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45 Cards in this Set

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 Pressure Concentration of force in an area (units = pascals) Density Concentration of mass in a volume (units = kg/cm3) Distance Measure of particle motion (units = cm, feet, mile) Transverse Waves Particles move in a direction that is PERPENDICULAR (at right angles) to the direction that the wave propogates Longitudinal Waves Particles move in the same direction that the wave propogates In-Phase Waves When peaks (maximum values) occur and the same time and at the same location Out-of-Phase Waves When peaks (maximum values) occur at different times and so do their troughs Constructive Interference Resultant wave is larger than its components Destructive Interference Resultant wave is smaller than one of its components Period The time it takes a wave to vibrate a single cycle Frequency The number of events that occur in a specific duration of time Amplitude The "bigness" of a wave Power The rate of energy transfer Intensity The concentration of energy in a sound beam Wavelength The distance or length of one complete cycle Propogation Speed The distance that a sound wave travels through a medium in one second Stiffness The ability of an object to resist compression Density The relative weight of a material Pulse Duration The actual time from the start of a pulse to the end of that pulse Spatial Pulse Length The distance thta a pulse occupies in space from the start to the end of a pulse Pulse Repetition Period The time from the start of one pulse to the start of the next pulse. Pulse Repetition Frequency The number of pulses that an US system transmits into the body each second Duty Factor The percentage or fraction of time that the system is transmitting a pulse Intensities Spatial - refers to space Peak - maximum value Average - middle value Temporal - refers to time Pulsed - transmit time only Beam Uniformity Coefficient Describes the spread of a beam in space Attenuation Weakening of a sound beam in intensity, power and amplitude Amplification Strengthening of a sound beam Decibel Notation Standard measurement tool used to report changes in two intensities Logarithms A novel method of rating numbers, which represents the number of 10's that are multiplied to create the orignal number. Reflection The portion of a sound beam that is redirected back to the source after striking a boundary Specular Reflection The sound beam is reflected in only one direction in an organized manner after striking a smooth boundary Diffuse Reflection The sound beam is reflected in many directions after striking an irregular surface (backscatter) Scattering The random redirection of sound in many directions Raleigh Scattering A special form of scattering that occurs when the structure's dimensions are much smaller than the beam wavelength Absorption US energy is converted into another energy form, such as heat Attenuation Coefficient The number of decibels of attenuation that occurs when sound travels one centimeter. Impedance The acoustic resistance to sound traveling in a medium, measured in rayls Half-value layer thickness or penetration depth The distance sound travels in a tissue that reduces the intensity of sound to one-half its original intensity Three Types of Angles Acute - less than 90 degrees Right - equal to 90 degrees Obtuse - greater than 90 degrees Normal Incidence The incident sound beam stikes a boundary at exactly 90 degrees Oblique Incidence The incident beam striks a boundary at any angle other than 90 degrees Incident Intensity The sound wave's intensity immediately before striking a boundary Reflected Intensity The sound wave's intensity after striking a boundary that returns back in the direction from which it came Transmitted Intensity The sound wave's intensity after striking a boundary as it continues forward Intensity Reflection Coefficient Percentage of the intensity that bounces back after striking a boundary