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33 Cards in this Set

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“Dollar Diplomacy”
~ adopted by President William Taft and Secretary of State Philander Knox
~ this policy sought to promote U.S. financial and business interets abroad
~ it aimed to replace military alliances with economic ties, with the idea of increasing American influence and securing lasting peace
~ this policy worked mostly in Latin American to replace European loans with American ones
League of Nations
~ was one of Wilson's fourteen points
~ it was agreed upon at the Peace Conferance at Paris
~ it was included in the Treaty of Versailles
~ it was designed to achive international peace and security
~ the league was a smaller council composed of the U.S., Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and four natins to be elected by the assembly
Pancho Villa
~ Pancho Villa revolted hoping to seize Mexican power
~ he raided U.S. border towns, injuring American civilians
~ he removed seventeen Americans from a train in Mexico and murdered them
~ he invaded Columbus, New Mexico, killing sixteen Americans and burning the town
~ General John J. Pershing led 6 thousand men deep into Mexican territory and chased away Villa
Zimmerman Telegram
~ it was from Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign minister, to the German ambassador in Mexico
~ the British government intercepted it and gave it to Wilson privately
~ it proposed an alliance with Mexico in case of war with the U.S., offering financial support and recovery of Mexico's lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona
~ the telegram was the last straw for the U.S. and it led them to war
William Jennings Bryan
~ was Wilson's Secretary of State
~ he trusted in the common people
~ he was a fervent pacifist and believed in the American duty to help less favored nations
~ In 1913 and 1914, he embarked on an idealistic campaign to negotiate treaties of arbitration throughout the world known as cooling-off treaties
~ bryan negotiated colling-off treaties with thirty nations but they were naive, and did not work
~ Bryan resigned from Secretary of State when he felt that neutrality was in danger
Hay Herran Convention
~ Roosevelt backed the idea of having the canal route going through the Isthmus of Panama
~ he authorized secretary of state, Hay to negoitate an agreement with the Columbian leader, Thomas Herran
~ the convention gave the U.S. a 99-year lease, with option for renewal, on a cnal zone 6 miles in width
~ in exchange, the U.S. agreed to pay Columbia a onetime fee of 10 million and an unnual rental of 250,000 thousand
Bernard Baruch
~ was a Wall Street broker and speculator
~ Baruch headed the WIB, one of the most powerful of the new agencies, oversaw the producton of all American factories
~ for a time, he acted as the dictator of the American economy
Herbert Hoover
~ he headed a new Food Administration, and he set out with customary energy to supply food to the armies overseas
~ Hoover convinced people to save food by observing meatless and wheatless days
~ he fixed prices to boost production, bought and distrubuted wheat, and encouraged people to plant victory gardnes behind homes, churches, and schools
Eugene V Debs
~ the socialist party leader
~ In 1918, delievered a speech denouncing capitalism and the war
~ he was convicted for violation of the Espionage Act and spent the war in a penitentiary in Atlanta
~ he ran for president in the 1920 elections and won nearly a million votes
Hay-Pauncefort Treaty
~ 190l: Secretary of State John Hay negotiated with Britain the treaty
~ it permitted the U.S. to construct and control an Isthmian canal, providing it would be free and open to ships of all nations
~ the U.S. later chose the route through Panama
Bolshevik
~ In November 1917, the Blsheviks seized power in Russia
~ led by V.I.Lenin, they soon signed a seperate treaty with Germany, freeing German troops to fight in the West
~ Wwilson tried to bring down the Bolshevik government in the summer of 1918, and to protect Allied supplies from the Germans and to rescue a large number of Czechs who wanted to return home to fight Germnay
~ American troops remained in Russia until April 1920
Sedition Act
~ WWI law that imposed harsh penalties on anyone using disloyal, profane, scurrilous, orabusive language about the U.S. government, flag, or armed forces
Espionage Act
~ another WWI law, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found gulity of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty
~ it allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection
14 Points
~ January 1918, President Wwilson presented these terms for a far-reaching, nonpunitive settlement of WWI
~ he called, among other things, for removal of barriers to trade, openpeace accords, reduction of armaments, and the establishment of a League of Nations
~ the Points did not satisfy wartime hunger for revenge, and thus were largely rejected by European nations
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
~ 1903: this treaty granted the U.S. control over a canal zone ten miles wide across the Isthmus of Panama
~ in return, the U.S. guarnateed the independence of Panama and agreed to pay Colombia a onetime fee of 10 million dollars and an annual rental of 250,000 dollars
George Creel
~ an outspoken progressive journalist
~ President Wilson asked Creed to head the Committee on Public Information
~ Creel hired progressived and recruited thousands of people in the arts, advertising, and film industries to publicize the war
~ Creel also enlisted 75,000 four-minute men to give quick speeches at public gatherings and places of enternatimen on Why We Are Fighting and The Meaning of America
CPI
~ 1917: created by President Wilson and headed by George Creel
~ this organization rallied support for American involvement in WWI through art, advertising, and film
~ Creel worked out a system of voluntary censorship with the press and distributed colorful posters and pamphlets
~ the CPI's Division of Industrial Relations rallied labor to help the war effort
WIB
~ one of the many boards and commissions created during WWI
~ this government agency oversaw the production of all American factories
~ it determined priorites, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices
~ it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce
Pacifists
~ is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage
~ a dove is the symbol for pacifism
Taft-Katsura Agreement
~ Roosevelt sent secretary of war Taft to Tokyo to negotiate the Agreement
~ it recognized Japan's dominance over Korea in return for its promise not to invade the Philippines
Victoriano Huerta
~ General Huerta ousted the Mexican President Madero in 1913, threw him in jail, and arranged for his murder
~ Wilson withheld recognition from Huerta and maneuvered to oust him
~ in 1914, he stationed naval units off Mexico's ports to cut off arms shipments to the Huerta regime
~ Wilson asked Congress for authority to use military force if needed
~ Wilson learned that a German ship was landing arms at Mexico's eastern coast
~ American warships went ashore and took the city
~ Mexicans denounced the invasion and the two countries hovered on the edge of war
~ wilson retreated hasitly and ecplained that he desired only to help Mexico
~ tensions eased, and in July 1914, weakened by an armed rebellion, Huerta resigned
John J Pershing
~ was a general
~ he was ordered on a punitive expendition to seize Villa in Mexico
~ Pershing led six thousand troops deep into Mexican territory
~ as the Americans pushed further and further into the country Wilson changed his mind and ordered Pershing home
~ WWI, Wilson named Pershing leader of the Mexican campaign, to head the American Expeditionary Fource
Franz Ferdinand
~ was the heir to the Austrio-Hungary throne
~ he was murdered on June 28, 1914, by a Bosnian assassin linked to Serbia
~ the murder of Ferdinand was the spark to WWI
~ withink weeks the Allies were at war with the Central Powers
American Union Against Militarism
~ was an American pacifist organization active during WWI
~ it was created by many prominant progressives
~ Activities included lobbying, publishing, a lecture campaign, and the establishment of a Civil Liberties Bureau
Filibuster
~ is a type of parliamentary procedure. Specifically, it is a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision-making body whereby a lone member can elect to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a proposal.
Trench Warfare
~ European armies had trench warfares during WWI
~ armies would dig themselves into trenches only hundreds of yards apart in places
~ artillery, poisen gas, hand grenades, machine guns, kept them down
~ mud, rats, cold, fear, and disease took a heavy toll
~ deafening bombardments shook the earth, and there was a high incidence of shell shock
~ when troops went over top to break enemy's lines, it was costly
Liberty Bonds
~ to raise money for the war, the federal government sold liberty bonda
~ they sold about 23 million dollars worth of liberty bonds during WWI
Treaty of Versailles
~ was the peace treaty to settle WWI
~ the four big powers created the treaty which was the U.S., Britain, France, and Italian
~ the treaty created thwo new nations, Poland and Czechoslovakia
~ it divided up the German colonies in Asia and Africa
~ it made Germany accept responsibility for the war and demanded enormous reparations totaling 33 billion
~ the League of Nations was also included
Lusitania
~ a British steamship
~ it carried a load of ammunition as well as passengers
~ when it was near the coast of Ireland, a German U-boat attacked and the steamship sunk
~ nearly 1200 people died, including 128 Americans
The taking of the Canal Zone
~ Roosevelt wanted to build a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
~ he had 2 decisions and he decided to go through the Isthmus of Panama
~ he tried to negotiate a treaty with Columbia but the Columbian Senate rejected the treaty
~ Roosevelt got the Panamanians on his side and they revolted
~ Roosevelt sent warships to back them up
~ he promptly recognized the new Republican of Panama
~ Roosevelt also got the place for his canal
Open Door Policy (Notes)
~ the policy toward China and possession of the Philippine Islands shaped American actions in the Far East
~ Congress refused to arm the Phillipines, but they were seseptible to the growing power of Japan
~ Roosevelt wanted to balance Russian and Japenese power and was a little happy when war broke out between those two nations
~ Roosevelt grew worried, however, when Japan won battle after battle and offered to mediate the conflict
~ Roosevelt convened a peace confernce at Portsmouth, New Hampshire
~ Roosevelt secured the Philippines with the Conference
~ Giving Japan in Korea violated the Open Door Policy, but Roosevelt felt that it was necessary
Roosevelt Corollary
~ President Roosevelt's 1904 foreign policy statement, a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which asserted that the United States would intervene in Latin American affairs if the countries themselves could not keep their affairs in order
~ it effectively made the U.S. the policeman of the western hemisphere
Sussex Pledge
~ In this pledge, Germany agreedd to President Wilson's demands and promised to shoot on sight only ships of the enemy's navy
~ He attached the condition that the United States compel the Allies to end their blockade and comply with international law
~ Wilson accepted the pledge but turned down the condition.
~ this started a short time of peace between Germany and the U.S.