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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
rapid acting insulin drugs (3)
lispro
aspart
regular
intermediate acting insulin drugs (1)
NPH
long acting insulin drugs (2)
glargine
detemir
action of insulin drugs
- main (1)
- liver (2)
- muscle (3)
- fat (4)
1 - bind insulin R.
2. increase glycogen storage
3. increase glycogen and protein synthesis, K+ uptake
4. help TG storage
insulin drugs are used clinically for? (5)
1. type 1 DM
2. type 2 DM
3. gestational DM
4. life threatening hyperkalemia
5. stress-induced hyperglycemia
toxicities of insulin drugs (2)
1. hypoglycemia

2. hypersensitivity - rare
first generation sulfonylurea drugs (2)
tolbutamide
chlorpropamide
second generation sulfonylurea drugs (3)
glyburide
glimepride
glipizide
action of sulfonylurea drugs
close K+ channel on B cell membrane --> cell depolarizes and triggers insulin release via increases Ca2+ influx
clinical use of sulfonylurea drugs
stimulate endogenous insulin secretion in type 2 DM
side effects of first generation sulfonylurea drugs
disulfiram-like effects
side effects of second generation sulfonylurea drugs
hypoglycemia
examples of biguanide drug
Metformin
actions of Metformin (3)
decreases gluconeogenesis

increases glycolysis

increases peripheral glucose uptake
clinical notes about Metformin (2)
PO admin

can be used in pts w/o islet cell function
adverse effect of Metformin
lactic acidosis

C/I in renal failure
glitazone drugs (2)
pioglitazone

rosiglitazone
mechanism of action of glitazones
increase insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues --> binds to PPARy txn regulator
clinical use of glitazones
uses as monotherapy in type 2DM
adverse effects of glitazones (4)
1. weight gain
2. edema
3. hepatotoxicity
4. CV toxicity
a-glucosidase inhibitors (2)
acarbose
miglitol
action of a-glucosidase inhibitors
inhibit intestinal brush border a-glucosidases --> delayed sugar hydrolysis and absorprtion post-prandially
clinical use of a-glucosidase inhibitors
monotherapy for DM2
adverse effects of a-glucosidase inhibitors
GI disturbances
pramlintide
decreases glucagon
used for DM2
adverse effects of pramlintide (3)
hypoglycemia
nausea
diarrhea
GLP1 analogs
exenatide

-- type 2 DM
action of GLP1 analogs (2)
1. increase insulin
2. decrease glucagon release
adverse effects of GLP-1 analogs (3)
nausea
vomiting
pancreatitis
Tx. of hyperthyroidism ? (2)
1. propylthiouracil
2. methimazole
mechanism of action of propythiouracile and methimazole
inhibitor organification of iodide and coupling of TH synthesis

- PTU decrease peripheral conversion of T4-->T3
propylthiouracil
methimazole

--> adverse effects (4)
11. skin rash
2. agranulocytosis - rare
3. aplastic anemia
4. teratogenic - methimazole
drugs used for thyroxine replacement (2)
1. hypothyroidism
2. myxedema
toxicity of levothyroxine (methimazole)
1. tachycardia
2. heat intolerance
3. tremors
4. arrhythmias
octreotide
somatostatin analogue
clinical uses of octreotide (4)
1. acromegaly
2. carcinoid
3. gastrinoma
4. glucagonoma
desmopressin
ADH analogue
clinical uses of desmopressin
central diabetes insipidus
demeclocycline
ADH antagonist

--> tetracycline family
clinical use of demeclocycline
SIADH
toxicity of demeclocycline (3)
1. nephrogenic DI
2. photosensitivity
3. abnormalities of bones/teeth
glucocorticoids - names (5)
hydrocortisone
prednisone
triamcinolone
dexamethosone
beclomethasone
clinical uses of glucocorticoids (4)
1. addison's disease
2. inflammation
3. immune suppression
4. asthma
toxicities of glucocorticoids (2)
1. iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome
2. adrenal insufficiency if drug stopped abruptly after chronic use