• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/91

Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
HbF binding to oxygen compared to HbA...
Left shift, similar to HbA without 2,3-BPG
Kayser-Fleisher Rings are located...
Cu deposition in the cornea (Descemet's membrane)
Superoxide in respiratory burst is formed by...
NADPH oxidase
Superoxide is broken down by...
Superoxide dismutase
Histopathology in dysplastic nevus...
Nests of nevomelanocytes with angulated hyperchromatic nuclei and bridging with nests in neighboring rete pegs
Defect in dysplastic nevus syndrome...
mutation in p16 causes its inability to regulated CDK4 (which normally controls the G1-S checkpoint)
Cerebellum is a derivative of the...
Rhombencephalon
alpha-helical structure with leucine at every 7th position...
Leucine zipper dimerization domain; dimerization allows tertiary structure to bind DNA, acting as a transcription factor
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase II catalyzes what reaction for what process...
Formation of carbamoyl phosphate in the cytosol from CO2 and glutamine for use in de novo synthesis of pyrimidines and purines
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I catalyzes what reaction for what process...
Formation of carbamoyl phosphate in the mitochondria from CO2 and NH4 for use in the Urea cycle
Cardiomyopathy associated with alcoholism...
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Biopsy findings in anti-GBM disease...
Renal biopsy show RPGN, linear IgG deposits in the GBM; solid, thick, ribbon-like deposits on IF with crescent formation
Esophagus passes through the diaphragm at what vertebral level...
T10
Anterior and posterior vagal trunks pass through the diaphragm at what vertebral level...
T10 (with the esophagus)
The descending aorta penetrates the diaphragm at what vertebral level...
T12
Thoracic duct penetrates the diaphragm at what vertebral level...
T12 (with the aorta)
Inferior vena cava penetrates the diaphragm at what vertebral level...
T8
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers lower systemic BP by what mechanism...
Blockade of Ca channels predominately on arterioles causing vasodilation
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers...
Nifedipine, felodipine, amlodipie
Defect in Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young...
Glucokinase defect, resulting in an abnormally high set point for insulin release
Defect in von Gierke's disease...
Glycogen storage disease type I; defect in glucose-6-phosphatase leading to an inability to release glucose from cells during gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis
Administration of fructose or galactose in patients with von Gierke's disease will cause...
Lactic acidosis
Symptoms of von Gierke's disease...
Severe fasting hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, hyperuricmia, hyperlipidemia; hepatomegaly and renomegaly
Manage with frquent oral glucose
Defect in Pompe's disease...
deficiency in alpha-1,4-glucosidase (lysosomal enzyme)
Symptom of Pompe's disease...
Presents with hypotonia, macroglossia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Muscle biopsy in Pompe's disease...
Abundant PAS-positive granules
Most common cause of pediatric osteomyelitis in general public? In sickle cell patients?
S. aureus in general public, Salmonell in sickle cell
Most common location of pediatric osteomyelitis...
Metaphysis of long bones (highly vascularized, hematogenous dissemination)
Quadriparesis, pinpoint pupils, loss of horizontal gaze, decerebrate posturing...
Pontine hemorrhage
Increased ICP in intracranial neoplasms is due to...
Disruption of CSF outflow OR Vasogenic edema
Site of action of Amphotericin B...
Fungal cell membrane (inside cell wall) by binding ergosterol
Kaposi's Sarcoma is associated with what infection...
HHV-8
Hypercalcemia with lung malignancy is due to...
Increased PTHrP release
What type of receptor is blocked by abciximab?
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa - an integrin receptor, primary binding site of fibrinogen to platelets
Marker used to monitor for recurrence of Colon cancer...
CEA (not specific - also found in pancreatic, gastric and breast malignancy)
Case control study design...
Pts with and without diseae of interest, all of whom have been exposed to risk factor of interest; controls are pts with and without exposure to risk factor; evaluate rate of exposure in the cases against rate of exposure in controls
Lung compliance change in CHF...
Transudate formation causes decreased lung compliance
Immunity to influenza infection is mediated by...
Circulating Ab to hemagglutinin
Type I RPGN...
Anti-GBM disease; Goodpasture's Syndrome
Type 2 RPGN...
Immune complex mediated - poststreptococcal glomerulnephritis, SLE, IGA nephropathy
IF findings in Type 2 RPGN...
"Lumpy bumpy" granular staining on IF
Type 3 RPGN...
"Pauci-immune" - no Ig or complement deposits; usually ANCA disease (e.g. Wegener's granulomatosis)
Intracellular MOA of nitrates...
Stimulate NO formation at the vascular smooth muscle cell membrane; NO - guanylate cyclase - increased cGMP - decreased intracellular Ca - decreased myosin LC phosphorylation
Findings in CAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency...
Failure to synthesize cortisol or aldosteron; increased ACTH causes increased androgen formation - ambiguous genitalia in females
Mechanism of digoxin-induced bradycardia...
Increased parasympathetic tone at the Vagus
Retinitis pigmentosa is associated with...
Thioridazine
MOA of pioglitazone...
PPAR-gamma activation decreases insulin resistance
Histology of the mainstem bronchi...
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Histology of the terminal bronchioles...
Simple cuboidal epithelium with cilia
Goblet cells are present in which airway generations...
Stop just before the bronchioles begin (present down to the smallest bronchi)
Sumbucosal glands, and serous glands in airways are present...
Ending with the smallest bronchi (follow cartilagenous plates)
Most common viral cause of acite hemorrhagic cystitis...
Adenovirus serotypes 11 and 12 of subgroup B
Finding in chronic renal transplantation...
Obliterative vascular fibrosis
Deficiency of isotype switching causes production of...
IgM only
Order of isotypes on the genome...
IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, IgA
Acute Thiamine deficiency in alcoholics...
Wernicke Encephalopathy; induced by correction of hypoglycemia without correction of thiamine
Symptoms of Wernicke Encephalopathy...
Ataxia, nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, anterograde amnesia
Chronic thiamine deficiency in alcoholics...
Korsakoff psychosis
Symptoms of Korsakoff psychosis...
Anterograde and retrograde amnesia, apathy, lack of insight, confusion
Site of necrosis in thiamine deficiency...
Mammilary body
Hibernating myocardium...
repetitive ischemic injury or persistent hypoperfusion of the myocardium results in chronic loss of contractile function; reversed by revascularization
Function of hepicidin...
Released by the liver in states of iron excess; causes internalization of ferroportin on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes leading to decreased iron release into the blood
Ferroportin function...
Iron transporter on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes
Location and transporter for absorption of iron...
Proximal small intestine, Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT-1)
Effect of HCTZ on calcium...
Decreases calcium excreted in the urine by blockade of Na/Cl leading to increased urine Na which causes expulsion of Ca from urine
During muscle contraction, Calcium binds to... causing...
Troponin C causing tropomyosin to move off of actin; Myosin is then exposed to the binding site on Actin, and power stroke ensues
Immune cell with a major contribution to emphysema...
Neutrophils (elastase release)
Location in the genome of Enhancers/Repressors...
May be located anywhere on the genome
Location of promotor region on the genome...
Usually located 25 - 70 bp upstream
Rubella vaccine is...
A live attenuated virus
Defect in Hartnup disease...
Defective intestinal and renal absorption of tryptophan and other neutral amino acids
Tryptophan is an essential AA required for...
Niacin synthesis (vitamin B3)
Symptoms of Hartnup disease...
Photosensitivity, pellagra, ataxia
Fanconi Syndrome...
Generalized aminoaciduria
Treatment of drug-induced parkinsonism...
Benzotropine or other central antimuscarinic
Defect in Friedrich's Ataxia...
AR mutation on chromosome 9 coding for frataxin - increased trinucleotid repeats
Symptoms of Friedrich's Ataxia...
Degeneration of the spinocerebellar tract, resulting in gait ataxia, kyphoscoliosis, foot abnormalities, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MOA of dobutamine in CHF...
beta-AR agonist; used for positive inotropy, positive chronotropy, increased cardiac conduction velocity
Inferior MI may be associated with what symptom...
Bradycardia - RCA also perfuses the SA node
Drug treatment of bradycardia following Inferior MI...
Atropine
Diagnosis of cholecystitis after equivocal US...
Radionucleotide visualization scan; failure to visualize diagnoses
Metabolism of Benz(o)pyrene to a carcinogen is accomplished by...
Microsomal monooxygenase
MOA of Ethosuxamide...
blockade of T-type Calcium channels in the Thalamus
Mean +/- 1 SD =
Mean +/- 2 SD =
Mean +/- 3 SD =
68%
95%
99.7%
Definition of achalasia...
Normal upper esophageal contractions, reduced middle esophageal contractions and failure of the LES to relax during swallowing
Metabolic derangement in heroin OD...
Acute respiratory acidosis
Serum level of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase is most reflective of what cell activity...
Osteoblasts
Deficiency in hemophilia A...
Factor VIII
Deficiency in hemophilia B...
Factor IX
Prolonged bleeding after dental extraction, hemarthroses...
hemophilia (X-linked recessive - male inheritance)
Schizoaffective Disorder diagnosis...
Psychosis with mood symptoms; must have psychosis in the absence of mood symptoms (otherwise diagnosis is mania with psychosis)