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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what structure is derived from the precordial plate?
the mouth
what is the only organ supplied by the foregut artery that is of mesodermal origin?
in which direction and how far does the gut rotate?
counterclockwise 270 degrees
what structure connects the primative gut to the yolk sac?
yolks stalk
(vitelline duct)
artery of the embryonic foregut?
celiac artery
when does the gut herniate out of the embryo?

when does it return?
6 weeks

10 weeks
what can occur if the gut does not return to the embryo?
- Omphalocele

- Gastroschists
around what structure does the midgut rotate?
superior mesenteric artery
3 things that cause the gonad to be a testis?
- testis-determining factor from the Y chromosome

- MIF from sertoli cells

- Testosterone from leydig cells
which neuropore opens first and closes last?
when do the septum primum and septum secundum of the heart fuse?
after birth
what is the cerebral cortex a derivative of?
what in embryo:

ligamentum teres
umbilical vein
what in embryo:

ligamentum venosum
ductus venosus
what two structures are derived from the fourth aortic arch?
- arch of the aorta

- right subclavian
what structure is derived from the first aortic arch?
maxillary artery
what are the urinary bladder and the urethra derived from?
urogenital sinus
what are the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta derived from?
truncus arteriosum
what are the common and internal carotids derived from?
third aortic arch
what are the two derivatives of the sixth aortic arch?
- pulmonary arteries

- ductus arteriosus
what CN is associated with pharyngeal arch:
- first
- second
- third
- fourth
- fifth
- sixth
- CN-5
- CN-7
- CN-9
- CN-10
- none-it degenerates
- CN-10
what is the meckles diverticulum a derivative of?
vitelline duct
what is the thymus a derivative of?
filament associated w/ what cell:

- Desmin

- Vimentin
- Desmin: Muscle

- Vimentin: Mesenchymal
what are the 2 amino acids that cross-link elastin?
- Desmosine

- Isodesmosine
substance in eosinophils that is toxic to parasitic worms?
Major basic protein
what muscle type has calmodulin?
what is the area of mitotic activity in the GI?
crypts of Lieberkulhun
produces enamel of the teeth
zone of the liver to be affected first by hypoxia
centeral region
(around central vein)
where do you first see clara cells in respiratory system?
terminal bronchioles
what is the chromosome number:
- G1 phase
- S phase
- G2 phase
- mitosis
- primary spermatocyte
- 46 (2n)
- 46 (4n)
- 46 (4n)
- 46 (4n) to 46 (2n)
- 46 (4n)
when is meiosis arrested first in the female eggs?

At what stage?

When do they begin tfrough the cycle again?
in Utero

at: Meiosis I, Prophase I

begin again: at Puberty
when is miosis arrested the second time in the female egg?
at ovulation in Metaphase II
part of the placenta derived from the mother?
decidua basalis
only nerve to come off the dorsal surface of the brain stem?
type of fiber in the dorsal root?
what tract do the pain and temp fibers run?
what tract do the touch, pressure, vibration senses run?
Dorsal column-medial lemniscus
thalamic relay nucleus for the visual system?
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
muscle of the eye responsible for accomodation
if there is macular sparing w/ visual deficit, where is the lesion?
occipital lobe
motor relay of the thalamus
Ventolateral Nucleus
what is only cell type to leave the cerebellum?
purkinje fibers
if patient has right-sided cerebellar lesion, which way would he fall if he closed his eyes?
to the right
if patient presents w/ left nystagmus, where is the lesion?
on right
(nystagmus is named for the fast component is to unaffected side)
what fluid of inner ear has the same electrolyte content as the ECF?
only cell in the cerebellum to have an excitatory NT?
granule cell
what does nystagmus look like if cold water is placed in the right ear?
slow drift to right, fast to left

COWS= Cold Opposite Warm Same
(named for fast component)
type of memory loss with hippocampal lesion?
long-term memory
name the tract of the dorsal columns that are for lower extremities

(graceful dancing)
function of the superior colliculi?
Site relay to thalamus

(Superior = Site)
if the corticobulbar tract for CN-7 and CN-12 were cut on the right,where would the deficit be?
no deficit...
corticobubar tract receives bilateral input from these CN
as the head moves, what casues the eyes to move in the opposite direction?
vestibular system
part of ear sensitive to angular acceleration and deceleration?
semicircular canals
what artery on the homunculus supplies blood to the trunk and lower extremities?
anterior cerebral artery
eye muscle under:
- sympathetic control
- parasymp control
- symp: Dilator
(symp dilates eye)

- para: Sphinctor
(para constricts like a sphinctor)
where is the lesion in Hemiballism?
contralateral subthalamic nuclei
what area of the brain is known for language comprehension?
Wernicke's area
what part of the cerebellum is affected by alcohol, causing the "drink walk" effect?
spinal cord injury resulting in flaccid paralysis & muscle atrophy?
(bilateral anterior horn lesions)
spinal cord lesion resulting in LMN & UMN problems?
spinal cord lesion resulting in bilateral loss of pain and temp at the level of the lesion?
most common circle of willis aneurysm, causing CN-3 palsy
Posterior communicating artery
at what level (anatomical landmark) is a lumbar puncture and a nerve block performed?
Lumbar: Iliac crest

Nerve block: Ischial spine
dermatome of the penis for sensation and erection
S2, 3, 4 keeps the penis off the floor
spinal cord lesion w/ bilateral dorsal column loss below level of lesion?
(Tabes dorsalis)
part of the vertebral disk is from notochord?
nucleus pulposus
to what level does the spinal cord extend?
L1 - L2
muscle that initiates abduction of the arm?
nerve compressed w/ carpal tunnel syndrome
"foot drop" is caused by what nerve?
common peroneal
nerve damaged if pt cant adduct thigh?
what does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve loop before ascending into the larynx?
right subclavian
at what spinal level does the esophagus originate?
where does the right gonadal vein drain?
inferior vena cava
where does the left gonadal vein drain?
left renal vein
what is the portal triad?
- common bile duct
- hepatic artery
- portal vein
what are the only splanchnics in the body that carry preganglionic parasympathetic nerves?
Pelvic splanchnics

what muscles in the hand are innervated by the median nerve?
What are the other muscles innervated by?
- Lumbricales
- Opponens pollicis
- Abductor pollicis
- Flexor pollicis brevis

All other muscles: Ulnar nerve
what muscles in the hand adduct & abducts the fingers?

- Palmar interosseus: ADducts
- Dorsal interosseus: ABducts
4 muscles of the rotator cuff
Teres minor
"unhappy triad of the knee"
- medial collateral ligament
- anterior crucite
- medial meniscus
lymph drainage of pelvic organs (not gonads) to what nodes?
internal iliac nodes