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69 Cards in this Set

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Proclimation of 1763
Date: 1763

Stated that we were not to move westward of the Appalachian Mountains. It was to deter from conflict with the Indians.
Sugar Act
1764

1st Revenue Raising Tax

Increased the duty on foreign sugar.

Eventually lowered after protest.
Stamp Act
1765

1st direct tax on the colonists.

Raised revenue to support the military. Required a stamp on over 50 documents.

"No taxation without representation"
Stamp Act Repeal
Stamp act congress of 1765 had 27 delegates from nine colonies

Drew up repeal. Meanwhile boycotts of British goods. Sons and daughters of liberty.

Repealed in 1766.
Quartering Act
1765

olonists were required to quarter soldiers of the British army. It was to help pay for the cost of soldiers. The colonists refused to.
Boston Tea Party
Prompted by the tea act of 1773 which reduced the price of tea but put a tax on foreign tea. (The purpose was to create open trade, but to still make money.)

Band of townsfolk disguised as Indians boarded three tea ships on December 6, 1773. they smashed 342 chests and the cursed weed into Boston harbor while a silent crowd watched approvingly

It was to get back at England for making only their tea cheaper as a way to bribe us to buy from them
Coercive Act/Boston Port Act
1774

Purpose: to get back at Boston for their “tea party”. It closed the harbor until damages were paid and order could be assured

Others of the intolerable acts were that the Massachusetts charter was lifted, restrictions on town meetings, officials who killed colonials could now be sent to England for trial
First Continental Congress
1774

Philadelphia

Way of redressing colonial grievances

Twelve of thirteen colonies sent 55 men

Samuel Adams, john Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry

September 5 to October 26

John Adams promoted the revolution

The Association. Complete boycott of British goods
Lexington and Concord
April 1775

We had stored ammunition and artillery in warehouses in Lexington and concord

The British army found out and went to investigate

First battle and the start of the war
Virtual Representation
We weren’t actually there but the parliament as a whole represented the colonies
Olive Branch Petition
Pledge from our congress that we are still loyal and want to stop hostilities

King George III slammed the door in our faces.

July 1775
Samuel Adams
Political agitator and organizer of the rebellion

Hosted the Boston Tea Party

Sent Massachusetts to the First continental congress of 1774

Signed Declaration
James Otis
Lawyer that took the lead in the agitation of the revolt
Crispus Attucks
First man to be allegedly killed in the war.
John Dickenson
With Thomas Jefferson he wrote a declaration of causes and need to take up arms
British Advantages
more people

established military

navy

hired foreigners (Hessians, loyalists)
TWE French Important
military: officer, armed forces, ammunition, their entrance forced Britain to change strategies.

Financial: They supplied the artilery at Lexington and Concord secretly.

Moral Support: they were a country backing us. we had a real cause
Tories
patriots

whigs

New England, especially
Loyalists
conservative, wealthy

King's beneficiaries

Anglican church

especially Virginia

NYC, Charleston, Quaker Pennsylvania, NJ
Who did the Declaration of Independence attack?
King George III
Saratoga
Revolutionists had an excellent chance at winning their freedom. Made the French realize we were actually trying to gain freedom. France and Spain declared war on Britain.
Kings Mountain
Cornwallis had to abandon his plans to invade NC and retreat
Yorktown
Ended the war and led to the Treaty of Paris
Nathan Hale
"I only regret that I have one life to loose for my country"

Spy who went behind enemy lines, but was caught and hung for it.
Benedict Arnold
Brilliant military genius

Traitor to our army

Helped seize bunker hill
British Blunders
Hessians

Bad timing

Badly guarded western posts

assumption that we had no navy and too much reliance on theirs

Trenton
Reasons for Patriot Victory
moral stamina

France's aid

Britain's mistakes

Distance and lack of adequate British generals in America; well trained foreign generals on American side

We didn't have a central point/power for Britain to attack.

European officers; outstanding leadership

tough, self-relient people

amazing marksmen who knew the land
Treat of Paris
1783

gave us all land west of the Mississippi

plus ended the war. we were our own nation
State Constitutions
written

Bill of Rights

fundamental law

election of legisators annually
Belief in Strong Legisature and Weak Executive. Why?
fear of tyranny: of the people and of a single leader
18th Century Definition of Democracy
THe people could elect the lower houses, but the rest were elected in a chain of events.
Weaknesses of Articles
no money or power to get it

no power over state governments or their citizens

no enforceable trade agreements

unfair competition among states

threats to a citizen's right to property (loyalists)
Northwest Ordinance
certain population allowed for the application for stathood
Why the British refused to evacate the forts?
They said: you haven't paid us back yet

Real reason: they were stirring up the indians, hoping they could regain the nation
Foreign Issues
Spain: controlled the Mississippi

France: wanted to be repaid for their services.

Barbary Coast: pirates.
Shay's REbellion
impoverished farmers gathered in 1786 under Daniel Shays. Tried to capture Springfield arsenal. Defeated, but it frightened property owners
Issues other than security
Inadequate for meeting problems

Congress had no power to do anything

The states could do everything
But there were border dispute
Insane taxes

State governments abused loyalists rights

Couldn’t enforce trade agreements
Biggest Obstacle of Constitutional Convention
Legislative Branch: how would it be represented?
At the Constitutional convention
Washington: president; supported constitution

Madison: Virginia plan; The Federalist

Franklin: mediator in Great Compromise; just mere presence; best we could do

Hamilton: outvoted within his own state delegation and left furious; he only convinced himself in his speech

James Wilson: theory of constitution

Gouverneur Morris: spoke most often next to Madison/Washington

Edmund Randolph: introduced Virginia plan

Roger Sherman: helped forge Compromise

George Mason: wanted Bill of Rights. refused to sign

Elbridge Gerry: refused to sign
Father of Constitution
James Madison
Virginia Plan
three branches: legislative, executive, judicial

house elected by people; senate by members of the house

reprentation based on population

o National government: Make all laws states couldn’t; Strike down state laws that violate constitution; Call forth military; Elect people to serve in executive and judicial courts
New Jersey Plan
o Legislative house
 One house
 Taxes, trade, control over states
o Executive branch
 Persons appointed by congress
 Administer national laws
 Appoint other executive officials
 Operate military
o Judicial branch
 Appointed by executive branch
 Decide cases involving treaties, trade, and collection of taxes
Connecticut Plan
o House of reps would be elected on basis of proportional representation
o Equal representation of each state in the senate. Each state legislature elects two senators
o House of representatives could develop all bills for taxing and government spending
Federalism: then and Now
Then: 2 equal entities between qhich power is seperated

Now: similar but now all power is equal
Proof of Old Federalism in the constitution
election of senators

electors to elect president
How were Senators originally elected?
legislature of each state elected two senators
Supremacy Clause
o The Constitution and all laws and treaties approved by Congress in exercising its enumerated powers are the supreme law of land
Seperation of Powers/Checks and Balances
o Congress can impeach the president, other executive officials, or members of the federal judiciary
o Congress can make laws necessary and proper but the President can veto them
How a person becomes president.
o The electoral college would every four years be organized to select the president
o Each sate would select members of the electoral college
o Each sate would have the same number of electors as it had senators and representatives in Congress
o Each elector would vote for two people one of whom had to be a resident of another state
o The person with the highest number of votes if it was a majority of electors would be president. The second highest vice president
o If two people received a majority vote or there was none then the House selects the president by majority vote. In case of vice presidential tie the Senate would select the vice president.
What Represents People?
House of Reps
Represents states?
Senate
Represents nation?
Executive
Represents Civil Rights?
Judicial
Ways Slavery is Mentioned in Constitution
o 3/5 compromise. Each slave’s vote counts for 3/5 of a person
o Eventual abolition of slave trade in 1807. it could not be abolished before then
o Continued ban in North West Territories
Issues of Antifederalists
o Private meetings
o Undermines republican form of government
o Too much power to national
o Necessary and proper clause gives too much power
o No separation of powers
o Army during peace time
o No bill of rights
o Senate selected by state legislatures so they aren’t direct representatives of the people
o National courts could overrule that of the states. Disadvantage too poor people as they couldn’t afford to travel to the national court
o No council as advisors for the president
o Unlimited power o president for pardoning
o Treaties are supreme
o Only majority vote needed for laws
Problems of Electoral College
o Disproportionate voting power between states
o Winner takes all means of distributing votes
o Unbound electors
o House of representatives can choose president
o Enforcement of two party system
o Presidency can be won without majority of population vote
1st Amendment
No law favoring, discriminating, or prohibiting religion. Freedom of speech. Freedom of Press. Petition Government
2nd Amendment
Right of people to bear arms
3rd Amendment
No Solider shall be quartered in time of peace in any house wihtout the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law
4th Amendment
security of property; no unreasonable search and seizure; warrants must be probable
5th Amendment
can not be held capital crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury except in cases of the army. no subjection for hte same offence (punished twice?). no deprivation of life, liberty, or property without due proces sof law. no property taken without just compensation
6th Amendment
speedy and public trial

assistance with defense
7th Amendment
trial by jury

jury's decision not to be reexamined than according to rule of the common law
8th Amendment
no excessive bail, fines, or curel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment
these are not the only rights to the people
10th Amendment
powers not given to the US are for teh States or people if not prohibited.
Lemon Test
o First, the statute must have a secular legislative purpose;
o second, its principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion;
o finally, the statute must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion
Modern Purpose of Federalist Papers
so we know what the Founders were thinking
Ratification of the Constitution
o Each state created a convention that would vote on whether they would accept the constitution
o Federalists gave in and promised a future bill of rights
o Majority was needed to ratify. It was had.