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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environments.
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the
birds’ different-shaped beaks.
Based on the adaptations Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered
if species living on different islands had once been members of the same species.
One scientist who attempted to explain how rock layers form and change over time was
James Hutton.
What did Charles Darwin learn from reading the work of James Hutton and Charles Lyell?
Earth is relatively young.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms
have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection.
Which is a major concept included in Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
Body structure can change according to the actions of the organism.
In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
The idea that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by
Thomas Malthus.
Darwin was prompted to publish his theory of evolution by
an essay by Wallace on evolution.
When Charles Darwin returned from the voyage of the Beagle, he
wrote about his ideas but waited many years to publish them.
Why might Darwin have hesitated to publish his concept of evolution by natural selection?
He was disturbed by his findings, which challenged fundamental scientific beliefs.
According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their survival is due to the
possession of inherited adaptations that maximize fitness.
Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of natural selection?
They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment.
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure 15-1 are
vestigial structures.
Charles Darwin’s observation that finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the hypothesis that these finches
originated from a common ancestor.
Darwin’s concept of evolution was NOT influenced by
knowledge about the structure of DNA.
People of Charles Darwin’s time understood that fossils
were preserved remains of ancient organisms.
Charles Darwin viewed the fossil record as
a detailed record of evolution.
Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that
species change over time.
Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on the idea(s) of
natural variation and natural selection.
Which statement is in agreement with Darwin’s theory of evolution?
More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.
Which concept is NOT included in the modern theory of evolution?
transmission of acquired characteristics
Which phrase best defines evolution by natural selection?
a process of change in species over time
Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population share?
They are members of the same species.
The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population is the population’s
gene pool.
If an allele makes up one fourth of a population’s alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is
75 percent.
The two main sources of genetic variation are
gene shuffling and mutations.
Gene shuffling includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meoisis as well as
A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in
millions of phenotypes.
Compared to a polygenic trait, a single-gene trait tends to have
fewer phenotypes.
In a population of finches in which one group of birds has a short, parrotlike beak and another group has a long, narrow beak, what process has probably occurred?
genetic drift
The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called
the founder effect.
The situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant is called
genetic equilibrium.
One of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium is
no movement into or out of the population.
The allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if
all mating is random.
According to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a population of mice if
mutation rates within the population rise.
Which factor would most likely disrupt genetic equilibrium in a large population?
mating that is not random
A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is
reproductive isolation.
The geographic isolation of two populations of a species tends to increase differences between their gene pools because it
causes temporal isolation of the two populations.
Although they often live in the same habitat, the American toad breeds earlier in the spring than the Fowler’s toad does. What can be inferred from this information?
The two species do not interbreed because of temporal isolation.
Which is the first step that occurred in the speciation of the Galápagos finches?
arrival of the founding population
Which statement about evolution in the Galápagos finches is true?
Natural selection on beak size and shape is driven by available food.