Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/35

Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Apical Meristems
Light and CO2 mainly above ground.
H2O and mineral sources in the soil
shoot-root
2 meristems
4 Pts
Embryophytes
Name example
multicellular embryos dependent on parent plant

large trees and angiosperms
Alternations of generations
5 pts
Not in charophytes, but in other algae
independently derived in land plants
gametophyte haploid
sporophyte diploid
different phenotype
Sporopollenin
Sporangia that produce walled spores
Gametangia
reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of male antheridium and female archegonium

a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed
function of Sporangia on the sporophyte
produce spores
what do diploid spore mother cells undergo?
meiosis, generate haploid spores
what phyla produce gametophytes within the gametangia
bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms
archegonium
female gametangium
single egg cell in vase-shaped organ
egg retained within base
antheridium
male gametangium
many sperm cells
with flagella usually
cuticle
cover of epidermis of shoot
composed of polyesters and waxes
protection from microbial attack
prevent excessive H2O loss
4 pts
stomata
pores in epidermis
exchange of CO2 and O2
controlled evaporation necessary for
-photosynthesis
-H2O transport
guard cells open and close stomata
4 pts, 1 subpt
secondary compounds
produced from primary metabolites
alkaloids, terpenes, tannins, phenolics
primary metabolites
lipids, carbohydrates, other compounds common to all organisms
functions of secondary compounds
toxins against herbivores, antimicrobials, UV absorption, communication with symbionts, support (lignin)

pharmaceuticals
alkaloid quinine
antimalaria drug
salicilic acid
aspirin
Plant evolution
500mya
from charophyceans
Similarity between land plants and charophyceans
presence of chlorophyll b and beta carotene in grana of thylakoids and similar chloroplast DNA sequesnce

cellulose content 20-26%, rosettes manufacturing

same peroxisomes, antiphotorespiration

presence of phragmoplasts only found in green algae and plants

same flagellated sperm with similar ultrastructure

evidence from DNA sequence
6 pts
alternation of generations in Chara and Colochaeta
haploid gametophyte
absence of multicellular, diploid sporophyte
- zygot only diploid stage
- produces immediately haploid spores by meiosis
- zygote nourished by gametophyte
alternation of generations in typical land plant
presence of diploid sporophyte
- zygote produces multicellular sporophyte by mitosis
- sporophyte produces spores by meiosis
delayed meiosis produces sporophyte
slide diagram - needs further studying!! don't understand
adaptations to life on land
carophyceans in shallow water
occasional drying
drought resistant zygotes covered by sporopollenin, precursor to spore wall
advantages of colonizing land
space
more light (pro and con)
abundance of CO2
nutrient rich soil
few herbivores (initially)
5 pts
viridiplantae
chlorophytes
charophyceans
embryophytes
streptophyta
charophyceans
embryophytes
plantae
embryophytes
3 phyla of bryophyes
heptaphyla - liverworts
anthocerophyta - hornworts
bryophyta - mosses
model of eraliest land plants
anterhocerophyta and hepatophyta
bryophyte life cycle
gametophyte dominant
- sporophyte smaller, temporal
spores produce gametophyte by mitosis
gametophyte from protonema:
- branched filaments, single cel thinck
- with meristems = growth regions
- gametophores (macroscopic "moss") produce gametes
- reproductive organs - antheridia/archegonia
gametophyte structure
only a few cells thick
- all cells close to H2O and minerals
- most lack H2O vascular system
- if present, not lignified
- limitation on size, usually a few cm
anchoring with rhizoids
- no water vascular system
- water and nutrient absorption
honrwoths and liverworths
- flat structure close to ground
sporophyute retained on gametophyte
- large # of spores
sporophytes
sporophyte first gree, brown when releasing spores
liverworths
simplest of all plants
stalk with sporangia
hornworths
larer, more complex
like mosses with stomata
mosses
foot, stalk (stea), sporangium (capsule)