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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
On Jan. 22, 1917, Wilson delivered one of his most moving addresses, realistically declaring that only a negotiated _____ would prove durable.
"peace without victory"
On Jan. 31, 1917, Germany declared _____, that it would sink all ships, including America's, in the war zone.
unlimited submarine warfare
By doing this, the Germans were jerking viciously at the _____.
Sussex string
Wilson stopped diplomatic relations with Germany, but wouldn't go to war unless Germany committed _____.
"overt actions"
On March 1, 1917, America intercepted and published the _____, sent from the German _____ to the country of _____, promising to help it regain _____, _____, and _____.
Zimmerman; foreign secretary; Mexico; Texas; New Mexico; Arizona
Munition makers and Wall Street bankers in America might well have made their slogan _____.
"Neutrality Forever"
In a figurative sense, America's war declaration of April 6, 1917 bore the unambiguous trademark _____.
"Made in Germany"
_____ senators and _____ representatives voted against war.
6 senators; 50 reps.
This representative, the first congresswoman, voted against the war. She was from the state of _____.
Jeannette Rankin; Montana
Wilson rallied support for the war by calling it _____ and _____.
"a war to end war"; "a war to make the world safe for democracy"
On January 8, 1918, Wilson gave his famed _____ to an enthusiastic Congress.
Fourteen Points Address
What were the first 5 of the Fourteen Points?
1. abolish secret treaties (good for liberals everywhere); 2. freedom of the seas (good for Germans and British-fearing Americans); 3. removal of economic barriers (good for revenge-fearing Germany); 4. reduction of armament burdens; 5. adjustment of colonial claims (good for anti-imperialists)
Other two important points of the Fourteen Points dealt with _____ and _____.
self-determination; the League of Nations
The self-determination part was particularly appealing to the _____, who lay under the heel of _____ and _____.
Poles; Germany; Austria-Hungary
Hard-nosed Republicans sneered at the Fourteen Points as the _____ of _____.
fourteen commandments; God Almighty Wilson
For the purpose of mobilizing the mind for war, both in America and abroad, Wilson created the _____ headed by the young journalist _____.
Committee on Public Information; George Creel
This committee employed _____ workers at home and overseas, including an army of _____ _____ who delivered countless speeches containing much _____.
150,000; 75,000; "four-minute men"; patriotic pep
Propaganda took many forms, but name some methods used.
posters; leaflets; pamphlets; booklets; movies; songs
Posters were splashed on billboards in the _____.
"Battle of the Fences"
Three such anti-German movies that were created were:
The Kaiser; Beast of Berlin; To Hell with the Kaiser
One of the most memorable songs of this "singingest" war was _____ by _____.
"Over There"; George M. Cohan
There were about _____ German-Americans in the US out of a total population of about _____. One German Socialist was lynched by a drunken mob in the state of _____.
8 million; 100 million; Illinois
Orchestras found it unsafe to present German-composed music, like that of _____ and _____.
Wagner; Beethoven
This food was renamed to this. This other food was renamed to this.
sauerkraut --> liberty cabbage
hamburger --> liberty steak
These two acts reflected fears of Germans and antiwar Americans.
Espionage Act of 1917
Sedition Act of 1918
About _____ prosecutions were undertaken under these laws, many for antiwar Socialists and members of the radical union called the _____.
1,900; Industrial Workers of the World (IWWs)
One Socialist, _____, was convicted under the _____ and sentenced to _____ years in a federal penitentiary. He was pardoned by _____ in the year _____.
Eugene V. Debs; Espionage Act of 1917; 10; President Harding; 1921
Wilson took a number of measures before the war that now helped. 1) He had created the _____ in 1915 to study problems of economic mobilization. 2) He launched a _____. 3) He endorsed a increase in the size of the army.
Council of National Defense; shipbuilding program
In March 1918, late in the war, Wilson appointed _____ to head the _____, a group that never had more than feeble formal powers and was disbanded within days after the armistice.
Bernard Baruch; War Industries Board
Perspiring workers were urged to put forth their best efforts, spurred by the slogan, "_____."
Labor Will Win the War
Women were encouraged to enter industry and also agriculture, where they were called _____. Women were given suffrage under the _____.
farmerettes; Nineteenth Amendment
A _____ required all able-bodied males to be regularly employed in some useful occupation. This was issued by the _____ in 1918.
"work or fight" rule; War Department
Fortunately for the Allied cause, _____ and his powerful _____ gave loyal support to the war effort.
Samuel Gompers; American Federation of Labor
The _____ was established as the supreme court for labor disputes and with _____ as cochairman.
National War Labor Board; William Howard Taft
The IWWs were nicknamed the _____ and the _____.
"I Won't Works"; "Wobblies"
The _____ helped regulate the amount of food used in the US so that there would be enough for the war. It was headed by _____.
Food Administration; Herbert C. Hoover
While Europe used _____, the US relied on voluntary compliance to restrict the use of food.
ration cards
To save food for the war, the US declared _____ and _____, all on a voluntary basis. Children were urged to be _____ when eating apples.
wheatless Wednesdays; meatless Tuesdays; patriotic to the core
People were encouraged to plant their own food at home in so-called _____. The _____ passed in the year _____ banned the sale or manufacture of alcoholic beverages.
"victory gardens"; Eighteenth Amendment; 1919
Thanks to the Food Administration, farm production increased by _____ and food exports to the Allies _____ in volume.
one-fourth; tripled
The _____ encouraged Americans to save fuel with _____, _____, and _____.
Fuel Administration; heatless Mondays; lightless nights; gasless Sundays
The _____ sponsored huge parades and invoked slogans like _____ to promote _____ great _____, followed by a _____ in 1919. Together, these efforts netted the then-fantastic sum of about _____, or _____ of the current cost of the war to the US.
Treasury Department; "Half the Hun"; 4; Liberty Loan drives; Victory Loan campaign; $21 billion; two-thirds
The unfortunate German-American who could not display a Liberty Bond button might find his or her house bedaubed with _____. There was at least one case of a man signing for a bond with a _____ around his neck
yellow paint; rope
Following indescribable traffic snarls, the government took over the nation's railroads in _____. Enemy merchant vessels were seized and new ships were created, one of which was named _____.
late 1917; Faith
America's loans to the Allies during war finally totaled _____.
nearly $10 billion
A congressman from _____ deplored compulsion and said that there was "precious little difference between a conscript and a convict."
Congress, after much debate, got around to passing conscription _____ after declaring war.
six weeks
The draft required the registration of males between the ages of _____ and _____.
18; 45
There were about _____ draft-dodgers and _____ conscientious objectors who were excused.
337,000; 4,000
Within a few drastic months, the army was increased from about _____ men to over _____. For the first time, women were admitted to the armed forces; some _____ to the navy and _____ to the marines.
200,000; 4 million; 11,000; 269
Americans soon made friends with French girls, or tried to, and one of the most sung-about women in history was the fabled _____.
Mademoiselle from Armentieres
The United States, hoping to keep stores of munitions from falling into German hands when Bolshevik Russia quit fighting, contributed some _____ troops to an Allied invasion of northern Russia at _____
5,000; Archangel
Wilson sent nearly _____ troops to _____ as part of an Allied expedition, which included more than _____ Japanese. He wanted to stop Japan from getting a stronghold there, to rescue some _____ marooned _____ troops, and to snatch military supplies from Bolshevik control.
10,000; Siberia; 70,000; 45,000; Czechoslovak
So serious was German's drive on the western front that the Allied nations for the first time united under a supreme allied commander, the quiet _____ from _____. His axiom was _____.
Marshal Foch; France; "To make war is to attack"
Late in _____ of the year _____, the Germans came within _____ miles of _____. Americans, numbering fewer than _____, were thrown into the breach at _____, right in the teeth of the German advance, the first significant engagement of US troops in a European war.
May 1918; 40; Paris; 30,000; Chateau-Thierry
By _____ of the year _____, _____ fought the Germans in the _____ that marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never effectively reversed.
July; 1918; Marshal Foch; Second Battle of the Marne
In _____ of the year _____, _____ American divisions (_____ men) joined _____ divisions from _____ to push the Germans from the _____ salient, a German dagger in France's flank.
September; 1918; 9; 243,000; 4; France; St. Mihiel
Americans got a chance at having a separate army when _____, nicknamed _____, was assigned a front of _____ miles stretching northwestward from the Swiss border to meet the French lines.
John J. Pershing; "Black Jack" Pershing; 85
Pershing's army undertook the _____ offensive, partly to cut the German railroad lines feeding the western front. This was the most titanic battle thus far in history, lasting _____ days, engaging _____ American troops with especially heavy fighting in the rugged _____, killing and wounding _____ (or _____ percent of Americans involved). _____, a member of an antiwar religious sect, became a hero when he single-handedly killed _____ Germans and captured _____ more.
Meuse-Argonne; 47; 1.2 million; Argonne Forest; 120,000; 10 percent; Alvin C. York; 20; 132
The US accepted Germany's surrender as long as they would get rid of their kaiser, who fled to _____ where he lived the remaining _____ years of his life.
Holland; 23
_____ was the time and date the Germans surrendered.
November 11, 1918 11:00 AM?PM?
_____ and _____ were the only two major battles the US fought, both in the last _____ months of the war.
Meuse-Argonne; St. Mihiel; two
General Pershing was a big user of supplies made by other Allies, and fewer than ____ of his artillery pieces were American-made.
During much of the war, the slogan had been _____. Wilson ended this with his campaigns in the _____, which returned a Congress controlled by the _____.
"Politics is Adjourned"; 1918 midterm election; Republicans
_____ from the state of _____was the obvious choice for chairman of the _____. He was an accomplished author and had been known as the _____.
Henry Cabot Lodge; Massachusetts; Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; "scholar in politics"
Nations met to discuss the peace at the _____. The nations that dominated the meeting were referred to as the _____.
Paris Conference; Big Four
List the member nations of the Big Four and their corresponding representatives.
US- President Woodrow Wilson;
Italy- Premier Vittorio Orlando;
Britain- Prime Minister David Lloyd George
France- Premier Georges Clemenceau
France and Britain, thanks to Wilson, would not receive the conquered territory outright. In a compromise between naked imperialism and Wilsonian idealism, France would get _____ and Britain would get _____, but only as _____.
Syria; Iraq; trustees of the League of Nations
The Old World diplomats agreed to make the _____ an integral part of the final peace treaty.
League Covenant
Some of the people against the League were isolationists, like _____ of _____ and _____ of _____. They were known as _____ or _____.
William Borah of Idaho; Hiram Johnson of California; "irreconcilables" or the "Battalion of Death"
France desired two German areas. State them. The second place has lots of _____. In compromise, the _____ would be given to the League for _____ years, and the ______ would be signed in return, guaranteeing American and British aid if France were attacked by Germany again.
Rhineland and Saar Valley; coal; Saar Basin; 15; Security Treaty
Italy and _____ both wanted _____, a valuable seaport. This ended with the Italian delegates and the Italian public being not happy with Wilson.
Yugoslavia; Fiume
Japan wanted to keep two things. Name them. Japan got the islands under a League mandate and later used them to attack America. Wilson didn't want them to get the other place because it would violate the right to self-determination of _____ Chinese residents. Japan kept Germany's economic holdings in this place and pledged to return it to China later, causing _____ to say that Wilson _____.
China's Shantung peninsula and Germany's islands in the Pacific; 30 million; Clemenceau; "talked like Jesus Christ and acted like Lloyd George"
A careful analysis of the treaty that ended the war, the _____, shows that only _____ of the twenty-three original Wilsonian points and subsequent principles were fully honored.
Treaty of Versailles; 4
Opponents of the League called it the _____.
"League of Notions"
Liberals, like the editors of the _____ of _____ thought the Treaty of Versailles too harsh.
New York Nation
Lodge initially didn't hope to kill the treaty, just to _____ or _____ or _____ it so that Republicans would get credit for it. He wasted time by reading the _____-page treaty aloud to his Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
"Americanize"; "Republicanize"; "Senatorialize"; 264
Wilson had the disease of _____.
Wilson went on a speech-making tour and was closely followed by _____ and _____.
Borah and Johnson
Wilson did not find support in the _____.
Wilson found support in the _____ region and on the _____.
Rocky Mountain region; Pacific Coast
Wilson collapsed after a teary speech at _____.
Pueblo, Colorado
Wilson did not see his cabinet for _____.
7 1/2 months
Henry Cabot Lodge came up with fourteen amendments to the treaty, which are called the _____. Lodge and others were especially not happy with _____ of the League, which morally bound the US to aid any members victimized by external aggression.
Lodge Reservations; Article X
The Senate vote for the treaty the first time was _____.
55 to 39
About _____ of the Senate agreed to some form of the treaty. But they couldn't pass any one specific form.
The second Senate vote for the treaty lost with a vote of _____.
49 (yeas) to 35 (nays)
Isolationist Republicans jeeringly rewrote the 1916 slogan to read, _____.
"He Kept Us Out of Peace"
Wilson proposed to settle the treaty issue in the forthcoming presidential campaign in 1920 by appealing to the people for a _____.
"solemn referendum"
Republicans met in _____, in ____ of the _____, and chose _____ of _____ for President. They nominated _____ of _____ for the vice presidency.
Chicago; Room 404; Hotel Blackstone; Warren G. Harding of Ohio; Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts
Democrats met in _____ and nominated _____, _____ of _____. They chose _____, who was ______, for the vice presidency.
San Francisco; James M. Cox; Governor of Ohio; Franklin D. Roosevelt; assistant navy secretary
Harding chose a teeter-totter rather than a platform and supported a vague _____, A league, not THE League.
Association of Nations
_____ received the largest vote ever for the left-wing Socialist party. While in jail in this election of _____, he got almost _____ votes.
Eugene V. Debs; 1920; 1 million
Harding, in his campaign, promised a _____.
return to normalcy