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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is philanthropy?
the donating of money to charity
What is a monopoly?
one company controlling an entire industry
What is Horizontal Integration?
When one company has control over all the other companies that produce the same product
What is Vertical Integration?
when one person owns all the things that make his product. Example: A pizza company would own a sauce, a cheese, and a bread company.
What is Social Darwinism?
-survival of the fittest
-The poor will die out because they are not fit
-If you help the poor society will retrogress
-Poor are lazy
Who was Alexander Graham Bell?
He invented the "talking telegraph" (aka the telephone) in 1876
Who was Henry Ford?
He is known for the assembly line.
Horseless carriage...?
-developed in 1770 in France
-steam powered
What did Otto invent?
-He invented the first internal combustion engine powered by gasoline
When is the second industrial revolution ?
1865- 1905
In the 2nd industrial revolution, everything is made of _____.
They used steel for? And it led to?
-Steel is cheaper so it is used more
-They use it for railroad tracks
-More tracks are laid
-this leads to a standardized track size and connecting different railways
-Also more expansion in the west
What causes the meat packing industry to become big?
The inventing of Refrigerator cars.
Who was Karl Marx?
He came up with the idea of Marxism
-He says that all the capitalism is unfair to the working class
He wanted to overthrow the capitalist’s society
What is the Sand Creek Massacre?
-in Colorado
-Indians were led by Black Kettle
-he raises the flag to surrender
-US still attacks and kills 200 women and children
What is Little Big Horn ?
-in Montana
-A battle against the Sioux
-Indians led by Sitting Bull
-US led by General Custer
-The Indians outnumber the Americans
-Custer is cocky and fights still
-The Indians win
-Custer dies
What is the Ghost Dance ?
-In the 1890’s
-In South Dakota
-Sioux leader name Wivoka
-Calling for the return of traditonal Native American ways
-ghost dance will bring back buffalo herds and Native American way of life
-Americans are scared so the battle of Wounded Knee happens
What is the Wounded Knee?
-Big Foot is the Sioux chief
-They make a camp along Wounded Knee
-US troops find them
-Colonel Forsyth orders the troops to seize Indians rifles
Who was Geronimo?
He was a resister.
He was leading a group of resisters in Arizona.
They surrender in 1884.
He went back to a reservation and attacked later again in Florida.
What is the General Dawes Allotment Act ?
Said that...
-that Indians lands had to be surveyed
-Americans Indians families receive an allotment of 160 acres of reservation land for farming
What made up the The Land Acts?
the Homestead Act, the Pacific Railway Act and the Morrill Act
What was the Homestead Act?
-The Homestead Act said that 160 acres would be given to a person and if they worked it for 5 years, it would be theirs.
-People were very excited about this
What was the Pacific Railway Act?
-The Pacific Railway Act gave money to the railroad companies and allowed the companies to build lines to help transport goods to the west and the west could sell their goods to the east.
Who moved to the west and why?
-Mostly whites seeking more money
-Some African Americans leaving the south moved west for a new life
-Some Immigrants moved West to find jobs and a new life
What were Bonanza farms?
-farms that had machines to do most of the work for the people
-when crops grew they lost a lot of money unlike the small farms
What is the Texas longhorn? And what were the benefits of one?
-could travel long distances
-could go year round on grass and little water
-were immune to certain diseases
-a mixed breed of cow between English and Spanish
What did the cowboys do?
-herded and ranched
-primary duties were to take care of the cattle
-Did not have stable lifestyles
-William H. Seward bought it
-Everyone calls it an icebox
-No one likes it
-Then they found gold there
Mining has a _______ impact on the environment.
Who mines?
Only men.
What did Willa Cather write about?
-wrote about life on the plains
What are the Jim Crow laws ?
-meant to limit the rights of African Americans
-This is the beginning of the discrimination
What did President Johnson want with reconstruction?
-Wanted to subjugate former slaves so they were still considered lesser people than whites
-Took away the vote from free slaves
-Removed Union troops from the South
-His plan favored the south
-Recognizes Mississippi as a state even thought they won’t ratify the 13th amendment
What was the 13th Amendment?
banning slavery
What is a carpetbagger?
-republican who moved down to the south because they are looking for new opportunities
What are the Scallywags?
-they were southerners who were traitors to the south.
Who was Nathan Bedford Forest ?
-the founder of KKK and he didn’t want African Americans to get citizenship.>1866
What were the two types of Republicans?
• Moderates
• Radicals
What were the Enforcing Acts of 70 and 71?
-They are laws that said that the Klan could not burn houses and such.
-The Democrats said that it infringed upon peoples individual rights.
What did the Radical Republicans want?
Really are pushing for equal rights fro African Americans
What is the Freed Man’s Bureau?
• Aid homeless and hungry freed men in the south
• School, clothing
• Settle contract disputes
What is the Civil Rights act ?
-it said that local places that serve the public could not discriminate against African Americans
Compromise of 1877
-The federal troops pull out
-the republicans win the election
Tenure of Office Act
- 1867 passed by Congress
- Required Senate approval of a new appointed official to replace an official who had been confirmed by Senate
- Johnson thought it was unconstitutional
Who was Ulysses Grant?
- Democrats- Seymour
- Grant wins because of the African American vote
-Fails to give women the right to vote
15th amendment 1869
the rights of citizens of the United States shall not be denied by any state or government
Three Laws that give the government the right to combat terrorism
-Protect African Americans against KKK
-Democrats say that the federal laws threaten their individual rights
-Infringes their rights
What is Sharecropping?
-is a system where a farmer works the land and gets part of the crop, A place to live, tools, and a mule.
-The only problem was that they only got money during crop season.
Plessy v. Ferguson
-a black man wasn’t allowed to sit in the upper class section of a railway car, but court ruled separate but equal was ok
Crittenden Compromise
(1860) John Crittenden’s plan to resolve conflict between North and South by extending the Missouri Compromise line westward through the remaining territories; rejected by President Lincoln.
When Lincoln takes office...
states secession (SC, MS, FL, AL, GO, LO, TX)
Fort Sumter
the first battle of the civil war. Major Anderson in a union soldier and he is the commander of the fort. He sends word to D.C. saying that they need supplies like food. The risk of sending the supplies was war, he did not want to go to war and he didn’t want to sway the “fence” states.
On April 15...
Lincoln declares war and it has begun and that there is no diplomatic way out of this.
________ is chosen as the capital of the confederacy.
The Border States are...
Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky and Missouri
Lincoln wont let who secede?
First Bull Run known as..
First Manassas
Who is Robert E. Lee?
- Military leadership
- Married Mary Washington’s grand daughter
- Served in Mexican American war
- Lee was actually against slavery and most of the southern opinions, but his loyalty was to Virginia
List the union generals in order..
McDowell,McClellan,Pope,McClellan,Burnside, Hooker, Mead, Grant
List the battles in order..
First Bullrun, Yorktown and Seven Pines, Second Bullrun, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville,Gettysburg, Vicksburg
Who was Elizabeth Blackwell?
first female licensed doctor and helped us Sanitary division
Who is Clara Barton?
army nurse who went on to found the Red Cross
Who is Sara Louisa Tompkins?
Confederate women who found small hospitals and clinics
Dred Scott
is a slave and he is owned by an army surgeon in Missouri. He sued for his freedom and it goes to the Supreme Court. His argument was that he should be free now that his owner had died because he used to live in a free state. The court chief Justice, Roger Tawny is one of five southerners on the court. This case rules in favor of the South. The decision written by Tawny tells us that Scott is not a citizen of the US therefore he can’t bring a suit to the US court. He concludes that African Americans free or slave, have no civil rights in American. He goes on to say that the Missouri compromise is unconstitutional. This says that slaves are nothing more then property. He says that congress can not ban slavery in any part of the country.
Who is Horace Man ?
was the first Secretary of education. The first public high school was in Boston. There is now a school structure like todays. This leads to collage reforms making them available to women and African Americans the southerners were not for any of the reforms since they needed their kids to work in the fields.
The Abolitionist Movement
the first religious group to agree against slavery was the Quakers. At the beginning they wanted to send free blacks to Africa to start new colonies. They were not pushing for equality. In the 1820s Blacks start to organize and start publishing papers and such. Advocates for both women’s and black’s rights. They did have problems. People did not like the idea. The movement eventually splits.
The Transcendentalism
is the philosophy or belief that people can transcend material things in life and reach higher understanding. They can become better by finding who they are and such. It rejected Puritan beliefs and they believed that people could be perfect through nature.
Second Great Awakening
was when the religions speak out about it and they advocate for the less fortunate. This is what is called an evangelical movement. This spreads, and we see major meetings of the public about how to advocate. This leads to more participation for African Americans and leads to some new religions.
-wanted charity for the poor, reform
-founded by Joseph Smith
-who claimed that he found gospels that had never been found.
The Fugitive Slave Act
This essentially says that no state is a free state anymore and this weakens the states laws of the Free states. The north in general in general is in an uproar and they pass it because they want to avoid the breaking up of the union. We are also trying to avoid war.
The Second Great Awakening was caused by?
Caused by rapid social changes in 1800s
During the Second Great Awakening, people turned to _____ for directions.
religious faith
____ ____ and _____ _____ are developed because of the industrial revolution.
middle class and poor class
- spread the word of Gospel and try to convert people
2nd Great Awakening was when?
Who were The Shakers?
• Celibate, did not produce new members
• Shake during worships
• Mother Anne Lee- founder
• Claimed to be messiah
What were Utopian Communities?
-Equal roles for men and women
-Community owned property
-Simple living
Who were the Mormons?
-Church of Latter Day Saints
-said that Jesus Christ had spoken in America after being resurrected
-Leader- Joseph Smith
-Polygamy in secret
-Brigham Young was the second leader
-hated by other religions
Who was Brigham Young?
- one of the church’s 12 apostles
-New leader of the Mormons
-Early 1846- Mormons moved west
-American Moses
-Took persecuted religious sect into the wilderness
-Built new place for them to live in the desert
-Mormons saw themselves as divinely separated and protected from everything else
-Built winter quarters, where 7,000 died
-Going to Salt Lake City, Utah
Who is Frederick Douglas?
-When Frederick Douglas went to the city for the first time, he realized that slaves in the city were treated better
-His intent was to let the world know what slavery was like
-The master would stop whipping the slaves when he was tired
what were reasons that slavery was "ok"?
-they sang so they must be happy
-they were clothed and sheltered so they were taken care of
-the bible says its ok
Slaves fought over what?
-they fought over their masters greatness
-it was the only thing that could make them better than the other slaves
What is the Missouri Compromise?
-Missouri wants to be admitted as a slave state
-Admitting Maine as a free state
-balance of slave and nonslave states
-Forbids slavery south of Missouri south of Louisiana Purchase
What was the Mountain Meadows massacre?
-in 1857
-People were moving west and as they traveled, they developed fears of the Mormons as they were being attacked.
-The Paiutes Indians stopped the settlers in Mountain Meadows and they call on the local Mormons to help destroy the wagon train.
- the Indians and the Mormons together massacre hundreds of innocent people.
The Cherokees
-they lived side by side with the whites
-learned the culture, language, and religion
-still not accepted because they were Native Americans
Temperance movement
-for social reform included alcohol.
-They thought that abuse contributed to the bad violent behavior that started to arise.
-Maine was the first state to outlaw the sale of alcohol.
Katherine Beacher
opened that first female school
Emma Willard
opened the first collage for women.
Public School movement
this is where we see the first tax supported public school system we see.
Dorothy Dix
wanted to reform the mental asylums. Prisoners start to reform the prisoners and soup kitchens start to open.
The Crusade to Women’s rights
as they start to become educated, they realized that they needed to advocate for themselves. They argued for suffrage which is the right to vote and for property rights. Some women weren’t allowed to keep their kids if they got a divorce.
Who are the Impresarios?
Agents who contracted with the Mexican
government to bring settlers to Texas in the early 1800s.
Who is Levi Strauss?
-Tailor who immigrated from Bovaria to California in 1847
-Invented trousers for miners from canvas of tents
-He then moved on to denim, dying it with indigo, nicknamed blue jeans
Donner Party
a wagon train got stuck in the Nevada mountains where there was a huge snowstorm- 42- resorted to cannibalism
Oregon trail
-Dangerous: animals, Indians, Looters
-Go in large wooden wagons with canvas tops
-Not as many Indian raids as were made out to be in presses
-Mountain Meadows Massacre – raid and massacre by Mormons on different pioneers (some say Indians but probably Mormons)
James K. Polk wanted...
the border to be even higher so the British compromised with the 49th parallel
-country is divided into north and south
-states rights
populist Movement
advocating for farmers
groups of people with similar jobs working for better things
Prison reform
helping people in prision to learn a better way to live their lives other then just punishment
The North names their battles after...
natural topographical features
General Jackson earned his nickname "Stonewall" in what battle?
1st Bull Run
The Anaconda Plan included?
-the capture of Richmond
-Control of the mississippi
-Naval blockade at the south
The North had what advantages?
Most of the deaths during the civil war were cause by?
Catholic Nuns played a major role in the Civil War as?
Northerns discontent with the war arose in large part to?
the fear that free blacks would take white jobs
Who won the most battles in the east?
The South
What battle did not take place in the south?
The Emancipation Proclamation freed..
slaves in the rebelling states
What battle gave Lincoln the confidence to issue the Emancipation Proclamation?
What was the most famous African American reginment?
The 54Th Massachusetts
The comissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs supported the resercation system for what reasons?
Native Americans could be controlled on reservations
-Native Americans would then be forced to resort to agricultural labor
The Sand Creek Massacre was against what Native American leader?
Black Kettle
The battle of Little Big Horn was fought in what state?
The end of the Indian resistance was marked by whose surrender?
Chief Joseph
The Dawes General Allotment Act was meant to further assimilate American Indians into American culture by doing what?
-Requiring Indian lands to be surveyed
-giving indian families 160 acre allotments of land for farming
-selling remaing Indian land not given to Native Americans Schools
What were scarce resourses in the west?
Mining began in what state?
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Law that created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and allowed voters there to choose if slavery was allowed
-repeals the missouri compromise
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote...
Uncle Tom's Cabin
-showed how slaves are treated
Enforcement Acts
-three acts passed by congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against Southern African Americans
Who was Thaddeus Stevens?
-a radical republican
-Insisted that African Americans be given the right to vote
Personal liberty Laws
states were not required to assist in the capturing and returning of slaves
Who was Dred Scott?
-a slave who wanted to be free when his owner dies
-loses in supreme court
-Judge Tawny said blacks were inferior
What were the Black Code restrictions?
1. Social
-couldn't hold mettings
-no integrated schools
-needed permits to travel
2. Political
-couldn't own guns
-couldn't serve on a jury
Who became president after Lincoln died?
Vice President Andrew Johnson
-he was a democrat
-not vewry well liked
-He had different ideas then Lincoln did
Panic of 1873
U.S. economic depression that weakened the Republicans' focus on Reconstruction
Booker T. Washington
believed that African Americans should concencrate on achieving economic independence
Madame C.J. Walker
a leading African American enterpreneur, was one of the first women in the U.S. to become a millionare
a farmer worked a parcel of land in return for a share of the crop, a cabin, seed, tools, and a mule
Plessy vs. Ferguson
supreme court case that established the "separate but equal"
Jim crow laws
laws that enforced segragation in the south
Hiram Reovels
elected to the Senate to fill Jefferson Davis' seat
-an african American
northern republicans who moved to the south during reconstruction
What states were readmitted in 1870?
What was the point of the 15th amendment?
giving afican americans the right to vote
Who are the redeemers?
democratic supporters of white-controlled government in the south
What was Congress's plan for reconstruction?
states had to abolish slavery to come back to the US
-didnt trust the confederates to become loyal citizens
Wade Davis Bill
called for the confederate states to abolish slavery and to delay reconstruction until a majority
Bleeding Kansas
as a result of the Kansas=Nebraska Act
-small civil war in Kansas
Civil Rights Act of 1866
first US civil rights law, declared everyone born in the US a citizen with full civil rights
-name that former confederates gave to southern republicans during reconstruction
Literacy tests
tests used to prevent people who could no read from voting
Poll Taxes
taxes that a person needed to pau inorder to vote
Crop-lien Sytem
arrangement in which sharecroppers had to promise their crops to merchants in exchange for supplies on credit
What effect did the civil war on the south?
-shattered southern economy
-confederates veterans were left without jobs
-emancipated slaves were homeless and penniless
What hopes and expectations did African Americans in the South have for their lives as free people?
-looked eagerly to their future
-hoped to establish their own churches and schools
-hoped to legalize their marriages
-hoped to "have land...and till it by our own labor"
rebuilding the former confederate states and reuniting the nation
this would give a full pardon to all southerners who would swear allegance to the US constitution and accept federal laws ending slavery
What did Lincoln do to encourage southerners to abandon the confederacy?
issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and reconstruction
Who shot Lincoln? When?
John Wilkes Booth
April 4, 1865
Johnson's Plan for reconstruction
everyone pardoned but the confederate officers and rich farmers
-gave the southerners involvement in reconstruction
secret society created by former confederates in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
What were the 3 goals of the KKK?
-drive out the carpenters
-frighten the scalawags
-intimidate the blacks
What were the factors of opposition to the reconstruction government?
-increase in white voters
-waning interest from the North
-election of 1876
Changes in reconstruction
-panic of 1873
-the redeemers
What was the first state re-admitted to the Union?
Second Great Awakening
a renewed and passionate interest in religion began to develop in towns in upstate newyork
large religious gatherings
Protestant: religious groups
communities designed to create a perfect society
Richard Allen
one of the first African American churches in north america
Knights of Labor
one of the first national labor unions in the U.S.
included workers of difference races, genders, and skills
Great upheaval
1886: year of intense worker strikes and violent labor confrentations in the US
Haymarket Riot
1886: incident in which a bomb exploded during a labor protest held in Haymarket Square in Chicago- killed a lot of police
people who opposed all forms of government
members of a religious reform movememtn that originally arose amoung EN protestants in the late 1700's
Bureau of Indian Affairs
the government agency reponsibile for managing American Indian Issues
John M. Chivington
contributed to the Sand Creek Massacre
Sitting Bull
importante leader of Sioux resistance, strongly opposed the intrusion of non-Indians onto Sioux lands
George Armstrong Custer
general who led an attack on Indians- Little Big Horn
a religious movement known as the "Ghost Dance"
isolated environment that reformers hoped would rid the country of crime
Horatio Alger Jr.
published a popular series of novels that reflected the importance of individualism
free enterprise
most buissness leaders believed that the economy would prosper if buisnesses were left free from governement regulation
political theory that proposes individual ownership should not be allowed but rather people should collectively own property and means of production
company that sells shares of ownership called stok to investors in order to raise money
Andrew carnegie
steel barron
mater at utilizing these new buisness strategies
John D. Rockefeller
founder of the standard oil company
Cornelius Vanderbilt
railroad guy
George Pullman
railroad giant
Sherman Antitrust Act
outlawed all monopolies and trusts that restrained trade