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31 Cards in this Set

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cartilage
specialized connective tissue rich in collagen II, and GAGs, is avascular
what is the major cell type of collagen and what is its differentiation cascade?
messenchymal stem cells in perichondrium --> chondroid precursor cell --> chondroblast --> chondrocyte
two manners of cartilage enlargement?
appositional growth = new cells, increases width
internal/interstitial growth = hypertrophy and increased ECM = increased length
differentiate between new and old cartilage by staining, and what is the reason for this difference?
New cartilage is produced by mainly chondroblasts which secrete more collagen II > GAGs this will stain Pink as cartilage ages the c-blasts become c-cytes which secrete GAG>Collagen II so they will stain more blue
hyaline cartilage
this type of cartilage is the template for bone formation and is the articular cartilage of joints. Lots of GAGs, high water content, resists compression
elastic cartilage
stretchy, lots of elastin, ears, and throat, lots of collagen II
fibro cartilage
highest tensile strength, lots of collagen I and some II, ligament attachments and intervertebral disks, has no perichondrium little water retention
what are the two forms of bone?
compact bone and spongy/cancellous bone where hematopoiesis takes place
what is the stem cell and differentiation cascade of the primary bone marrow cell?
messenchymal stem cell --> osteoprogenitor --> osteoblast --> osteocytes
what special connective tissue component to osteoblasts secrete?
osteoid, type I collagen, GAGs
in what direction to osteoblasts secrete bone?
in a polarized manner causing appositional growth
what is bone made of?
bone is calcified osteoid which conssists of the the osteoid and hydroxyapetite crystals formed by Ph and Ca deposition
what is unique about osteocyte survival and communication?
they communicate via gap junctions and long communication extensions through the bone canalliculi, these processes are bathed in EC fluid
what role do oteoblasts play in monocyte differentiation?
they secrete M-CSF causing monocytes to differentiation to macrophages
how do macrophages differentiate into osteoclasts?
interaction with osteoblast RANK-L
which factors are involved in osteoclast activity regulation?
calcitonin and vitamin D3.
what is a howships lacuna?
the space carved out by osteoclasts degrading calcified bone
what is unique about intramembranous bone formation?
primitive messenchyme can differentiate directly to bone, without requiring a cartilagenous scaffolding.
where does intramembranous bone formation occur
flat bones, skull, embryogenesis, to form primary spongy bone
what are the steps of bone growth?
primary spongy bone becomes dense cortical bone, lacking intramembranous spaces and messenchyme, this remodels to lamellar bone and the exterior surface of bones
how does the marrow cavity form?
the central primary spongy bone trabeculae widen to form cancellous bone
what is endochondral bone formaiton
forms on hyaline cartilage, occurs in long bone extemeties, vertebrae, pelvis, requires chondroblasts and chondrocyte differentiation
differentiate the role of endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification in long bone growth
endochrondral begins in the center at the diaphysis and expands outward, replacing the central/inner cartilage with bone and increases length.
at the bone surface from the periosteum intramembranous ossification occurs forming the bone cortex.
how does bone formation occur, in what direction?
central cartilage grows and expands, with primary ossification chasing behind it, and everything chases the epiphyseal growth plate, which closes at puberty
what is the reserve zone
chondrocytes in epipheseal growth plate
proliferating zone
deep to reserve zone, contains proliferating chondrocytes,
zone of hypertrophy
deep to prolif zone, hypertrophic growth, lots of collagen production, chondrocytes in this zone are undergoing apoptosis
how does perichondrium differentiate to periosteum
growth factors induce stem cells to differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts attack the cartilage matrix
differentiate between haversion canals and spicules?
spicules are perpendicular to bone axis, haversion canals are along bone axis.
ddx between volkmans canals and haversion canals
volksmans canals are perpendicular to haversion canals and lack a surrounding osteon
what is an osteon
this is the basic unit of mature/cortical/lamellar bone, it is a canal bore out by osteoclasts, new osteblasts move in and deposit osteoid, this forms a canal surround by lamellae