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46 Cards in this Set

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what causes acute epiglottitis, which may be life-threatening in young children?
H. influenzae
MC nasal and laryngeal tumor
Squamous cell CA
Dx:

Decreased FEV1/FVC ratio
COPD
Dx:

Charcot-Leyden crystals, Curschmann spirals, bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy
Asthma
Definition:

Productive cough occurring at least 3 consecutive months over at least 2 years

what change occurs w/ cells?
Chronic Bronchitis


(Inc mucous due to hyperplasia of mucous-secreting glands)
Definition:

Dilation of air spaces w/ destruction of alveolar walls and lack of elastic recoil
Emphysema
Type of emphysema dealing with smoking
Centriacinar
Type of emphysema dealing with A-1-A deficiency

what gene is difficient in most severe?
Panacinar

(piZZ - homozygous)
Type of emphysema dealing with blebbing or subpleural bullae
Paraseptal
Definition:

perminant abnormal bronchial dilation caused by chronic infection w/ inflammation and necrosis of the bronchial wall
Bronchiestasis
Dx:

dilated airways, copious purulent sputum, hemoptysis and recurrent pulmonary infections leading to lung abscess (obstruction)
Bronchiectasis
Definition:

Diffuse alveolar damage w/ resultant increase in alveolar permeability, causing a leak of protein-rich fluid from the alveoli and formation of intra-alveolar hyaline membrane
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Definition:

Group of environmental diseases caused by inhalation of inorganic dust particles
Pneumoconioses
Dx:

inhalation of carbon dust, marked by carbon-carrying macrophages
Anthracosis
Dx:

progressive massive fibrosis w/ necrotic black fluid and dark macules around bronchioles
Coal Miners Pneumoconiosis
Dx:

diffuse interstitial fibrosis mainly in the lower lobes w/ ferruginous bodies and dense fibrocalcific plaques of parietal pleura

what can it lead to?
Asbestosis

leads to: Mesothelioma
Dx:

bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, hypercalcemia, noncaseating granulomas
Sarcoidosis
Dx:

localized proliferation of histiocytes that have characteristic inclusions resembling tennis rackets (birbeck granules)
Eosinophilic granulomas
Definition:

Immune complex Dz w/ progressive fibrosis of the alveolar wall
Idiopathic Pulmonary fibrosis
MCC of Pulmonary HTN
COPD
MCC of interstitial pneumonia
(2)
Mycoplama Pneumoniae;

Viruses
What virus produces a Giant cell pneumonia?
Measles
What pneumonia is seen in people working with cattle or sheep?
Rickettsial pneumonia

(Q-fever)
Dx:

Gohn complex
Primary TB
Pulmonary infection:

Abscess and sinus tract formation w/ exudate containing sulfur granules
Actinomycosis
Tx of Neonatal Respiratory Distress syndrome
Give mother steroids before birth

(or artificial surfactant for infant)
MCC of Lobar pneumonia
Pneumococcus
Definition:

Carcinoma in the apex of the lung that may affect cervical sympathetic plexus
Pancoast tumor
what are the (2) lung cancers that are central?

what do they have a causitive link to?
Squamous cell

Small cell (Oat cell)


both: Smoking!
Dx:

cough, hemoptysis, bronchial wheezing, pneumonic "coin" lesion on x-ray
Lung Cancer
Describe the (3) peripheral Lung Cancers
Adenocarcinoma:
MC non-smoking; K-RAS oncogene

Bronchoalveolar:
Tall columnar cells w/ along alveoli

Large cell:
Undifferentiated
Dx:

lung tumor of major bronchi that may also cause flushing, diarrhea, wheezing and salivation
Carcinoid tumor
(5)* complications of Lung tumors
SPHERE:

Superior vena cava syndrome
Pancoast tumor
Horner's syndrome
Endocrine (paraneoplastic)
Recurrent Laryngeal Sx (hoarsemess)
Effusions (pleural or pericardial)
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Stridor
Inspiratory sound from narrowing extrathoracic area
(above glottis)
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Wheezing
Narrowing of the intrathoracic airway during expiration
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Crackles
Alveoli popping open

due to:
fluid (pneumonia, HF, ARDS)
or fibrosis
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Dullness to Percussion
fluid, pus, tumor or blood absorbing the sound b/t alveoli and chest wall
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Hyperresonance
Air under the chest wall

(Pneumothorax)
Causes of Respiratory sounds:

Fremitus / Egophany
Consolidation

(Pneumonia)
Dx:

Increased Cold Agglutinin
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Dx:

laryngeal edema, steeple sign, unusual cough
Parainfluenza

(Croup)
Dx:

inhaling quartz or talc
Silicosis
what is the second MCC of lung CA?
Radon gas
Dx:

Tracheal deviation towards side of lesion
(one main one possible)
Atelectasis

(Bronchial obstruction)
Dx:

Tracheal deviation away from the side of lesion
(one main one possible)
Pneumothorax

(Pleural Effusion)
Dx:

bronchiectasis, recurrent sinusitis, infertility, situs inversus

defect?
Kartagener's syndrome

(Dynein arm defect)