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57 Cards in this Set

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Crittendon Compromise
-last ditch efforts at peace
-extended missouri compromise line westward and didnt interfere w/ slavery south of the line
peace
fort sumter
-bloodless
-conf. fired upon union soldiers
-techinical start of civil war!
- no fed. reinforcement of supplies.
- conf. demand surrender
start of war
west virginia
- becomes a state
- stays loyal to the union
-more rural
state!
Civil War = brothers war?
brothers war: fighting bloodties and fellow country men
North advantages
1. had 23 states (s. had 11)
2. economic: heavy industry (war products)
3. banking & financial resources, more bank credit
South's advantages:
1. more experienced leaders
2. had long standing military tradition (indian and slave uprisings)
3. renowned military schools
4. S. fighitng a defensive war
role of women in the war
-nurses
-take over businesses
-work in factories
role of native americans
-fought on both sides
clara barton
founded american red cross
dr. elizabeth blackwell
1st professional licensed doctor
1ST battle of bull run/manassas and results
-union retreats and loses
- confed. reinforcements
-psychological and military victory
norths 1st ultimate goal
keep union together
northern strategies/union
-capture richmond VA
- capture and control Mississippi and Tenessee river
-blockade eastern sea board of S. coastal states
Southern strategies/ confed.
- defensive war
- capture washington dc (symbolism)
-strike into MD and PN
Y Fr. and GB didnt help U.S.
Fr: Napolean wants to start an empire in MX, wanted 2 keep US busy so they werent kicked out

GB: saved up cotton, found India and Egypt (new source), queen hates slavery
Copperheads
northern democrats who sympathized with the South
Suspension of Writ of Habeas
Lincoln suspended some civil liberties-- Your Right to Appear in Court and to Know the Charges Against You.
Why did Norhtern White working class oppose war
-sympathize w/ south and urge peace
-war is too costly ( $ and life)
- if afr. am. are free, they could take up jobs
-fighters= working class
General McClellan
fired by A. Lincoln twice
Northern soldier experience
-unsanitary
-better medical
-shortage of supplies (due to bad transp.)
- pow camps: filthy and overcrowded
-lonely and homesick
southern soldier experience
-unsanitary
-lack in medicinal supplies
-shortage of supplies (bad transp. and few supplies)
- pow camps filthy and overcwrowded
- steal from the dead
2nd battle of bull run/ manassas
B4 Gen. pope could march union forces on Rich. VA, Rob E Lee and stonewall jackson forces attack the union troops = UNION DEFEAT
- gen pope replaced by McClellan
Battle @ Antietam
-S. Offensive
- Conf LEE marches men in2 MD (thinking more troops would join). Union knew ahead of Lee's plan and met the Conf. in battle (one of the bloodiest)
- Confed. escape.
-SIGNIFICANCE UNION VICTORY: they didnt retreat
Battle of Fredricksburg VA
-union troops massacred in an open plain
-confed. troops @ higher ground
battle of Gettysburg
-began as conf. raiding party looking for shoes
-3 days, lots of death
-UNION VICTORY, didnt end war
-SIGNIFICANCE: turnin pt. in war, proved the south could be beaten
Union troops fared better in wet under U. S. Grant
-grant succeeds in conrolling Miss. cuttin LA, AK, and TX off from Confederacy
-grant = butcher
Emancipation Proclamation
-after antietam
-free slaves in Confederacy
Why did norths war aims change during the Civil war?
-norht needed a moral pick uo
-ppl in north were critical
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant becomes commander of Union troops = war of attrition
grant=butcher
-grant engages in battles, tire away Souths men and supplies
sherman and total war
-pursue joe johnston
-war on soldiers and civilians
march to sea
destruction 60 mi wide/ 30 mi long
-military/economy/pscychologically
Appomattox courthouse
1. lee unconditionally surrenders
2. Grant allows soldiers to keep animals and side arms, and gives food
Consequences of war
-South: economic/societal/geographic/population devistation
-4$ dollars in slaves
-1/3 population lost
- still racism, slavery ended
-north:
-big business flourishes
- has to rebuild the south
Lincoln's 10% plan and hopes to restore the union
-offered amnesty (full pardon) to most S. who swear loyalty to the constitution and obey fed. law on slavery
-said state could rejoin union when 10% of 1860 voters swore allegiance
Prez Andrew Johnson and role in reconstruction
-he is a southern democrat
-issue a blanket pardon (those who werent, were pardoned individually)
-said states could rejoin if they: 1. nullify acts of secession 2. abolish slavery
3. refuse to pay conf. gvmt. debts
13th amendment
(13 has a 3, rhymes w/ free)
-abolishes slavery
black codes
curfews, restriction from certain trades, no weapons, cant meet in public, very similar to slave codes
Moderates vs Radical Republicans
agree: south and Fed. shouldnt be seated in Congress; there should be equality in races and civil races

disagree: moderates say blacks shouldnt vote.
Rad. Rep. say they should.
Freedmans bureau
-helps freemen w/ education and black codes
-congress wants to extend the life of it, pres johnson vetoes it (because, it gives power to central gvmt and hes a bigget)
civil rights act
-in response to black codes
- says all citizens are entitled to all benefits of all laws
-congree passes, johnson vetoes it, congree overrides it
14th amendment
(14 has 4, 4 ppls rights)
1. defines citizenship
2. forbids any state from denying citizens their unalienable rights
3. decrease political representation of any state that doesnt give all males the right to vote
4. no south state can pay confed. debt
5. congress has the right to enforce this
Reconstruction acts
1. divides the south (xcept for tenn.) int2 5 military districts
2. to regain admisiion to union - must ratify 14th amendment
3. must create new const. giving all men the right to vote
tenure of office act
-b4 you can remove some1 from office, you must have senate approve of the replacement
impeachment proceedings agaisnt A. Johnson
-Johnson has lincoln's cabinet (Repr.). he fires Edwin stanton (sec. of war)
-his impeachment goes to house of reps, senate votes voting legislation
-johnson came up 1 vote shot of getting kicked out
pres. election - Repub Grant wins
due to blk vote, hes a war hero
15th amendments
(fiVe in 15, V in vote)
-no one can be denied the right o vote based on race/ color/ past servitude
Carpetbaggers
-northern republicans
-lowest class
-they moved to the south 2 help freed slaves and profit financially from south
Scalawags
-southern whites who backed the Union and supported reconstruction after civil war
-seen as traders
KKK and effect on reconstruction
-white southerners (ex confederates) that tried to destroy the repub. party)
-threatened radical repub. and blacks
-used violence and terrorism to support WHITE SUPREMACY - subjugates black rights
Civil rights Bill of 1875
-prohibited discrimination by businesses serving the public
-wasn't enforced by officials and failed to do its job
compromise of 1877
(Democrat Tilden <184> vs. Rep. Hayes <165>)
1. the military will be removed from the south
2. a southerner must be placed on the cabinet
3. patronage jobs have to be given to some southerners
4. Fed. gvmt. will pay for souths internal improvements
sharecropping and Crop lien system
adressing lack of labor and money
-says a blk/wht family would be given a section of land o cultivate. theyd be allowed to keep a share and pay the rest back as rent. w/ crop lien, its promised 2 a merchant
probs w/ crop lien and sharecroppin system
-unsuccessful crops = poverty and debt
-economy not diverse, only 3 crops
-ppl still tied 2 the land
1896 Plessy vs. ferguson
"separate but equal"
-allows 4 segregation
- only 1 in supreme court voted against it
restrictions on blks in south
-segregation
-little economic opp.
-prevention of voting (grandfather clause, literacy test etc.)
booker t washington
-found tuskegee Inst. in alabama
-urged economis adv. and peaceful coexistance
-not aggressive, not 4 fighting back
ida wells bennett
-active advocate
-advancement of blk rights
-"leave south"
-agressive- fight back and demand