (R.rickettsii)--dog tick Dermacentor; epidemic typhus (R.prowazekii)--human body louse; endemic typhus (R.typhi)--fleas; Q fever (C.burnetii)--aerosol
rash on sole and palms could be?
RMSF, syphilis, coxsackie A virus (RNA nonenveloped enterovirus)
stages of Lyme dz?
st1-erythema chornicum migrans, flulike sxs; st2-neurologic (Bells palsy) and heart block; st3--autoimmune migratory polyarthritis
spherule with endospores
Coccidioidomycosis (SW US)
ship's wheel morphology
Paracoccidoidomycosis (rural L.Am)
Cladosporium werneckii cuases?
tinea nigra; infection of keratinized layer of skin--> brownish spots (tx: salicyclic acid)
septate hyphae, 45degrees
Aspergillus
nonseptate hyphae, 90degrees
mucormycosis
cigar shaped budding yeast in pus
sporotrichosis, ascending lymphangitis
acid fast cysts
cryptosporidium
the vector for RMSF is also the vector for what dz?
(Dermacentor tick); also for Francisella tularensis
Ixodes tick is vector for what dzs?
Babesia, Lyme, Erhlichiosis
Strep bovis bacteremia assoc'd with?
underlying colonic malignancies
who is CAMP test positive?
strep agalactiae
Whic is pyrrolidinyl arylamidase positive?
gp D strep--enterococcus; gp A strep--strep pyogenes
Yersinia enterocolitica usually acquired from?
contaminated milk or pork
How dz rickettsial dzs in lab?
serologic analysis (ELISA) > isolation of organism
which DNA viruses are NOT linear?
Papovavirus (circular/supercoiled); Hepadna (circular, incomplete)
Most DNA viruses are helical or icosahedral? what's the exception?
icosahedral, except for Pox ("complex")
Which RNA virus families are NOT enveloped?
Picornavirus (Entero, Rhino, ss(+)RNA); Calcivirus (HEV, Norwalk, ss(+)RNA); Reovirus (Roto, Colorado Tick Fever, dsRNA)
Which ss(+)RNA is helical?
Coronavirus
Which enveloped RNA viruses re (-)ssRNA?
orthomyxovirus, paramyxovirus, rhabdovirus, filovirus, arenavirus, bunyavirus, deltavirus
Which vaccines are egg-based?
Flu, MMR, Yellow fever
Which vaccines are KILLED?
Salk polio, rabies, influenza, HAV
How many serotypes in the paramyxoviruses?
1 except for parainfluenza which has 4
Name the dz: high fever, black vomitus, jaundice, transmitted by Aedes mosquito
yellow fever (flavivirus, ss(+)RNA, enveloped)
special medium for mycoplasma?
medium with cholesterol, purines, and pyrimidines
what are episomes?
plasmids that have become integrated into csome by site-specific recombination--passed to every single product of binary fission
plasmid with tra operon?
= resistance transfer factor; believed to arise from movement of transposons w/i cells--> accumulate MDR genes into plasmids capable of mediating their own transfer by conjugation
plumber's itch
due to cutaneous larval migrans from dog/cat hookworms which cannot mature in host. infectious forms passed in dog/cat feces-->hazardous to crawl under house
swimmer's itch
itchy skin due to penetration by cercariae (larvae) of bird schistosomes (trematodes)
treatment of choice for toxoplasma encephalitis?
pyrmethamine+ sulfadiazine
what Rx for tissue invasive Entamoeba histolytica?
iodoquinol (metronidazole if no extraintestinal invasion)
golden brown eggs with bipolar plugs?
Trichuiria trichuria (whipworm, rectal prolapse)
rough-shelled brown oval eggs?
Ascaris lumbricoides
staph impetigo vs strep impetigo?
staph--older children, vesicular lesion; strep--younger children, weeping and oozing lesion
most common cause of bacterial meningitis in renal transplant pt or adult with cancer?
Listeria monocytogenes
what are sulfatides?
molecules elaborated by TB that allow it to survive w/i phagosomes