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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
energy source for brain, renal medulla, testes, RBCs
glucose is primary energy source; brain can use ketones in starvation, RBCs cant (no mitochondria)
what process garners energy from acetyl CoA?
aerobic respiration (TCA)
resting vs intention tremor
resting tremor = basal ganglia lesion; intention tremor = cerebellar hemispheric lesion
how to kill spores (eg c.dif)
exposure to saturated heat (121'C) for 15 mins
function of the detrussor muscle
contracts during urination --> expells urine into urethra
weakening of which structure can cause urinary incontinence in elderly women?
urogenital diaphragm (stress incontinence due to prolapse of bladder/uterus)
causes of dilated cardiomyopathy
ABCD: Alcohol, Beriberi, Chronic Cocaine, Coxsackie B, Chagas, Doxorubicin, Diphtheria
what does bronchial breath sounds mean?
low I/E (can be from consolidation compressing airways)
what do crackles indicate?
fluid in small airways / alveoli
PE findings on lobar pneumo vs pleural effusion
both are dull to percussion, but lobar pneumo has increased fremitus and crackles; effusion has decreased fremitus and no breath sounds (incl crackles)
interaction between TMP-SMX and Vit K
50% of daily vit K is produced by gut bacteria -- eliminated by TMP-SMX --> warfarin-like inc PT;
thyrotoxicosis vs pheo
both can cause afib, tachycardia, weight loss; THYROTOXICOSIS can also cause GI problems and muscle wasting, while PHEO can cause episdoes of HTN, hyperglucemia, and glucosuria
role of C3b (2)
1) opsonization; 2) clearance of immune complexes
what does C3 deficiency cause?
severe, recurrent pyogenic sinus/resp tract infections (C3 needed for G- clearance)
decreased Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase (LAP)
1) CML; 2) PNH (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria)
deficiency of DAF (decay accerating factor)
PNH (accelerates decay of complement -- protects RBCs)
classic vs alternative pathway
CLASSICAL responds to Ag-Ab complexes (IgG and IgM -- "GM makes CLASSIC cars"); a/w C1, C2, C4 (initially); ALTERNATIVE responds to microbial surface antigens (eg endotoxin) with C3 and factors B and D; eventually BOTH pathways involve C3 --> C5-9 (MAC), causing lysis and cytotox
"double bubble" sign on xray
duodenal atresia -- stomach + dilated proximal duodenum make the two "bubbles"
what is lost in muscle atrophy?
# of myofibrils per cell, NOT # of muscle cells
what are satellite cells?
normally quiescent cells in skel muscle that become active in regeneration and hypertrophy
what controls pupillary diameter?
2 controls: 1) SYMPATHETIC: mydriasis (radial dilator muscle) via a1 receptors; 2) PARASYMPATHETIC: miosis (pupillary constrictor muscle)
what are the 3 structures of a lymph node and what do they contain?
1) FOLLICLE (germinal centers: B-cell proliferation); 2) MEDULLA (cords: closely packed lymphocytes and plasma cells; sinuses: macrophages); 3) PARACORTEX (T-cells)
role of IL-8
chemotactic for neutrophils (the tissue dogs ATE (8) all the debris)
what bugs undergo antigen variation?
1) Bacteria: N.GONORRHEA (pilus), SALMONELLA (flagella), BORRELIA (relapsing fever); 2) Viruses: INFLUENZA (shift/drift); 3) Parasites: TRYPANASOMSE (programmed rearrangement)
loss of strength/weakness
what fuel used in starvation (after glycogen stores depleted?)
what is parathion
organophosphorus AChEi
plemorphic adenoma
benign tumor of the parotid gland, difficult to resect (b/c of facial nerve)
adjustment disorder vs delirium
both can result from stressor; adjustment disorder results in emotional disorder, delirium can involve cognitive changes
with what HIV drugs do you get anemia and granulocytopenia
NRTis, eg AZT; can get anemia also from protease inhibitors; results from decreased erythrocyte formation
reverse transcriptase inhibitor tox
NRI: lactic acidosis, BM suppression (esp AZT) and periph neuropathy;
how does ovarian cancer met?
lymphatics -- can cause lympatic blockage
what does amino terminus of a transmembrane protein usually encode?
signal peptide -- targeting protein
what does carboxyl termiuns of a protein do?
signals for attachment of poly-A tail
what does carboxyl termiuns of a protein do?
HEA: Hypertension, edema, albumin(protein)uria
non-pharmaceutical tx for panic disorder
nl lab findins with alternating diarrhea, constipation, and pain
irritable bowel syndrome
ulcerated red lesion in an elderly person
squamos cell carcinoma of the skin
drugs that cause immune-mediated hemolysis
quinidine, methyldopa, penicillin (all cause positive coombs test)
PICA thrombosis
aka Wallenberg's syndrome; loss of spinothalamics (contralateral pain/temp), spinal trigeminal (ipsilateral facial pain/temp), nuc ambiguus (speaking, dysphagia, gag reflex), descending synmpathetic fibers (ipsilateral horner's), vestibular dysfunction