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46 Cards in this Set

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Dx:

autosomal dominant trait leading to the failure of longitudinal bone growth, causing short limbs
Achondroplasia
Dx:

Pannus formation in joints
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Dx:

increased bone resorption due to decreased estrogen levels
Osteoporosis (type 1)

(type 2 is men and women >70)
(2) common fractures due to Osteoporosis
Vertebral crush fractures


Collies distal Radius Fx
Definition:

failure of normal bone resorption leading to thick, dense bones due to abnormal function of Osteoclasts; no labs elevated; "marble bone Dz"
OsteoPETrosis
Definition:

increase in oseteoblastic and osteoclastic activity; all labs normal except great increase in Alk Phos
Padget Dz of the Bone
Dx:

bone replaced w/ fibroblasts and collagen (PFD) in unilateral bones, precocious puberty, unilateral pigmented skin
Albright's syndrome
Definition:

pain and stiffness in shoulders and hips, often w/ fever and weight loss in pt >50yo

what is it assoc w/?
Polymyalgia rheumatica


assoc w: Temporal (giant cell) arteritis
what joint problem can be caused by G6PD deficiency?
Gout
Dx:

painful MTP joint, formations on external ear or achilles tendon

test?
Gout

(Tophus formations are on ear and achilles)

Test: joint aspiration
(Needle-shaped Negatively birefringement)
Dx:

calcium crystals in the knee

test?
Pseudogout

Test: joint aspiration
(Basophilic, rhomboid, Positively Birefringement)
Dx:

Gammaglobinemia, RA, ACE increase, Interstitial lung fibrosis, Noncaseating granulomas
Sarcoidosis

"GRAIN"
(2) types of Seronegative spondyloarthropathies
(arthritis w/o rheumatoid factor)
Ankylosing Spondylitis

Reiter's syndrome
Dx:

chronic inflammatory dz of spine and sacroiliac joints, uveitis and aortic regurg
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Dx:

Urethritis, conjunctivitis and anterior uveitis and arthritis
Reiter's syndrome

(Can't see, can't pee, can't climb a tree)
Dx:

an acquired loss of melanocytes in descrete areas of skin that appear as depigmented white patches
Vitiligo
Definition:

epidermal hyperplasia and hyperpigmentation most often in flexural areas and a marker of visceral malignancy
Acanthosis Nigricans
Dx:

port-wine stain on the face, ipsilateral glaucoma, vascular lesions of ocular tissue, extensive hemangiomatous involvement of meninges
Sturge-Weber syndrome
Dx:

pruitic eruption, commonly on the flexor surfaces
(2 names)
Atopic Dermatitis

(Eczema)
Dx:

Epidermal hyperplasia w/ parakeratotic scaling especially on knees and elbows

what layer of skin is increased?
Decreased?
Psoriasis


Inc Spinosum
Dec Granulosum
Definition:

Pruritic papules and vesicles associated w/ Celiac sprue
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Dx:

Pruitic, purple, polygonal papules; infiltrate of lymphocytes at the dermalepidermal junction
Lichen Planus

[Lymphocytes = Lichen]
Definition:

assoc w/ infections, drugs, CA and autoimmune Dz; presents w/multiple types of lesions including macules, papules, vesicles and Target lesions
Erythema Multiforme
Dx:

erythema multiforme, high fever, bulla formation and necrosis, ulceration of skin; high mortality rate
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Dx:

common benign flat pigmented squamous epithelial proliferation of keratin-filled (horn) cysts that look pasted-on
Seborrheic Keratosis
Definition:

subepidermal blistering w/ characteristic inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils in the surrounding dermis;
auto Ab against epidermal BM
Bullous Pemphigoid
Dx:

Blistering of oral mucosa with extensive skin involvement following; breakdown of cell-to-cell junctions w/ sparing of basement layer; auto Ab against epidermal cell surface
Pemphigus Vulgaris
Dx:

skin cancer of face and hands w/ keratin "pearls"
Squamous cell CA
Dx:

skin cancer in sun-exposed areas of body; pearly papules w/ "palisading" nuclei
Basal cell CA
Dx:

skin CA that can metastasize

what characteristic correlates to increased risk of metastasis?
Melanoma


(Inc Depth of tumor = Inc Mets)
what is common w/ all primary metatastic bone tumors?
they are all "Sarcomas"
Dx:

epiphyseal tumor at end of long bone (usu at knee) w/ spindle-shaped cells and "soap bubble" or "double bubble"
Giant cell Tumor


(MC female bone tumor)
Dx:

bone growth covered by a cap of cartilage, usu in men < 25yo
Osteochondroma
Dx:

benign neoplasm of intermedullary bone usu in fingers and toes and w/o pain
Endochondroma
Dx:

replacement of intermedullary bone w/ fibrous tissue; "ground-glass" appearance on x-ray; "Chinese character" w/o osteoblasts
Fibrous Displasia
Definition;

Giant cell-like bone tumor of metaphysis or vertebrae; pain and swelling; hemorrhagic cysts w/ giant cells
Aneurysmal Bone Cyst
Dx:

males < 25yo w/ central "nidus" of osteoid surrounded by a shell; painful (wake from sleep); responsive to aspirin
Osteoid Osteoma
Dx:

boys < 15yo w/ tumor of pelvis or shaft of long bones; small round blue cell tumor; PAS+; "Onionskin" look to bone

what translocation?
Ewing Sarcoma

[eWINGS and Onion rings]

t(11;22)
Dx:

bone tumor w/ osteoid spindle cells, usu the knee; painful and aggressive; Inc Alk Phos; elevation of periosteum
(Codman's triangle)
Osteosarcoma

(MC primary bone malignancy)
Dx:

malignant cartilaginous tumor in the central skeleton, painful and slow-growing; bluish-white appearance w/ sectioning
Chondrosarcoma
Dx:

weakness in proximal muscles of extremities, later compensatory hypertrophy of distal site (calf) and eventual pseudohypertrophy; Inc serum CK; death from weak resp muscles

genetics?
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

(frameshift deletion of Dystrophin)
Definition:

similar to DMD, but less severe; segmental deletions in Dystrophin
Becker muscular dystrophy
Dx:

Inability to relax muscles once contracted, weakness, cataracts and testicular atrophy
Myotonic Dystrophy

(CTG repeats - Auto Dominant)
Dx:

weakness of extraocular and facial muscles, muscle weakness w/ use and recovery w/ rest, difficult chewing, swallowing, resp failure, more common in women
Myasthenia Gravis

(Ab to ACh receptor)
Definition:

paraneoplastic syndrome w/ clinical manifestations similar to those of myasthenia gravis
Lambert-Eaton syndrome

(MC w/ Small cell CA of Lung)
Dx:

pigeon breast, string-of-beads in costochondrial junction, depression along line of insertion of diaphragm to rib cage (Harrison groove), High-output Cardiac failure
Rickets

(Vit D deficiency)