Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/143

Click to flip

143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
regarding neuroleptics, what is the relationship between potency and anticholinergic side effects
inverse
what potentially lethal side effect of clozapine should be monitored w/ freq blood drawing
agranulocytosis- 2%
t or f
being college educated inc a man's risk of having premature ejaculation
t
so does a bad marriage, early sexual experiences in the back of a car, and sex w/ a prostitute
what is the term for rate measured for a subgroup of a population
specific rate
(men 55-60)
in what stage of psychosexual development do children resolve the Oedipus complex
latency stage (6-12)
where is lithium metabolized and excreted
95% in kidney's
that's why you need adequate Na and fluid intake
at what age do children begin to understand the irreversibility of death
8 to 9
prior to this they think its punishment
what are teh three benzo's that do not undergo microsomal oxidation
oxazepam
tamezepam
lorazepam
(Outside The Liver)
they undergo glucoronide conjugation
what neuropsychologic test has five basic scales testing for the presence and localization of brain dysfunction
Halsten-Reitan battery
-finger oscillation
speech
sound perception
rhythm
tactual
category testing
1. childlike behaviors, unorganized speech and behaviors, poor grooming, incongruous smiling and laughter, and the worst prognosis
2. stuporous mute echopraxia and automatic obedience, waxy flexibility with rigidity of posture
3. delusions of persecution and/or grandeur, auditory hallucinations, late onset, and the best prognosis
1. disorganized
2. catatonic
3. paranoid
if a patient can't pay, can you refuse service
no
does alcoholism inc the rate of suicide
yes 50x
what is the term for the dementia characterized by decremental or patchy deterioration in cognitive function due to cerebrovascular accident
vascular
-stepwise deterioration in cognitive function
what is the term for the difference between the highst and lowest score in a population
range
how is sleep affected in a person with alcohol intox
dec REM sleep
REM rebound during withdrawal
how many attacks are needed over how much time before panic disorder is diagnosed
3 over 3 weeks (they come out of the blue)
what axis I disorder is characterized by pronoun reversal, preference for inanimate objects, obliviousness to the external environment, lack of separation anxiety, and abnormalities to language development
autism
head banging, rocking and slef-injurious behaviors all common
what major side effect of neuroleptics is characterized by pill rolling, shuffling gait, and tremors that abate during sleep
tardive dyskinesia
if you report a suspected case of child abuse and are wrong, are you protected from legal liability
yes
can advance directives be oral
yes
inc self-esteem; flight of ideas, dec sleep, inc libido, weight loss, and erratic behavior are all sx of what disorder
bipolar
is marital satisfaciton higher for couples with or without children
without
at what age does IQ stabilize
5
1.nonfluent speech, telegraphic and ungrammatical, lesionin Brodmann's area 44, unimpaired comprehension
2. lesion in the prefrontal cortex; inability to speak spontaneously; inimpaired ability to repeat
3. lesion in the parietal lobe or arcuate fibers because the connection between Broca's and Wernicke's is severed, word comprehension preserved; inability to write or speak the statemnt (can't tell you what you said)
4. Both Broca's and Wernicke's damaged by lesion in the presylvian speech area; trouble repeating statements ;poor comprehension with telegraphic speech
5. lesion in area22; impaired comprehension; incoherent rapid, fluent speech, verbal paraphrasias; trouble repeating statemnts
1. Broca's aphasia
2. Transcortical aphasia
3. Conduction aphasia
4. Global aphasia
5. Wernicke's
what rare form of dementia is assoc w/ personality changes and affects the frontal and temporal lobe
Pick's disease
which drug is used to tx respiratory depression associated with an overdose of opiodes
naltrexone
what rate is indicated by 1-specificity
false pos
when does most of the NREM sleep (3 and 4) occur, in the first or second half os sleep
first half
1. disappearance of alpha waves, appearance of theta waves
2. delta waves
3. alpha waves
4. sleep spindles
1. stage 1
2. stage 3 and 4
3. REM
4. stage 2
what is the drug of choice for treating ADHD
methylphenidate
t or f
prolactin levels can serve as rough indicator of overall DA activity
true
what is the term for failure to give up infantile patterns of behavior for mature ones
fixation
is masturbation considered an abnormal sexual practice
no- only abnormal if it interferes w/ nl sexual or occupational function
which benzo has the longest half life
flurazepam
in the classical conditioning model, when a behavior is learned, what must occur to break the probability that a response will happen
stimulus generalization must stop- pairing of the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus must cease)
what is the most abundant neuron in the cerebellum
the granule cell
its neurotransmitter is glutamic acid, which is also the principal neurotransmitter of the visual pathway
name these ANXIETY defense mechanisms
1. separating oneself from the experience. the facts are accepted but the form is changed for protection
2. use of explanations to justify unacceptable behaviors
3. outburst to cover up true feelings
4. use of an outlet for emotions
5. fact without feeling (la belle indifference)
1. dissociation
2. rationalization
3. acting out
4. displacement
5. isolation of affect
name the following ANXIETY defense mechanism
1. replacing nl affect w/ brain power
2. unconscioiusly forgetting
3. fixing impulses by acting out the opposite of an unacceptable behavior
4. setting up to be let down
5. a complete opposite expression of your inward feeling (arguing all the time with someone you're attracted to when your feelings aren't known)
1. intellectualization
2. repression
3. undoing
4. passive-aggressive
5. reaction formation
1. odd, strange; has magical thinking; socially isolated, paranoid, lacks close friends, has incogruous affect
2. socially withdrawn, seen as eccentric but happy to be alone
3. baseline mistrust; carriers grudges; afrain to open up; uses projection as defense mechanism; lacks hallucinations or delusions
1. schizotypal
2. schizoid
3. paranoid
what statistical method do you use when analyzing...
1. cross-sectional area
2. cohort study
3. case control studies
1. chi-square
2. relative risk and/or attributable risk (cohort studies deal w/ incidence)
3. odds ration (case control studies deal w/ prevalence)
t or f
there is a strong pos correlation between IQ and academic achievement
t
correlates well but is not a predictor of success
what is the term for headaches, inability to conc, sleep disturbances, avoidance of assoc stimuli; reliving events as dreams or flashbacks following a psychologically stressful even beyond the nl range of expectation
ptsd (longer than 1 mo)
what is the term for a schizophrenic episode lasting less than 30 days w/ full return to former functioning capacity
brief psychotic disorder
(schizophreniform disorder is longer than 6 mo)
what is the primary method of nonverbal communication of emotional states
facial expression
(2nd is vocal intonation)
what type of mortality rate is defined as the number of deaths...
1. in the population
2. from a specifc cause per population
3. from a specific cause per all deaths
4. from a specific cause per number of persons with the disease
1. crude mortality rate
2. cause-specific mortality rate
3. proportionate mortality rate
4. case fatality rate
does being a female physician inc or dec the risk of suicide
inc 4x
are sexually abused females more likely to have learning disabilities than the general population
yes- 3-4x
so is having multiple sexual partners, being overweight, and pelvic pain and/or inflammatory disorders are also likely to be seen in sexually abused females
what form of bias is due to fase estimates of survival rates
lead time bias
the probability that a person with a pos test result is truly pos refers to what value
pos predictive value
objective tests that base the result of the examination on a preset standard use what form of refrence
criterion-referenced tests
you need a certain number correct to pass (the usmle)
t or f
a patient can refuse a feeding tube
t
what type of scale is graded into equal increments, showing not only any difference but how much
interval scale (like a ruler)
with what stage of sleep are bruxisms assoc
teeth grinding in stage 2
what rate is indicated by 1-sensitivity
false neg
what drug is being given to HIV pos mothers during labor and to children after birth to dec the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission
nevirapine
it cuts the rate from 20% to 10%
AZT is alsu used
what is the name of depression and mania alternating within a 48-72 hr period
rapid cycling bipolar disorder
aroused EEG pattern (fast low voltage and desynchronization); saccadic eye mov't, ability to dream, and sexual arousal are all assoc w/ what general pattern of sleep
REM (awake brain in a sleeping body)
what is the teratogenic effect associated with lithium
epstein-cardiac anomaly of the tricuspid valve
what is the triad of NPH
dementia (wacky)
urinary incontinence (wet)
gait apraxia (wobbly)
name these MATURE defense mechanisms
1. preparing for an upcoming event
2. helping others without expecting return
3. converting an unacceptable impulse to a socially acceptable form
4. forgetting on purpose
5. easing anxiety w/ laughter
1. anticipation
2. altruism
3. sublimation
4. suppression
5. humor
name the area affected
1. sppech; critical for personality, concentration, initiating and stopping tasks, abstract thought, and memory and higher order mental functions
2. intellectual processing of sensory info, with the left (dominant) processing verbal info, the right processing visual-spatial orientation
3. initiation and control of mov't
4. skilled-based memory, verbal recall, balance, refined voluntary mov't
1. temporal lobe
2. parietal lobe
3. basal ganglia
4. cerebellum
name the area affected
1. important for REM sleep, origin of NE pathway
2. motivation, memory, emotions, violent behaviors, sociosexual behaviors, conditioned responses
3. recall of objects, distances, and scenes; visual input processes here
1. pons
2. limbic system
3. occipital lobe
what is the degree to which two measures are related?
does it imply causation
1. correlation
does not imply causation
what is the most common form of dementia
alzheimer's
what is the only drug that does not have an intoxication
nicotine
what is the term to describe homosexuals who...
1. are comfortable, with their own person and agree with their sense of self
2. are uncomfortable w/ their own person and disagree with their sense of self
1. ego syntonic
2. ego dystonic
which benzo has the shortest half life
triazolam
what statistical test compares the means of groups generated by two nominal variables by using an interval variable
two way ANOVA
-can check several variables at the same time
what are the two ways to leave the prevalence pot
recovery and death
what aspects of sleep are affected during benzo use
REM and stage 4 dec
what is the term to describe a man who has...
1. never been able to achieve an erection
2. the ability to have an erection sometimes
3. used to be able to achieve an erection but can't now
1. primary erectile disorder
2. selective erectile disorder
3. secondary erectile disorder
what stage of sleep is associated with somnambulism
sleepwalking is assoc w/ stage 4 and happens most often in the first 1/3 of sleep
what are the three surrogate criteria
1. what did the patient want
2. what would the patient say
3. what is in the patient's best interest
t or f
4/5 of those who attempt suicide first give a warning
t
80% went to doctor in past 6 mo
50% in last mo
what form of bias occurs when the experimenter's expectation inadvertently is expressed to the subjects, producing the desired effects? how can it be eliminated?
pygmalion effect (experimenter expectancy)
can be eliminated w/ double blind studies
what type of hallucinations occur during awakening
hynopompic
when attempting to make up sleep, what stage of sleep is recovered
80% of stage 4 is recovered; 50% of REM recovered
only 1/3 of total sleep is ever made up
what is backward masking and is there a pos correlation with schizophrenic patients
when showing two pictures in rapid succession, you split the pictures half a second apart, resulting in the second picture masking the first (indicating poor short term memory)
33% of schizophrenics
t or f
being single inc your risk of suicide
false
separation, divorce, being widowed, and unemployment inc your risk
t or f
serious psych illness is more common after abortion than childbirth
false
childbirth carres 5x the risk of serious psych illness as abortion
what type of error is made if you accept the null hypothesis when its false
type II (beta) error
most sleep time is spent in what stage
2 (45%)
REM does 20%
in a negatively skewed curve is the mean greater than the mode
yes
what axis I disorder is characterized by a clinically significant syndrome that affects social, occupational, and/or academic achievement; occurs less than 3 mo after a stressor; and abates less than 6 mo after the stressor is removed
adjustment disorder (a diagnosis of exclusion)
what type of personality test is the Rorshach inkblot test, objective or prjective
projective
what statistical test checks to see whether the grouops are different by comparing the means of two groups from a single nominal variable
T-test
what form of depression is due to abnormal metabolism of melatonin
SAD
what three circumstances allow a child to be committed to intitutional care
1. child poses imminent danger to self or others
2. child is unable to self-care daily at the appropriate developmental level
3. paretns or guardians have no control over the child or will not promise to ensure the child's safety even though they refuse hospitalization
what operant conditioning therapy or modification is described as...
1. reinforcing succssive attempts that lead to the desired goal (gradual improvement)
2. having a stimulus take over the control of behavior (unintentionally)
3. providing the person w/ info regarding his or her internal responses to stimuli w/ methods of controlling them
4. removing a reinforcement (w/o the patient knowing) gradually overtime to stop a condition
5. stopping the reinforcement that is leading to an undesired behavior
1. shaping
2. stimulus control
3. biofeedback
4. fading
5. extinction
name the axis
1. clinical disorders
2. personality disorders and mental retardation
3. medical or physical ailments
4. psychosocial and environmental problems
5. global assessment of function
I
II
III
IV
V
should you refer a patient to a form of folk medicine even if you don't believe in it
yes
you should encourage your patient to try other forms of medicine as long as they are not contraindicated w/ the patient's preexisting illness
in regard to motor development during infancy, choose the motor response that happens first
1. release or grasp
2. proximal or distal progression
3. radial or ulnar progression
4. palms up or down
1. grasp
2. proximal to distal
3. ulnar to radial
4. palms up
what are the strongest determinants of gender identity
parental assignment and culture
with what stage of sleep are night terrors associated
NREM
what type of bias is it when the info is distorted because of the way it is gathered
measurement bias
what term describes senseless repetition of words or phrases
verbigeration
what decides competency and sanity
the courts- legal terms
name these narcissistic defense mechanisms
1. everything in the world is perceived as either good or bad, no middle ground, it is all extremes
2. not allowing reality to penetrate because afraid of becoming aware of painful aspect of reality
3. person takes his or her own feelings, beliefs, whishes, and so on and things they are someone elses
1. splitting
2. denial
3. projection
wich is the conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned resposne, the unconditioned stimulus:
a patient has blood withdrawn and faints. the next time she goes to have blood taken, she faints at the sight of the needle
1. unconditioned stimulus- blood withdrawn
2. unconditioned response-
fainting
3. conditioned stimulus- needle
4. conditioned response- fainting
what three actions should take place when one person threatens the life of another?
1. notify police
2. try to detain person making the threat
3. notify the threatened victim
Tarasoff decision
name the area affected
1. apathy, aggression, inability to learn new material, memory problems
2. apathy, poor grooming, poor ability to think abstractly, dec drive, poor attention span, and Broca's aphasia if on left side
3. euphoria, delusions, thought disorders, Wernicke's aphasea, auditory hallucinations
4. agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, r-to-l disorientation
1. limbic system
2. dorsal prefrontal cortex
3. dominant temporal lobe
4. dominant parietal lobe (Gerstmann's)
name the area affected...
1. withdrawn, fearful, explosive moods, violent outbursts, and loss of inhibition
2. denial of illness, hemineglect, construction apraxia (can't arrange matchsticks)
3. denies being blind, cortical blindness
4. dysphoria, irritability, musical and visual abilities dec
1. orbitomedial frontal lobe
2. nondominant parietal lobe
3. occipital lobe (Anton's syndrome if due to bilater PCA occlusion)
4. nondominant temporal lobe
what hormone's release is strongly assoc w/ stage 4 sleep
GH
what is the male-to-female ratio for comminting suicide
4:1
females-to-males is 3:1 for attempts
what is the term for the total percentage of correct answers selected on a screening test
accuracy
what type of error is made if you reject the null hypothesis when it is true
type I (alpha)
if one event precludes another event, their probabilities are combined by what method
addition (they are mutually exclusive)
t or f
marriage emancipates a child less than 17
t
military service and independent self-care by a child over 13 also emancipate
what term describes the inability to recall personal info, commonly assoc w/ trauma
amnesia (person is aware of memory loss)
what is the most stressful event as determined by the Holmes and Rabe scale
death of a spouse
what renal side effect is commonly seen in patients taking lithium
25% get polyuria and polydipsia
what statistical test, using nominal data only, checks whether two variables are independent events
chi-square
what is the term for repetitive actions blocking recurring bad thoughts
compulsions
t or f
a patients has to prove his or her competency
f
you have to prove incompetence
t or f
panic attacks can be induced by hyperventilation or CO2
true
yohimbine, sodium lactate, and epinephrine can also induce panic attacks (panicogens)
in what study, for ethical reasons, is no group left out of intervention
crossover
shuffling gait, cogwheel rigidity, masklike facies, pill-rolling tremor, and bradykinesia...
parkinson's
anhedonia, lack of motivation, feelings of worthlessness, dec sex drive, insomnia and recurrent thoughts for at least 2 weeks, representing a change from previous level of function, describes what disorder
unipolar depression
what form of dementia is characterized by onset at age 40 to 50, rapid progression, infection by a priorn, and death within 2 years
Creutzfeldt-Jakob's
-first develop vague somatic complaints and anxiety, rapidly followied by dysarthria, myoclonus, ataxia, and choreoathetosis
the most frequent number occuring in a population
mode
mov't disorders are assoc with what da pathway
nigrostriatal (basal ganglia)
what neurotransmitter is assoc with sedation and weight gain
histamine
the probability that a person with a negative test result is truly disease free refers to what value
negative predictive value
what are the five Kubler-Ross stages of death and dying? must hey be complete in order
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance

*no- doesn't have to be in order
what p value defines whether the null hypothesis should or should not be rejected
.05- if less than that, reject it
what hormone level inc in the first 3 hours of sleep
prolactin
what is the most widely used class of antidepressants
SSRI
what happens to prevalence as the number of long-term survivors increases
prevalence inc
what is the primary predisposing factor for vascular dementia
hypertension
name the paraphilia
1. sexual urges toward children
2. deriving sexual pleasure from watching others have sex, grooming, or undressing
3. having a recurrent desire to expose genitals to strangers
4. deriving sexual pleasure from other people's pain
5. deriving sexual pleasure from baing in pain
6. having sex w/ cadavers
7. sexual fantasies are acts w/ animals
8. combining sex w/ defacation
9. combining sex w/ urination
10. a male rubbing his genitals on a fully clothed female to achieve orgasm
1. pedophilia
2. voyeurism
3. exhibitionism
4. sadism
5. masochism
6. necrophilia
7. zoophilia
8. coprophilia
9. urophilia
10. frotteurism
name the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junctions for all of the voluntary mm in the body
ACh
what are the pharmacologic effects seen sexually w/
1. a-1 blocker
2. serotonin
3. beta-blockers
4. trazodone
5. DA agonist
6. neuroleptics
1. impaired ejaculation
2. inhibited orgasm
3. impotence
4. priapism
5. inc erection and libido
6. erectile dysfunction
what is the term for the point on a scale that divides the population into two equal parts
median
t or f
pregancy ensures emancipation
false
t or f
paranoid and catatonic schizophrenia are good prognostic predictors
t
so is being female
pos sx
quick onset
family hx of mood disorder
what happens to prevalence as incidence inc
prevalence inc
what type of correlation compares two interval variables
pearson correlation
what term is defined as a patient unconsciously placing his or her thoughts and feelings on the physician in a caregiver or parent role
transference- when it is from the physician to the patient it is called countertransference
what phase of FDA approval tests
1. the safety in healthy volunteers
2. the protocol and dose levels in a sm group of patient volunteers
3. the efficacy and occurence of side effects in lg group of patient volunteers
1
2
3- the definitive test
in biostatistics, what are the three criteria req to inc power
large sample size
large effect size
type I error is greater
if the occurence of one event had nothing to do with the occurence of another vent, how do you combine their probabilites
multiply them
what type of random controlled test is least subjective to bias
double-blind study
why isn't the incidence of a disease decreased when a new treatment is initiated
because incidence is defined as new events

prevalence would dec