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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do the letters PRC in China's official name stand for?
People's Republic of China
When was the PRC founded?
1949
Which Chinese leader led the "idealist/utopian approach" to policy?
Mao Zedong
The "Two Line Struggle" was between the opposing ideologies of which two leaders?
Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi
Which Chinese leader led the "pragmatic" approach to policy?
Liu Shaoqi
What 1957-1958 movement was a turning point in PRC history?
Great Leap Forward
Which 1950's campaign encouraged the Chinese to criticize the CCP?
Hundred Flowers
Who was the paramount leader of the early PRC?
Mao Zedong
Which dynasty ruled China from 1644 to 1911?
Qing
What does the abbreviation for the Taiwanese ROC stand for?
Republic of China
Which French philosopher viewed China as static and unchanging?
Voltaire
Which dynasty did the "First Emperor" of China found?
Qin
Which area of China is considered to be its heartland?
Yellow River Basin
Kublai Khan and Ghengis Khan were invaders from which frontier region of China?
Mongolia
The name of which city literally means "Northern Capital"?
Beijing
Which late 1950's natural disaster led to economic loss and severe human costs?
famine
Who was the dominant leader in early PRC history?
Mao Zedong
Whose death in 1976 marked the end on an era in PRC History?
Mao Zedong
Which Chinese leader was thought to have improved on the works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin?
Mao Zedong
What was Mao's nickname during the 1970's?
The Great Helmsman
Whose image became prominent in badges, stamps, and posters of the 1970's?
Mao Zedong
"Radical transformation" was synonymous with which approach to reform in China?
utopian
The "gradualist tack" was synonymous with which appraoch to reform in China?
pragmatic
Who was the foremost spokesman for the "scientific" strategy of the Chinese Revolution in the 1960s and '70s?
Mao Zedong
Which PRC Chairman of the late 1950s and early 1960s was the foremost spokesman for the "gradualists"?
Liu Shaoqi
Which lavel did Mao Zedong use to criticize his enemies?
rightist
Which form of government forbids private ownership and works toward equality?
communism
Which type of government allows only a limited degree of private ownership and accepts slight variations in general economic equality?
socialism
Which 1956 revolt threatened the hold of communism in Europe and this in China?
Hungarian Revolution
What effect of the GLF resulted in the greatest loss of human life?
famine
The name of which city literally means "Southern Capital"?
Nanjing
Which dynasty did the invading Manchus oust in 1644?
Ming
Which term has come to mean "assimilated into the Chinese system of beliefs and practices"?
Sinicized
Central Asians participated in a 1820s-1830s rebellion to free which Chinese region?
Xinjiang
Whom did the Boxers call "secondary devils"?
Chinese Christians
Which city did foreign armies occupy and loot after the Boxer Rebellion?
Beijing
Which widespread custom affecting Chinese women did nineteenth-century reformers want to end?
binding of women's feet
Which ethnic group did Hong Xiuquan represent?
Hakka
Before becoming a leader of the Taiping Uprising, Hong worked as a __________.
tutor
Which rebel leader was inspired by his hallucinations that he struggled to interpret?
Hong Xiuquan
Hong Xiuquan claimed to be the younger brother of ________.
Jesus Christ
Which school of thought focuses on the "need to minimize and eventually overcome class differences"?
Marxism
After the GLF, how did the Chinese communicate their economic goals and strategies?
through Five Year Plans and mass campaigns
What, according the utopian thinkers, would compensate economically for China's low level of development?
its huge population
During which era had the CCP honed its propaganda techiniques a\\\\used after the GLF?
during the Republican Era
What did the APC stand for in the 1950s?
Agricultural Production Cooperative
What was a primary goal of "agricultural collectivization"?
increasing crop yields
Which group was purged as a result of the Hundred Flowers Movement?
members of the rightist intellectuals
What was the "paper tiger" according to Mao Zedong?
atom bomb
Which technological accomplishment of 1957 increased the global prestige of the USSR?
Sputnik
Who was the most powerful Soviet leader for 1953-1964 during the Sputnik era?
Nikita Khrushchev
Which two harbors did China bomb in 1958 to test the intentions of the Soviet Union?
Quemoy and Matsu
In the context of the ongoing conflict between the USSR and the PRC, which Soviet leader voiced his support of the Chinese Communist claim to the Nationalist-controlled island in letter to President Eisenhower in 1959?
Nikita Khrushchev
Whom did Hong Xuiquan's hallucinations reveal the Manchus to be?
devils in human form
Whose nineteenth-century Chinese ideology embraced gender equality and abstinence from sex?
Hong Xiuquan
Whose nineteenth-century Chinese ideology embraced gender equality and abstinence from sex?
Hong Xiuquan
In the early 1850s, the Taipings took control of which river valley?
Yangzi
The Taiping Kingdom was about the size of which present-day European country?
France
The Qing used the regional armies led by ________ to bolster their response to the Taipings.
Self-Strengtheners
Which criteria for selecting officials did the Qing abolish after the Boxer Uprising?
civil service examinations
During most of the Warlord Era, who held the official presidency?
Yuan Shikai
What prevented the Chinese republic in the 1910s and 1920s from being a true "republic"?
the lack of meaningful elections
The Nationalist Party of Sun Zhongshan was a revamped version of which previous organization?
Revolutionary Alliance
What was one of the most important publications of the New Culture Movement?
Xin Qingnian (New Youth)
Proponents of the New Culture Movement supported a shift in which important Confucian value?
veneration of elders
The rumblings of the New Culture ideology were intensified because of the unfair treatment of China at the 1919 ___________.
Paris Peace Conference
What did the Chinese call the combined Nationalist and Communist force of 1924 - 1926?
First United Front
According to tradition, who wrote The Way and the Power Classic (Daodejing)?
Laozi
Zi Lu was a famous disciple of which religious philosopher?
Confucius
The idea of Confucian "jen" parallels which American adage?
the Golden Rule
Who was the first Sui dynasty emperor to use Buddhism to legitimize his right to rule?
Wendi
Which Tang dynasty emperor bestowed military authority on eunuchs, thus altering the power balance in the imperial Chinese court?
Emperor Xianzong
Which British monarch reigned during the height of the Opium War hostilities?
Queen Victoria
The Second Opium War pitted China against Britain and __________.
France
Which cousins led the expeditionary force during the first phase of the Opium War?
Charles and George Elliott
Where did Sun Zhongshan found his revolutionary organization in 1895?
Honolulu, Hawaii
What was the Chinese name for Sun Zhongshan's Revolutionary Alliance?
Tongmeng hui
Where in the United States did Sun Zhongshan conduct a lot of fundraising?
Hawaii
Which group emerged victorious from the Chinese Civil War in 1948?
Communists
What was the common nickname for the Chinese Communist People's Liberation Army?
Red Army
What is the capital of the PRC?
Beijing
In 1949, what percentage of China was rural?
80 percent
In the mid-twentieth century, which labels did the CCP use to describe rural landlords and village powerbrokers?
evil gentry, local bullies
In the mid-twentieth century which label did the CCP use to describe landless agricultural laborers who rented property or worked for hire?
poor peasants
Which term did the CCP use to describe agriculturalists who owned land and earned money from the work of hired laborers?
rich peasants
Which term did the CCP use to describe rural folks who owned land but also rented land to increase their holdings?
middle peasants
One of the major goals of CCP reform of the early 1950s was ________.
land reform
Which ideology valued the working classes and considered the bourgeoisie to be immoral exploiters?
Marxism
What color was used to describe Chinese who were supportive of CCP revolutionary goals?
red
What term did the CCP use to describe the process of "integrating a region into the PRC"?
liberating
The term "xiaoshu minzu" referred to __________.
national minorities
Which frontier zone has a name that literally means "New Dominion" or "New Frontier"?
Xinjiang
Which policy of Jin Shuren did the various ethnic groups of Xinjiang find particularly offensive?
Sinicization
Which Xinjiang tax did the CCP eliminate in the early 1950s?
Islamic land tax that funded mosques
In 1955, a CCP leader of which ethnic descent began to exert the most control of the Xinjiang Ulghur Autonomous Region?
Han
Leaders from which religious group ruled Tibet during the 1920s?
Tibetan Buddhism
What political label did the CCP give to Inner Mongolia when it took control of it in 1947?
"autonomous region"
Which country exerted the most control over Outer Mongolia in the early 1950s?
Russia
Which group of settlers did the CCP encourage to move to Outer Mongolia in the 1950s?
Han settlers
The term "entrepot," as used to describe Hong Kong, means
a trading and shipping center
When was Hong Kong finally integrated into the PRC?
1997
In 1949, 25 percent of the population of Taiwan was made up of people from __________.
mainland China
Which political party controlled Taiwan after 1949?
GMD
Against which power was the 1954 Taiwan-U.S. Mutual Defense Treaty primarily directed?
CCP
Trade in which commodity became an important source of economic growth for Macao?
gold
After the PRC takeover in 1949, what were the new group of migrants to Macao called?
refugee entrepreneurs
What CCP strategy publicized policies and facilitated compliance with party practice?
mass campaigns
What did the traditional Chinese often call their "legal wives of lesser status"?
concubines
What replaced pictures of lineage ancestors at PRC weddings?
picture of Chairman Mao
Which term describes the practice of requiring that husbands and wives reside and raise children in the village where the husbands were born?
patrilocality
Which label for underdeveloped nations in Africa and Latin America became popular in the 1950s?
Third World Countries
According to the UN Security Council, who was the aggressor nation in the Korean War?
North Korea
Under which auspices did the U.S. enter Korea in 1950?
as part of a 15-nation United Nation multinational
The Soviet ambassador to the UN did not veto the resolution to send UN troops to Korea because he was absent in protest of ___________.
the Security Council's refusal to grant a place to the PRC
China responded immediately to the landing of United Nations forces at __________.
Inchon
Which world leader died in 1953 in the midst of negotiations to end the Korean War?
Stalin
Where was the U.S. Seventh Fleet stationed during the Korean War?
Taiwan Straits
Which two Chinese parties competed for power after World War II?
Nationalists and Communists
At the beginning of the Chinese Civil War of the late 1940s, which faction seemed to hold a clear advantage?
Nationalists
Beginning in the late 1940s, what was the military arm of the Chinese Communists called?
People's Liberation Army
Which faction in the Chinese Civil War received the most support from the United States government?
Nationalists
What become the base of operations of Jiang Jieshi in the late 1940s?
Taiwan
Who became the Chinese premier and foreign minister in October 1949?
Zhou Enlai