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666 Cards in this Set

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The writings of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries did what for the world of literature?
marked a shift from Latin to the vernacular; witnessed experimentation with new literary forms; marked a new interest in a variety of secular subjects
Who served as models and inspirations to the English writers of the sixteenth century?
Petrarch and Boccaccio
What genre experienced a resurgance of writing?
When did the War of the Roses end?
What brought about the decline of the influence of the Catholic Church in England?
Henry VIII's need for a divorce, and the resulting Reformation
When did the England defeat the Spanish Armada?
What language began replacing Latin as the predominant language of serious writing?
Literacy increased due to the development of what?
the printing press
The literature of the 16th century was no longer limited to the church and court but instead had a (larger/smaller) circulation due to the invention of the printing press.
What sparked the revival of classical learning after 1453?
the manuscripts being brought to Europe by scholars who had escaped Constantinople after its fall in 1453.
When did Constantinople fall?
What were the two effects of ancient manuscripts being tanslated into English?
classical standards were applied to works written int he vernacular; English humanists took interest in creating a new concept of a good life based on classical ethics
During the 16th century, the recently acquired wealth of english gentlmen offered them what, impacting the literature of the period.
oportunities to travel and encounter other cultuers
What were the earliest English plays called?
miracles and/or mysteries
The earliest English plays developed from religious services, just like the plays dedicated to Dionysus, a god from _____.
Ancient Greece
Miracles and mysteries were originally performed where?
inside churches
What is the title of the most famous of the surviving morality plays, dating from the late 15th century?
The short farcical plays performed for occasional relief from moral and religious plays were called what?
The renewed interest in Greek and Latin literature led to what?
longer comedies based on Latin models
What are two of the comedies based off of the Latin comedies based of the works of Plautus and Terence?
Ralph Roister Doister (c. 1553), and Gammer Gurton's Needle (c. 1533)
Who wrote Ralph Roister Doister in 1553?
Nicholas Udall, a schoolmaster
Who wrote Gammer Gurton's Needle in 1533?
We don't know. It's an anonymous work.
Latin tragedies were modeled after the tragedies of who?
What was the title of the most famous of the tragedies modeled after Seneca?
Who wrote Gorboduc?
Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton
Ralph Roister Doister, Gammer Gurton's Needle, and Gorboduc were written to be what?
amateur performances by schoolboys or university students
Gorboduc was written in _____, newly imported from Italy.
blank verse
Who built the first theatre in London?
James Burbage
What did James Burbage call his theatre?
The Theatre
List the London theatres in the order in which they opened: Blackfriars, Globe, Theatre.
The Theatre, The Globe, then the Blackfriars
What shape was The Theatre and the Globe Theatre?
How many galleries did the The Theatre and the Globe Theatre have?
three levels
What shape was the stage and the pit of The Theatre and the Globe?
Who played female roles?
young boys
How was love expressed on stage?
through language alone because the female roles were acted by young boys
Were the costumes elaborate or minimal?
Was the scenery elaborate or minimal?
Because plays were performed in daylight, playwrights had to compensate for lighting by using what?
language and imagery (think the balcony scene in romeo and Juliet)
Why did playwrights have to include language to take care of entrances, exits, and the removal of corpses?
Because there were no curtains and they had no control of lighting (everything was performed in daylight)
Why was the lack of scenery advantagious to playwrights?
Changing scenes was very easy because there was minimal scenery to change
When did William Shakespeare appear in London?
around 1584
Who especially prepared the way for Shakespeare to succeed on the stage?
How old was Marlowe when he died?
What verse style did Marlowe utilize in all of his plays?
blank verse
What theme did all of Matrlowe's plays focus on?
a single individual with overreaching ambitions for which he was willing to die
What was Marlowe's occupation when he wrote TAmburlaine?
The play, Dr. Faustus, was based off what?
a Germanic legend
What two things did Shakespeare learn from Marlowe?
how to focus on a powerful character and how to handle blank verse
How much do we know about Shakespeare's life?
very little
In what century was the first biography of Shakespeare written?
18th century
Who published the first biogrpahy of Shakespeare?
Nicholas Rowe
When was the first biography of Shakespeare published?
What was Rowe's biography was based on?
Why did Rowe conclude that Shakespeare was ignorant due to a lack of education?
Shakespeare often neglected the Greek unities of place and time
Did Shakespeare attend Cambridge?
Where was Shakespeare educated?
at the well-endowed grammer school in Stratford, which was offered so that the children of the town could be educated free of charge
What year was Shakespeare christened?
Who is the patron saint of England?
St. George
Shakespeare's birthday (and deathday) is usually fixed at April 23, which is also known as _____.
St. George's Day
Whom did Shakespeare marry?
Anne Hathaway
How many children did Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway have?
About how old was Shakespeare when he traveled to London?
about 20 years old
What are the names of Shakespeare's two long narrative poems?
Venus and Adonis, and The Rape of Lucece
Who is Venus and Adonis dedicated to?
Shakespeare's patron, the Earl of Southampton
Who is The Rape of Lucece dedicated to?
Shakespeare's patron, the Earl of Southampton
Why did London theatres close from 1591-1593?
the outbreak of the plague
What was the name of Shakespeare's acting company?
Lord Chamberlain's Men
Who was the patron of the Lord Chamberlain's Men?
Queen Elizabeth, and later King James
After King James ascended the thrown, what did the Lord Chamberlain's Men change their name to?
the King's Men
About how many plays did Shakespeare produce?
an average of 2 a year, for 20 years
When did Shakespeare die?
Who did acting companies registered their playbooks with to prevent pirating?
Stationers' Register
How many of Shakespeare's plays were published without his permission during his lifetime?
What types of plays are included in Shakespeare's first group?
early comedies and his first cycle of history plays
What types of plays are included in Shakespeare's second group?
the great comedies, the second history cycle, and Romeo and Juliet
What plays are included in Shakespeare's third group?
the seven great tragedies and the problem plays
What types of plays are included in the fourth group?
the Romances
What is the most famous of Shakespeare's romance works?
The Tempest
What three things did Shakespeare and his contemporaries do to put their own stamp on tragedy?
developed a more loosely structured plot (included subplots); a larger cast of characters; mixed serious and comic elements;
What is parallelism?
a sentence style in which sentence elements that are alike in function are also alike in grammatical form
What is an anaphora?
the repetition of an identical word or group of words in successive clauses
What is hyperbole?
exaggeration for the sake of rhetorical effect
What is an allusion?
a referene to someone or something outside the work; allusions can be made to a historical or literay character or event
What is litotes?
an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
What is a tragic hero?
a character of high stature who moves from prosperity to adversity through some mistake in judgment
Define "catharsis"
audience's feeling of exaltation at the end of tragedy when emotions of pity and tragedy have been aroused and purged
Define "hamartia"
error in judgment by tragic hero that leads to his/her downfall
Define "hubris"
tragic hero's excessive pride and self-confidence
What is the peripeteia?
the tragic hero's reversal of fortune
What is the anagnorisis?
the tragic hero's moment of enlightenment
Where is Antony & Cleopatra set?
Rome, Alexandria, Athens, Parthia, and Sicily
How many scenes does Antony and Cleopatra have?
What are the major themes of Antony & Cleopatra (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)?
politics, leadership, love, youth and age, passion and responsibility, fickleness of the crowd
Define "litotes"
an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite
Describe Antony (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)?
great soldier, torn between power and Cleopatra
Describe Cleopatra (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab?
fascinating and cunning, regal in the end
Describe Octavius Caesar (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
competent and ruthless
Describe Octavia (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
used as a political pawn, gentle and kind
Describe Charmian and Iras(according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
loyal to Cleopatra
Describe Enobarbus (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
cynical commentator on the action
Describe Lepidus (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
weak but well-intentioned triumvir
Describe Pompey (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
ambitious but weak
Describe Ventidius (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
Antony's lieutenant in Parthia
Describe Benedick (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
confirmed bachelor, scornful of love, witty
Describe Beatrice (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
scornful of love and marriage; witty and kind
Describe Claudio (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
brave and impulsive soldier
Describe Hero (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
beautiful and conventional, falsely accused
Describe Margaret (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
maid to Hero who unwittingly joins plot against her
Describe Don Pedro (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
aristocratic Spaniard visiting Messina
Describe Leonato (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
father of Hero
Describe Don John (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
bastard brother of Don Pedro
Describe Borachio (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
devises plot against Hero for money
Describe Dogberry, Verges and the Watch (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
comic relief, hold clue to the play's resolution
Describe Friar Francis (according to the USAD Lang/Lit tab)
priest who recognized Hero's innocence and comes up with a plan to save her
When was Antony & Cleopatra entered into the Stationers' Register?
Where did Shakespeare find his material for tragedy?
in the heroic past, like his Greek predecessors
What is the paradox of tragedy?
The paradox of tragedy is that the heroes and heroines are knowingly undone by their most admirable traits.
What causes the downfall of Antony and Cleopatra?
their transcendent love and devotion to each other
Why does Shakespeare usually not permit the suicide of his tragic heroes?
He is mindful fo Christian doctrine. The only exception to this was in his Roman tragedies, because he can't rewrite history and in ancient Rome, suicide was considered the honorable course.
Why does Shakespeare offer little explanation of the events in Antony & Cleopatra?
Because the historical background of Antony & Cleopatra would have been well known to the audience of Shakespeare's day
What are the names of the three triumvirs in Antony & Cleopatra?
Antony, Octavious Caesar, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
What land did Antony control?
the eastern provinces
What land did Octavius control?
the western provinces
What land di Lepidus control?
The action of Antony and Cleopatra covers what period of (historical) time?
40 to 30 BC
Who threatens the security of the triumvirate?
When did the Battle of Actium take place?
31 BC
After Antony and Cleopatra both died, what did Octavius Caesar do?
He returned to Rome, took the title of Augustus, and reigned as Rome's first emporer until 14 AD
What was Shakespeare's main source of information for Antony & Cleopatra?
Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans by Plutarch
Who was likely the translator of the edition of Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans Shakespeare used when researching Antony & Cleopatra?
Sir Thomas North
How does Shakespeare's rendition of Antony & Cleopatra different from Plutarch's?
Shakespeare's attitude is different, giving the description of Cleopatra in Cydnus to the cynical Enobarbus
In what ways are Virgil's Aeneid and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra alike?
both have aspects of a historical chronical as they follow a hero through a series of incidents, including his dallying with a North African queen
Why did early critics attack Antony & Cleopatra's apparently haphazard construction of the play?
Because the early critics were aware of the Greek unities of time, place, and even action, which Shakespeare completely ignored.
In Antony & CLeopatra, what purpose does the apparent messiness of the rapid changes of short scenes serve?
It enhances major themes (such as the contrast between stern and disciplined Rome and the luxurious pleasures of Egypt.)
In what scene do messengers first appear in Antony & Cleopatra?
the first scene (a messenger arrives from Rome)
What purpose do messengers serve?
their news advances the plot and their treatment reveals characters' personality traits
Why did Shakespeare mix comedy with tragdy?
He understood that comedy and tragedy are not clearly separated in real-life situations.
"Shakespeare's tragedies usually contain ghosts, soothsayers, omens, or other supernatural elements." Which of those supernatural elements are found in Antony & Cleopatra?
soothsayer & omens; the soothsayer interprets the swallows nesting in Cleopatra's boats as a bad omen
Define "synecdoche." (pronounced sin-ek'-doe-key)
the use of the part for the whole; i.e. hired hands, head of cattle
Define "apostrophe."
the direct address of an abstraction or a person not present
Define "syntax."
the way words, phrases, and clauses are combined to form sentences; (i.e. sentence structure, and word order)
What is an epic?
an extended narrative of a nation's heroic past
What is lyric poetry?
a type of poetry expressing the speaker's personal thoughts or feelings; usually short;
What is narrative poetry?
non-dramatic verse that tells a story
What is dramatic poetry?
poetry where a character speaks
What is a dramatic monologue?
a poem in which the poet assumes the persona of one character and spaks through him/her
In poetry, what is meter?
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Define "rhyme."
repetition of accented vowel sound at the end of a line
Define "masculine rhyme."
rhyme involving only one syllable
Define "feminine rhyme."
rhyme involving more than one syllable
Define "internal rhyme."
rhyme in the middle of the line, rhyming with word at the end of the line
Define "eye rhyme."
rhyming that depends on spelling rather than sound
Define "slant rhyme."
inexact rhyme
Define "blank verse."
unrhymed iambic pentameter
What are couplets?
pairs of rhyming lines
What are heroic couplets?
couplets in iambic pentameter
What are closed couplets?
couplets that form complete sentences ending in periods or semi-colons
What does it mean when a poem is "end-stopped?"
describes lines of poetry that end with a period or semi-colon
What is enjambment?
continuation of the sense of one line to another without a grammatical pause
What is free verse?
verse without rhyme or a regular metrical pattern
What is a stanza?
a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem
What is a ballad?
a narrative poem originally designed to be sung
What is a ballad stanza?
a quatrain of alternate iambic tetrametera nd trimeter lines, rhyming abab
What is rhyme royal?
a seven-line stanza in iambic pentameter rhyming ababbcc
What is a sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a complicated rhyme scheme
What is a Petrarchan sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abba abba cdecde
What is an English sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abba abba cddc ee
What is a Shakespearean sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abab cdcd efef gg
What is a Spenserian sonnet?
a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter rhyming abab bcbc cdcd ee
What is alliteration?
the repetition of initial consonants
What is assonance?
repetition of vowel sounds, usually in stressed syllables
What is consonance?
repetition of consonant sounds that are preceded by different vowel sounds
What is onomatopoeia?
direct verbal imitation of natural sounds
What is an aubade?
a song of regret sung by lovers who must part at dawn
What is an epic simile?
an elaborate extended simile
What is a caesura?
a natural rhythmic pause in a line of verse
What is inversion?
reversing the natural word order to accommodate meter or rhyme
What is Metaphysical Conceit?
extended comparison of objects that are dissimilar
What is an ode?
a longer lyric poem on a serious subject
What is pathetic fallacy?
attributing human emotions to inanimate objects
What is substitution?
the use of a foot other than the one demanded by the meter (usually trochaic for iambic at the beginning of a line)
What is a transferred epithet?
an adjective used to describe a noun to which it doesn't usually apply
Which of our short selection pieces did Sir Thomas Wyatt write?
"They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek"
What are the birth/death dates for Sir Thomas Wyatt?
What are Wyatt's notable accomplishments?
courtier and diplomat; discovered sonnet and blank verse in Italy; experimented with form and meter; used Petrarchan themes
Which of our short selection pieces did Edmund Spenser write?
Sonnet LIIII
What are the birth/death dates for Edmund Spenser?
c.1552 - 1599
What are Spenser's notable accomplishments?
experimented with meter; The Faerie Queene; Spenserian stanza; Spenserian sonnet
Which of our short selection pieces did Christopher Marlowe write?
"The Passionate Shepherd to his Love"
What are the birth/death dates for Christopher Marlowe?
c.1564 - 1593
What are Marlowe's notable accomplishments?
early tragedies; translations of Ovid; Hero and Leander; pastoral poetry
Which of our short selections did William Shakespeare write?
Sonnet 30
What are the birth/death dates for Shakespeare?
What are Shakespeare's notable accomplishments?
tragedies and comedies; narrative poems; sonnets; variety of themes
Which of our short selection pieces was written by John Donne?
The Sun Rising
What are the birth/death dates for Donne?
What are John Donne's notable accomplishments?
Dean of St. Paul's; sermons and meditations; religious and love poems; emotion and intellect; neutral style
Which of our short selection pieces was written by Francis Bacon?
Of Travel
What are the birth/death dates for Francis Bacon?
What are Bacon's accomplishments?
statesman and philosopher; arrest for bribery; essays and longer prose works; Latinate style
Who wrote "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Who wrote Sonnet LIIII?
Edmund Spenser
Who wrote "The Passionate Shepherd to his Love"
Christopher Marlowe
Who wrote Sonnet 30?
William Shakespeare
Who wrote "The Sun Rising?"
John Donne
Who wrote "Of Travel?"
Francis Bacon
Who wrote The Faerie Queene?
Edmund Spenser
What are the major themes of Much Ado About Nothing?
deception, love, noting
What is the setting of Much Ado About Nothing?
Messina, Sicily, soon after the war; action lasts just over a week
Why are Lepidus and Octavius concerned about Antony spending time in Egypt?
The stability of the known world depends on the strength and cooperation of the three men, therefore Antony's conduct is not merely personal, but can affect the stability of the empire.
Which character in Antony & Cleopatra is hugely popular with his men for his conviviality, his generosity, and his sharing of his solderis' hardships?
Which character in Antony & Cleopatra is calculatingly efficient?
How do Antony & Cleopatra express their love for one another in the play?
through magnificent speeches
How old is Octavius at the time of the action within Antony & Cleopatra?
How old is Cleopatra at the time of the action within Antony & Cleopatra?
Name Antony's two wives.
Fulvia & Octavia
Whose lead does Antony follow in the Battle of Actium?
How does Shakespeare's Antony compare to Plutarch's Antony?
Shakespeare's treatment of Antony is kinder whereas Plutarch took a more moralistic approach and paused to praise or blame
How does Shakespeare portray Antony? (less-than-life, life-sized, larger-than-life)
larger than life
What is the attitude of Antony's officers in the first scene of the play?
disappointment in his declining soldiership as a result of his obsession with Cleopatra
Which of Antony's servants deserts him after the Battle of Actium?
How does Antony's losing the Battle of Actium demonstrate the integrity of his character?
It shows his commitment to Cleopatra even when such action will bring about his own destruction
How many scenes of Antony's debauchery are dramatically presented?
Do Antony's officers make derogatory comments about Antony's lifestyle (his "gaudy nights"?
What does Antony believe represents "the nobleness of life?"
feasting and revelry
Which character makes the most derogatory comments about Antony's lifestyle?
Which author describes Antony's cruelty in more detail, Plutarch or Shakespeare?
Who does Antony compare the love he shares with Cleopatra with?
the love of Dido and Aeneas
Where does Antony die?
in Cleopatra's arms
Who dies first, Antony or Cleopatra?
What does Antony NOT do upon hearing that Cleopatra's death is a trick?
he does not berate her
Where does Shakespeare get his information for the character of Cleopatra?
Does Antony's facination with Cleopatra depend on her beauty?
Who is Isis?
an Egyptian goddess
As Antony is dying, how does he address Cleopatra?
as the embodiment of Egypt: "I am dying, Egypt, dying" (IV, xv, 22)
What is Cleopatra the expert of?
When Cleopatra arrives at Cydnus for her first meeting with Antony, who do both Plutarch and Shakespeare compare her to?
Who does Cleopatra become envious of?
Octavia, Antony's second wife
Who had Cleopatra had affairs with before having an affair with Antony?
Julius Caesar and Gnaius Pompey (the older brother of the Pompey who appears in our play)
Do Antony and Cleopatra view their love realistically or idealistically?
Who does Cleopatra compare Antony to in Act I, Scene 5?
Atlas, she describes Antony as "the demi-Atlas of this earth" (I,v,85; I,v,28)
Why did Cleopatra decide to kill herself with asps?
she decided it would be quick and painless
Who does Cleopatra check with before killing herself to see what Caesar's plans for her are?
Proculeius and Dolabella
What are Cleopatra's last words?
"Husband, I come!" (V,ii,342)
What did Shakespeare do to emphasize the contrast between Antony & Cleopatra?
modified Plutarch's account of Antony & Cleopatra, and he also modified other characters
How is Octavius Caesar presented by Shakespeare?
coldly political man with no personal appetites and a steady mind
What was Caesar's most coldly political act?
arranging the marraige of his sister Octavia to Antony in order to achieve a truce
Is Caesar cynical or optimistic of human nature?
Of the three triumvirs, who always wins in sports and games of chance?
Octavius Caesar
Who's good fortune does Shakespeare use to contrast with Antony's fate?
Octavius Caesar
What is the tone of Caesar's concluding words on teh deaths of Antony & Cleopatra?
cold and convention
What effects do Shakespeare's modifications of Caesar's character have on the story?
helps to glorify the characters of teh two protagonists
Which (female) character only speaks 30 lines?
How many scenes include Octavia?
Who serves as a political pawn for Octavius Caesar?
How is Octavia depicted by Shakespeare?
as being a cold and colorless figure
Is Octavia a worthy rival of Cleopatra?
Who is Harley Granville-Barker referring to when he says "a gentler victim of great policies one could not find?"
What effect does making Octavius Caesar and Octavia less sympathetic have on the reader?
it enriches our sympathy for Antony and Cleopatra, who have a warmth and imagination that Caesar and Octavia lack
Who is the first to mention the names Charmian and Iras, Shakespeare or Plutarch?
Other than Cleopatra, who else personifies Egype?
Charmian and Iras
Which two character share Cleopatra's mysterious kinship of blood, race and sex?
Charmian and Iras
Who is the first to mention the name of Enobarbus, Shakespeare or Plutarch?
Who invents the character of Enobarbus, Shakespeare or Plutarch?
If Antony & Cleopatra were a classical tragedy, which role would Enobarbus serve within the tragedy?
the Chorus
Who is the first to die in the spirit of tragedy in the play, Antony & Cleopatra?
Where does Enobarbus die?
in a ditch
Is Enobarbus surprised when Antony follows Cleopatra's retreat at the Battle of Actium?
What does Enobarbus die of?
Does Enobarbus understand Antony's attraction to Cleopatra?
What is remarkable about the way that Enobarbus died?
he died of grief for his lord and also spoke memorable lines in praise of Cleopatra
How is Lepidus treated by the two other triumvirs?
he is largely ignored
Who is being made fun of in Pompey's galley?
Who disappears from the action without any explanation?
Who is Pompey's father?
Pompey the Great
In what way are both Lepidus and Pompey alike?
they are both manipulated by Caesar
Who is threatening the triumvirate in the beginning of the play Antony & Cleopatra?
Who suggests that Pompey kill Antony and Caesar while they are both in his galley drunk?
Why does Pompey not have Antony & Caesar killed while they are in his galley?
he does not want to get his hands dirty in the process
How many scenes does Ventidius speak in?
Who is Ventidius?
Antony's lieutenant
Where does Ventitidus win his important victory?
Why does Ventidius not follow the fleeing Parthians?
Antony does not like his officers to surpass him in military victory
Why is the readers's understanding of the characters multi-faceted?
because characters are presented through comments made by other characters
How is Shakespeare's style different from the typical style of high tragedy?
it is more infomral, more colloquial, and more satirical
What does the Latin phrase "feliciter audax" mean?
"happy valiance"
How does Coleridge describe the style of Antony & Cleopatra?
as "feliciter audax" or "happy valiance"
Why are Antony's first words to Octavia ironic?
He has just married her and he tells her that he will not be around a lot
What does diction add to the style?
a sense of boldness
How can the language of the play be described?
How is Egypt represented?
through exotic imagery
How is Rome represented?
through cold, plain language
What kind of verse do the main characters usually speak in?
blank verse
What kind of verse do the maids and officers usually speak in?
How does the language of Charmian and Irase and Antony's officers compare to that of Cleopatra and Antony?
the language of Charmian and Iras and the comments of Antony's officers are coarse and ribald in contrast to the grand language of the two principal characters
What did Shakespeare write BEFORE writing Antony & Cleopatra?
his four major tragedies (Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth)
What do Shakespeare's four major tragedies have in common?
set in an exotic location; have a single hero; contained soliloquies at important crises
How is Antony & Cleopatra different from Shakespeare's four major tragedies?
it has a broader theme, a larger cast of characters, and few and brief soliloquies
Which literary critic and preeminent Shakespearean scholar refused to place Antony & Cleopatra in the same category as the four great tragedies?
A. C. Bradley
What are Shakespeare's four great tragedies?
Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, and King Lear
Why does AC Bradley not consider Antony & Cleopatra to be in the same category as the four major tragedies?
the characters of Antony and Cleopatra "do not kindle pity and admiration to the full"
How is Antony & Cleopatra different from other tragedies?
there are two tragic figures and one of them is a woman. In addition, women usually play minor roles and their speaking parts are limited to a few lines
How does Cleopatra's role compare to Antony's role in terms of importance?
they are equal in importance
Who is the main character in Act V?
Cleopatra; Antony has died already
What faults do critics find with the ending of Antony & Cleopatra?
contanis no final truth or no moral point of reference; no real force of evil; the central characters have no major soliloquies to explain their soul-searching; the moment of recognition(anagnorisis) is very brief if it is present at all
How do comedies usually end?
How are tragedy and comedy alike?
both genres portray human beings in trying situations
How do characters in comedy appear?
limited and foolish
Tragedies are for those who feel and comedies are for those who _____.
According to Henri Bergson, what does comedy appeal to?
the mind, not the heart
Why does Henri Bergson believe that comedy acts as a social corrective?
because audiences laugh at human faults
According to George Meredith, what is the true test of comedy?
"that it shall awaken thoughtful laughter"
Why are audiences free to laugh in comedies?
because their emotions are not engaged and the comic characters are recognizable types rather than individuals
Is Shakespeare a moralist?
Are Shakespeare's comedies didactic?
Does Shakespeare's audience laugh at or with the Shakespeare's characters?
Describe the vices of the characters in Shakespeare's comedies.
harmless and amusing (when they have vices at all)
What is dramatic irony?
when the audience knows more than the character(s) on stage
Shakespeare's comedies are usually comedies of situation, which arise from what?
misunderstandings and disguise
How do Shakespeare's later comedies end?
with happy marriages
What is the tone of Shakespeare's later comedies?
predominatnly serious, and deeper issues are discussed in moving beautiful poetry
How are deeper issues discussed in Shakespeare's later comedies?
in moving beautiful poetry
In Shakespeare's later comedies, what kind of verse do the young lovers address each other in?
blank verse
In Shakespeare's later comedies, what kind of verse do the servants or attendants address each other in?
How do Shakespeare's romantic comedies usually end?
with a wedding or some other celebration
How important are the female roles in Shakespeare's comedies?
very important
How intelligent are the women in Shakespeare's comedies compared to the men?
the women are usually much brighter than the men
Who get more of the best speeches in Shakespeare's comedies, men or women?
What do male disguises do for female characters in Shakespeare's comedies?
liberates the female character from social restraints
How many songs are in Much Ado About Nothing?
How important are music and dance in Shakespeare's plays?
very important; they are not tossed in at random but rather are suited to their context.
When was Much Ado About Nothing registered in the Stationers' Register?
Who is Beatrice's foil?
her cousin, Hero
In most of Shakespeare's comedies, how do the female characters' male admirers appear?
languid and insipid compared to the spunky women
Who does Shakespeare contrast the young lovers of Much Ado About Nothing to?
ordinary people
What kind of character has to be dismissed from the world of the play before the happy ending can occur?
the blocking character
Who is the blocking character in Much Ado About Nothing?
Don John
What does the title indicate about the play?
It is not to be taken seriously
What did George Bernard Shaw think of Much Ado About Nothing?
he thought it was "a shockingly bad play"
What source did Shakespeare use for the story of Claudio and Hero?
"Timbria di Cardona"
Who wrote "Timbria di Cardona?"
Matteo Bandello
Who translated "Timbria di Cardona" from the Italian?
Francois de Belleforest
What literary work did Francois de Belleforest write?
Histoires Tragiques
Who were the parts for Dogberry and Verges written for?
Shakespeare's two favorite actors, William Kempe, and Cowley
Who were Shakespeare's two favorite actors?
William Kempe and Cowley
Who originally created the characters of Verges and Dogberry?
William Shakespeare
Who originally created the characters of Beatrice and Benedick?
William Shakespeare
Where is Much Ado About Nothing set?
in Messina in Sicily
Who ruled Sicily from the end of the 13th century until the end of the 17th century?
the House of Aragon
What kind of society does Messina have?
What is the social climate at the masked ball in Much Ado About Nothing?
one of distrust, with one faction constantly spying on the other
In Much Ado About Nothing, what does the song "Sigh No More, Ladies" emphasize?
the strict code of male honor and the subordination of women
Where have recent production of Much Ado About Nothing been set?
small towns in turn-of-the-century America, and Hollywood in the 1930s
How many scenes are there in Much Ado About Nothing?
The setting of Much Ado About Nothing is restricted to which two places?
Leonato's house and the gardens in Messina
How many of the characters in Much Ado About Nothing are introduced in the first scene?
all of them
What is established in the first scene of Much Ado About Nothing?
all of the characters and their respective motives
What is Claudio's motive?
to marry Hero
What is Don Pedro's motive?
to assist Claudio in wooing Hero
How many pairs of characters are there in Much Ado About Nothing?
3; Hero & Claudio, Beatrice & Benedick, Dogberry & Verges
How many different plots are there in Much Ado About Nothing?
3; the one with Hero & Claudio, the verbal sparring of Beatrice & Benedick, and the comic mistakes of Dogberry & Verges
Which song in Much Ado About Nothing foreshadows Claudio's inconsistancy?
"Sigh No More, Ladies"
Which song in Much Ado About Nothing is an apology from Claudio for his inconsistancy?
"Pardon, Goddess of the Night"
How many soliloquies does Benedick have?
two; one in which he rejects the idea of love, and one in which he embraces the idea of love
Why have critics questioned the unity of Much Ado About Nothing?
because it has three separate plots, not one
How did King Charles I rename his copy of Much Ado About Nothing? (i.e. what was the title he gave it)
Benedick & Beatrice
How is unity maintained throughout Much Ado About Nothing?
through the themes of love and deception
How does the language of Shakespeare's comedies compare to the language of his tragedies?
his comedies are usually more prosaic
About how much of Much Ado About Nothing is written in prose?
about 3/4
What kinds of figurative language does the messenger use in the first scene of Much Ado About Nothing?
puns, alliteration, paradox, and parallel structure
Why does Benedick rattle off a list of places to be sent to, to Leonato in the first scene?
He does not want to have to converse with Beatrice
Why/How is Dogberry a source of comic relief?
he mangles the English language with malapropisms in his efforts to appear erudite (smart)
What kind of irony is utilized throughout the entire play?
dramatic irony (where the audience knows more than the characters)
When Claudio returns from the war, what two things does he notice about Hero?
her appearance and her potential dowry
What themes unite Much Ado About Nothing's three separate plots?
deception, love and noting
What act does the masked ball scene in Much Ado About Nothing appear in?
Act II
When Benedick confesses his love to Beatrice and asks if there's anything he can do for her, what is Beatrice's reply?
Kill Claudio
What does Benedick's name mean?
he who is to be blessed
What does Beatrice's name mean?
she who blesses
What do the names Benedick and Beatrice suggest about the characters?
that they were meant for each other
Who is the Greek goddess of mischief?
Who likens Beatrice to the Greek goddess, Ate?
Does Margaret believe in romantic idealism?
How is Hero in Much Ado About Nothing similar to Desdemona in Othello?
they're both falsely accused of improper behavior
What is Margaret's speech filled with?
sexual innuendo
How are Antony & Cleopatra and Much Ado About Nothing alike?
they are both love stories, offer splendid roles for women, both have a woman as a central participant in the action who voices frustration at the limits placed on women by society, neither fits neatly into its genre
What is often considered the most important period of English literature?
the Renaissance
What genre was the most visibly produced by the writers of the Renaissance?
Which literature genre of the Renaissance was most visible, most poular, and probably most lucrative?
In what two ways was prose liberated from its previous limitations?
its subject matter could be secular, and it could be written in English
Name three English explorers of the Renaissance who wrote accounts of their voyages.
Sir John Hawkins, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and Sir Walter Raleigh
What kind of poetry was the best product of the Renaissance era?
lyric poetry
What are Shakespeare's two long narrative poems?
Venus and Adonis (1593), and The Rape of Lucrece (1594)
What literary work did Richard Tottel write?
Songs and Sonnets (also called Tottel's Miscellany)
Where were all of the writers from our Lang/Lit curriculum from?
the souther part of England within reasonable reach of London
Which of our Lang/Lit authors were well-educated?
all of them
Which of our Lang/Lit authors attended neither Oxford nor Cambridge?
How many of our Lang/Lit writers isolated himself from the masses and/or the affairs of his country?
none of them
Which two writers were NOT involved in public service or held high office?
Shakespeare (he was a successful businessman), and Marlowe (who died young)
Who did poets try to please with their poetry?
their patrons
Who was Spenser's Faerie Queene dedicated to?
Queen Elizabeth
16th Century verse was enormous in what two ways?
subject matter and form
Where was the sonnet imported from?
Who experimented with metrical lines and the verse forms and eventually created the forms that English poets have used ever since?
Earl of Surrey
Who originated the philosophy of courtly love?
Describe courtly love.
aristocratic, associated with chivalry, and usually was extramarital
Describe the "symptoms" of courtly love of the suitor.
becomes pale in his lady's presence, pines in her absence, pleads to gain her favor, and vows eternal faithfulness
Courtly love reappeared in the Middle Ages through the works of which two authors?
Sir Thomas Malory and Chaucer
Which two characters in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales exemplify the ideals of courtly love and its tradition?
the description of the Squire, and the Knight's Tale
What is another name for the Italian sonnet?
Petrarchan sonnet
What is another name for the Petrarchan sonnet?
Italian sonnet
What was the name of the Earl of Surrey?
Henry Howard
Who was Henry Howard?
the Earl of Surrey; importer of the Italian/Petrarchan sonnet to England
Who brought the Italian sonnet to England?
Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard (Earl of Surrey)
What was the conventional theme of sonnets?
courtly love, with the lovesick suitor pining for his lady's love and pleading to gain her favors
How many lines are in a sonnet?
What is the (conventional) meter of a sonnet?
iambic pentameter
How is the Italian sonnet usually divided?
into an octave and a sestet
What rhyme scheme did Spenser use?
abab bcbc cdcd ee
What is the traditional Italian sonnet rhyme scheme?
abba abba cdecde
What is the rhyme scheme of the English sonnet?
abba abba cddc ee
What rhyme scheme did Shakespeare use for his sonnets?
abab cdcd efef gg
When was Sir Thomas Wyatt born?
c. 1503
When did Sir Thomas Wyatt die?
How old was Sir Thomas Wyatt when he died?
How did Wyatt spend most of his life?
as a courtier and diplomat
When did Wyatt enter Cambridge?
Where did Wyatt travel to while in the service of Henry VIII?
Italy (Rome and Venice)
When was Wyatt knighted?
c. 1536
Why was Wyatt imprisoned?
first because it was suspected that he was a lover of Queen Anne who had been a childhood friend of his; second because he was accused of treachery in Spain
Which country was Wyatt an ambassador to under Henry VIII?
What did Wyatt die of?
the fever
How many sonnets did Wyatt write?
about 30
What was interesting about his sonnets?
they were the first to be written in English
What kind of speech did Wyatt employ in his poetry?
simple and direct
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what tense is the first stanza written in?
present tense
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what tense is the second stanza written in?
past tense
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what tense is the third stanza written in?
present tense
What kind of statements begin "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
general statements that hint at how to interpret the poem
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what is the subject of the first stanza?
"they," a plural
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what is the subject of the second stanza?
one particular woman; a woman who had bestoweed her favors on the speaker in the past, and the speaker is grateful that he was the recipient
What is the subject of the third stanza in "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
the spearker's reflections on the woman's behavior, the causes of her forsaking hi, and (by implication) the typical behavior of all women who live variety in their relationships
What does contrasting diction introduce into the first stanza of "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
the poem's complexities
What metaphor is set up in the first stanza of "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
comparing animals and/or birds to women
Which theme does the diction of the third stanza of "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
the theme of change
What is the tone of the third stanza of "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
ironic and reflective
In "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek," what does "kindely" refer to?
it has two meanings -- the typical behavior of womankind, and also ironically to behavior that is far from kind
What is the rhyme scheme Wyatt uses in "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
rhyme royal (ababbcc)
What is the rhyme royal rhyme scheme?
Why is rhyme royal called rhyme royal?
because James I of Scotland had written a poem in the 15th century using a seven-line stanzain iambic pentameter
How do critics feel about Wyatt's use of meter?
that it's weak; sometimes the demands of rhyme royal cause the rhyme to occur on a weak syllable
Which literary collection did Tottel write?
Songs and Sonnets
Who edited some of Wyatt's poems?
What did Tottel change in "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek?"
he removed the irony and ambiguity from the last stanza by changing the last line, changing "kindely" (which has a double meaning)to "kindly" and adding the title
When was Edmund Spenser born?
c. 1552
When did Edmund Spenser die?
How old was Spenser when he died?
Where was Spenser born?
What established Spenser's reputation as the first great English Renaissance poet?
the publication of The Shepheardes Calendar (1579)
Who was "The Shepheardes Calendar" dedicated to?
Sir Philip Sidney
What style is "The Shepheardes Calendar" written in?
pastoral style
How many poems are in "The Shepheardes Calendar?"
twelve, one for each sign of the zodiac
What did Spenser use that some of the established writers of the time failed to appreciate?
archaic spelling
How many different meters does Spense use in "The Shepheardes Calendar?"
Spenser worked as secretary for who?
Lord Grey, Lord Deputy of Ireland
What famous explorer was Spenser friends with?
Sir Walter Raleigh
What kind of work is The Faerie Queene?
a romantic epic
What was the name of Spenser's second wife?
Elizabeth Boyle
Where was Spenser buried?
Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey
What caused Spenser to return to London?
troubles in Ireland
What is Spenser's most important work?
the Faerie Queene
What is Spenser's most ambiguous work?
the Faerie Queene
How many books did Spenser intend to write for Faerie Queene?
twelve, one for every virtue
How many books of Faerie Queene did Spenser complete?
How long did it take for Spenser to write the first six books?
10 years
Describe the literary genres of The Faerie Queene.
part romantic narrative, part treatise on the qualities of the ideal man, part national epic to the glory of England as personified by Queen Elizabeth
What six virtues did Spenser address in The Faerie Queene?
holiness, temperance, chastity, friendship, justice, & courtesy
Who is the hero of the first book of The Faerie Queene?
the Redcrosse Knight (aka St. George, the patron saint of England)
Who is the patron saint of England?
St. George
What did Spenser's experimentation with verse forms lead to?
the Spenserian stanza
Why are Spenser's poems always reproduced in their original spelling and punctuation?
word play and sound patterns are made obvious by the use of the older spelling
What extended metaphor does Spenser use in Sonnet LIIII?
art and life in which the world is a theatre that produces both comedy and tragedy
Contrast the emotions of the speaker of Sonnet LIIII with his lady.
the speaker is emotionally involved in these conflicting events while his lady is merely a cool spectator
In Sonnet LIIII, what does the lady love ridicule?
her lover's amusement and his grief
What is the rhyme scheme of Sonnet LIIII?
Spenser's own version of the English sonnet:
abab bcbc dede ff
What is a volta?
a turning point in a poem
How does Spenser unify Sonnet LIIII?
through interlocking rhymes
What is the presented in the first eight lines of Sonnet LIIII?
the speaker's own feelings
What is described in the third quatrain of Sonnet LIIII?
the lady's reaction
What does the concluding couplet of Sonnet LIIII describe?
the speaker's cry of mock frustration
When was Christopher Marlowe born?
c. 1564
When did Christopher Marlowe die?
How old was Marlowe when he died?
Which other poet was born the same year as Marlowe?
Which other poet was born the same year as Shakespeare?
How long did Marlowe study at Cambridge?
six years
How old was Marlowe when Tamburlaine the Great became successful?
Which Renaissance figure did Marlowe write a historical chronicle on?
Edward II
What was remarkable about hw Marlowe used blank verse?
he was the first to use blank verse in poetry rather than drama
Who wrote Doctor Faustus?
Who wrote Tamburlaine the Great?
Who wrote Hero and Leander?
Who finished Marlowe's Hero and Leander?
George Chapman
How did Marlowe die?
in a tavern brawl in a dispute over the bill
What kind of poetry is Marlowe's Hero and Leander and Shakespeare's Venus and donis an example of?
mythological erotic poetry
Why was mythological erotic poetry ornate?
it was written for a courtly audience, so it tried to reflect the literary tastes and backgrounds of courtiers
When was The Shepheardes' Calender published?
What kind of poetry is "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love?"
pastoral poetry
Where was the pastoral convention derived from?
Theocritus and Virgil's Eclogues
Describe pastoral lyrics.
usually love poems, dealing with simple situations (i.e. dejection of rejected suitor, rivalry for a pretty shepherdess, stirring of new life in the spring, etc.)
What form does pastoral poetry usually take?
monologue or dialogue, simple and musical (almost always rhyming)
What do pastoral poems praise?
felings and attitudes of the simple life of serenity and contemplation
What do pastoral poems condemn?
the outside world and its attitudes
What are two important aspects of English life?
love of nature and praise of the outdoors
Which of our short selections is often parodied?
"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" by Marlowe
What are the possible sources for "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love?"
a 15th centurySpanish pastoral poem, and Ovid's account of Polyphemus wooing the sea-nymph Galatea
What form is "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love" written in?
monologue, in which the shepherd invites his lady to join him in an idyllic pastoral life far from the artificiality of the court and the city
How does the shepherd adderss his lady?
in the archaic second-person singular
What month is it always in the world of "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love?"
How does diction add to "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love?"
it presents the opposition of the artificial and the natural
How many lines are in each stanza of "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love?"
How many stanzas are in "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love?"
What meter is "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" written in?
iambic tetrameter rhyming in couplets
What is significant about "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" being written in iambic tetrameter rhyming in couplets?
it is easy to parody
What is significant about the last line of "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love?"
it repeats the first line with the alteration of only one word
Which word is changed in "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" from the first line to the last line?
"COME live with me..." becomes "THEN live with me..."
How many of Marlowe's works were published during his lifetime?
none of them
What did Izaak Walton rename "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" to?
"The Milkmaid's Song"
"The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" was given a musical setting and sung by whom?
Sir Hugh Evans
"The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" was given a musical setting and sung where?
in The Merry Wives of Windsor
Which version of "The Passionate Shepherd To His Love" is the original one?
we don't know; many of the lines vary from version to version
When was William Shakespeare born?
When did William Shakespeare die?
How old was Shakespeare when he died?
When was Shakespeare's first round of sonnets published?
When Shakespeare's sonnets were published in 1609, had he supervised or even given permission?
Who first published Shakespeare's works?
Thomas Thorpe
Who did Thomas Thorpe dedicate Shakespeare's sonnets to?
Mr. W. H.
What are the themes of Shakespeare's sonnets?
the eternal themes of lyric poetry; the nature of love, the endurance of art, the waning of beauty, the passing of time, the changing of seasons
Does Shakespeare imitate the themes of Petrarch?
What sonnet form does Shakespeare use?
the English form (now called the Shakespearean sonnet because of his extensive use of it)
What makes up the Shakespearean sonnet?
three quatrains and a couplet
Which sonnet precedes Sonnet 30?
Sonnet 29
What function does a quatrain serve?
It serves as a unit of meaning like a paragraph.
What does the speaker discuss in the first three quatrains of Sonnet 30?
past sources of grief that continue to try him
What does the speaker discuss in the couplet of Sonnet 30?
the power of friendship, which can compensate for all losses.
How does the speaker emphasize his sorrows in Sonnet 30?
by using metaphorical language
What does the speaker in Sonnet 30 express regret over?
unfulfilled goals, lost friends, and forgotten love
What tenses does Shakespeare utilize in Sonnet 30?
past tense and present tense
When does Sonnet 30 shift from past tense to present tense?
in the couplet
How are the past and present emphasized in Sonnet 30?
contrasting diction
What sound devices does Shakespeare use to created a pleasing sound to the ear in Sonnet 30?
alliteration and consonance
According to Helen Vendler, what affect do the deepening layers of time have on the reader of Sonnet 30?
it increasing psychological involvement
What was John Donne born?
When did John Donne die?
How old was John Donne when he died?
What religion was John Donne as a child?
Why did John Donne not graduate from Oxford or Cambridge?
As a Catholic, he could not take the graduation oaths
Where did Donne study law?
Lincoln's Inn Court
When did Donne practice law?
never; he never practiced law
Who does Donne marry?
Anne More
How did Donne meet Anne More?
she was the niece of his employer
What was "the most remarkable error" of Donne's life, according to Izaak Walton?
Donne's marrying Anne More
How many children did Donne have?
What religion did Donne become in 1610?
Which English king appointed Donne to the post of Dean of St. Paul's?
King James I
How many of Donne's sermons survive today?
What kind of poetry is Donne associated with?
metaphysical poetry
Where does Donne find his images for his poetry from?
mathematics, astronomy, geography, and other new disciplines not previously used in poetry
What does the term "metaphysical conceit" describe?
the intellectual imagery Donne employs when he draws a comparison between dissimilar objects that involves a contrast of intellectual difficulty
What literary techniques does Donne's poetry abound in?
paradox, hyperbole, ambiguity, and pun
What themes does Donne use in his poetry?
the traditional themes of love and religion
What is the tone of most of Donne's poems?
Donne's poetry is considered _____, not lyric.
According to Ben Jonson, which poet "for not keeping of accents deserves hanging?"
What is enjambment?
when words are dislocated to give emphasis
What two worlds are mentioned in "The Sun Rising?"
the world of joy and love, and the outside world of work and routine
What literary element abounds in the second stanza of "The Sun Rising?"
What are images of grandeur and wealth compared to in "The Sun Rising"?
the invisible riches of the lovers
What form is "The Sun Rising" written in?
verse form
How many lines are in each stanza in "The Sun Rising?"
What purpose do the long and then short lines of "The Sun Rising" serve?
provides the dramatic quality that was favored by the Metaphysical poets
Which critic believes Donne is the greatest of love poets in his range of mood and experience?
Helen Gardner
According to Helen Gardner, what do Donne's poems celebrate?
"the rapture of fulfillment and the bliss of union;" "it has the dramatic intensity of present experience"
When was Francis Bacon born?
When did Bacon die?
How old was Bacon when he died?
Where was Bacon born?
How old was Bacon when he entered Cambridge?
Where did Bacon study law?
Gray's Inn
When was Bacon admitted to the bar?
When did Bacon become Solicitor General?
When did Bacon become Attorney General?
When did Bacon become Privy Councilor?
When did Bacon become Lord Keeper?
When did Bacon become Lord Chancellor?
When did Bacon become a Member of Parliament?
When was Bacon knighted?
Who knighted Bacon?
King jamse I
What two professions did Bacon consider himself to have?
philosopher and statesman
Who wrote The Advancement of Knowledge?
Francis Bacon
When was the Advancement of Knowledge published?
Who wrote Novum Organum?
Francis Bacon
When was Novum Organum written?
What was the topic of The Advancement of Knowledge?
the dignity of knowledge, reviewed the contemporary state of learning, and suggested methods to improve it
What is the subject of Novum Organum?
the nature of truth and suggested methods by which it might be achieved
Where was Bacon imprisoned after being charged with bribery and corruption?
the Tower of London
What did Bacon spend the last five years of his life doing?
persuing his philosophical and literary interestes
What did Bacon die of?
a chill contracted while he was gathering snow to examine the role it might play in the preservation of food
What is an essay?
a short prose composition on almost any subject
What language did Bacon consider to be the language of serious discourse?
At the end of his life, what did Bacon request be done to his English writings?
be translated into Latin
How many essays were in Bacon's first collection?
10 essays
How many essays were in Bacon's second collection of essays?
How many essays were in Bacon's final collection of essays?
Which collection of essays did "Of Travel" first appear in?
the last collection
What point of view is "Of Travel" written in?
the archaic form of the third person singular
Why did Bacon use the point of view he did?
to make the essay sound more formal
In "Of Travel," a traveller who travels "hooded" is a metaphor for what?
What does the final sentence in "Of Travel" warn travelers of?
not to adopt too many foreign habits
What advice does Bacon give to travelers in "Of Travel?"
learn the language, buy a guidebook, engage a knowledgeable guide to point out objects of special interest, keep a diary, mix with the locals
What personal advice does Bacon suggest in "Of Travel?"
avoid quarrels and stay away from bad company
What were medieval writers tied to (subject wise)?
Latin and the Church
In what way were the English writers of the Renaissance remarkable?
they worked without tradition (they started from scratch)
Renaissance poets did what with different poetric forms, many of which are still used today?
Which rhyming meter is the most popular meter in English verse?
iambic pentameter
When was iambic pentameter created/molded?
English Renaissance
Antony & Cleopatra's forty-two scenes presented no challenge to the Elizabethan theatre because _____.
no changes of scenery were necessary
Shakespeare provides little historical background information to Antony & Cleopatra because _____.
the audience of the time would be familiar with events
In the play's first scene, commentary on Antony's behavior comes from _____.
Philo and Demetrius
"You shall outlive the lady whom you serve."
The tone of the soothsayer's comment to Charmian proves to be _____.
"On the Alps It is reported thou didst eat strange flesh, Which some did die to look on."
Who speaks the above lines about whom?
Caesar about Antony
Antony's officers cite all of the following reasons not to fight at sea EXCEPT:
his sailors are inexperienced; he gives up the advantage by land; Caesar's sailors have naval experience; his ships are heavy and slow to maneuver; the weather around Actium is unpredictable
the weather around Actium is unpredictable
"It is shaped, sir, like itself, and it is broad as it has breadth. It is just so high as it is, and moves with its own organs. It lives by that which nourisheth it, and the elements once out of it, it transmigrates."
On Pompey's galley, Antony is describing _____.
a crocodile
Other characters view the marriage of Antony and Octavia as a(n) _____.
fragile stopgap doomed to failure
In Enobarbus' account of Cleopatra's arrival at Cydnus, the wind from the fans seemed "To glow the delicate cheeks with they did cool, And what they undid did."
The literary device in the above lines is a _____.
"That he which is was wished until he were."
Octavius Caesar is referring to the _____.
fickleness of the mob
"O sovereign mistress of true melancholy, The poisonous damp of night dispunge upon me."
The speaker wishing his death by moonlight is _____.
The mythical figure to which Antony is MOST often compared throughout the play is _____.
Which of the following plays was probably written in the same period of Shakespeare's writing as Much Ado About Nothing?
Hamlet; King John; The Tempest; As You Like It; The Comedy of Errors;
As You Like It
Much Ado About Nothing differs from Shakespeare's other great comedies it its _____.
darker subject matter
The play's dialogue is written primarily in _____.
All of the following are established in Much Ado About Nothing's first scene EXCEPT:
the extent of Leonato's hospitality; Claudio's immediate interest in Hero; the reason for Don John's estrangement; the Prince's promise to woo Hero for Claudio; the verbal sparring between Benedick and Beatrice
the reason for Don John's estrangement
"Hath Leonardo any son, my lord?"
Claudio's question to Don Pedro suggests he _____.
is checking that Hero is the sole heir
Beatrice sees "a Scotch jig, a measure, and a cinquepace" as comparable to _____.
wooing, wedding, and repenting
"I am trusted with a muzzle and enfranchised with a clog; therefore I have decreed not to sing in my cage."
This statement of discontent is voiced by _____.
Don John
The main purpose of the Prince's plan to bring Beatrice and Benedick together is to _____.
pass the time before Claudio's wedding
Beatrice is lured ino the orchard to eavesdrop on a conversation because Margaret tells her that _____.
Hero and Ursula are talking about her
The watchmen arrest Borachio and Conrade because the watchmen _____.
misinterpret what they heard
The Friar is convinced of Hero's innocence because he _____.
has been observing her reactions
"Our watch, sir, have indeed comprehended two auspicious persons..."
Dogberry's address to Leonato contains examples of _____.
The second stanza of Wyatt's poem differs from the first and third in that it _____.
narrates an incident
The diction of the third stanza of Wyatt's poem emphasizes the theme of _____.
In the final stanza of Wyatt's poem, the poet's use of "kindely" can be BEST described as _____.
The form of Sonnet LIIII resembles the Shakespearean sonnet in its _____.
concluding couplet
"Sometimes I ioy when glad occasion sits, And mask in myrth lyke to a Comedy."
In context, "mask" is BEST understood to mean _____.
act a part
During the first eight lines of Spenser's Sonnet LIIII, the speaker _____.
establishes his state of mind
The convention of pastoral poetry is derived from _____.
Theocritus and Virgil
Each stanza of Marlowe's poem offers _____.
a different aspect of rustic life
"When to the sessions of sweet silent thought I summon up remembrance of things past,"
The sound patters in the opening lines can BEST be described as _____.
alliteration and consonance
In the concluding couplet of Sonnet 30, the speaker _____.
views friendship as a compensation for grief
In Donne's peom, the speaker's tone in addressing the sun in the first stanza is _____.
In his choice of verse form, Donne usually
chooses a form appropriate to the theme
Bacon's essay consists mainly of _____.
a series of instructions
Bacon recommends that a traveler should stay away from _____.
If a young man stays for some length of time in a big city, Bacon recommends that he should _____.
chagne his lodging occasionally