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122 Cards in this Set

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Ferdinand and Isabella
Joint monarchs of Spain
Line of Demarcation
dividing the heathen world into two equar parts- east for Portugal and west for spain.
Favorable to spain
Treaty of Tordesillas
line of demarcation was moved farther west
Brazil became portugeuese colony
Spain maintained americas
Spanish Conquistadores
Spanish army sent to take over the americas
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
First european to see the Pacific Ocean
Juan Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida
Claimed it for Spain
(looking for gold and the fountain of youth)
Hernando Cortes
Expedition against the Aztecs of Mexico.
Indians mistook him as God
He armed them with weapons
Aztecs
Natives of the south americas that lost to the cortes
Encomiendas System
Indian slaves ruthlessly managed for the benefit of the conquistadores
Hacienda system
milder than the encomiendas system
Peninsulares
Highest level of spanish culture
reserved for natives of Spain
Creoles
Spanish parentage born in the new world (Middle)
Mestizo
Mixed or indian blood (Lower)
New world rivalries
Protestant and Catholic Countries
John Cabot
Explorer
Sponsership of England
search of northwest passage water rout to go through or around N. America
First european to reach the mainland of N. America (claimed for england)
Jacues Cartier
Explorer
Sponsered by France
Hoped for a north west passage
Claimed Montreal for France
Giovannia da Verrazzano
Explorer
Sponsered by France
Huguenots
French protestants attempted to escape persecution in Catholic France by settling in the New World (massacred by Spaniards)
St. Augustine, FL
oldest european settlement
Francis Drake
English explorer
sailed aroung South America and raided spanish settlements
claimed California for England
Sailed around the world
King Philip II
Spains Emperor
Spanish Armada
Spanish fleet sent to conquer England
most ships were destroyed in a storm and they were greatly defeated.
Established England as a great world power.
Sir Hunphrey Gilbert
Believed England should found colonies and a North West Passage
Martin Forbisher
Sent to look for colonies to settle and a Northwest passage.
Found Fools Gold
Founded a colony and guaranteeing them all the rights of those born and residing in england
Sir Walter Raleigh
Founded Virginia
and settled on Roanoke Island
Roanoke Island
114 settlesrs came and after three years, they disappeared
Afterwards english intrest in America faded for 15 years
Virginia Dare
first english child born in America
Richard Hakluyt
Urged American colonization as a way to national greatness and the spread of the gospel
Plymouth Company
Based in Plymouth
granted the right to colonize in North America from the Potomac to Maine
The Virginia Company of London
Charter between Hudson and the Cape Fears Rivers
Joint-Stock companies
raised capital by the sale of shares of stock
Charters
what someone needed to be able to establis settlement in the new world
Jamestown
first permanent english settlement in N. America.
Many died of starvation, diseases, hostility by indians (Powhatans)
Reason's why Jamestown had difficulties
all members shared the profits regardless of how much or little they worked
all men
they thought they were too good to grow food
unambitious
came with the expectation of finding gold
John Smith
Kept Jamestown from collapsing.
"He who works not, eats not"
John Rolfe
Tobacco
Gave virginia a major cash crop
Indentured Servents
to secure more settlers
immigration made possible to the poor by a passage paid by an American Planter or company in exchange to work for the planter for a specific number of years
Lord De La Warr, Sir Thomas Gates, Sir Thomas Dale
Given dictatoral powers to control the workers and unruly colinests
Had such powers as imposing harsh rule
Edwin Sandys
made changes in virgina to rid the reputation of a "death trap"
Promised the same rights they had in England
The House of Burgesses
Private ownership to land
House of Burgesses
a represenative assembly founded in 1619 to govern the colonists
King James I
revoked the London Company's charter and made virginia and other colonies a Royal Colony
Revoked all political rights and the represenative assembly
Charles I
reinstated to restore all the rights his father King James I took away
French and Indian Relations
lucrative trade in fur
because there was not a lot of french men, they were able to maintain good relations with the Indians
Samuel de Champlain
established a traiding post in Quebec in 1608
French settlements
not really town, more like traiding posts and forts
Henry Hudson
Sent by Holland to discover a Northwest Passage. Discovered the Hudson
New Holland and Indian Relations
Arrangements made to trade with the Iroquois- Bever Pelts
1624- Dutch trading outposts were established
Dutch West India Company
Joint-Stock company, main source of revenue was the fur trade
Patroon System
Given to wealthy men who tranported atleast 50 families to New Netherlands. Families would become Tenant farmers on teh estate of the Patroon who transported him
Tenant Farmers
People who were brought to the new world by patroons. They worked on the Patroon's farm who brought them to the new world
"Unstable Pluralism"
What historians call New Netherlands- weak, unstable lazy governors and a mixed population of europeans and africans
Separatists
Believed the Church of England was beyond saving and had to seperate from them.
First fled to Holland then America becoming the Pilgrims
Pilgrims
Separatists (Led by William Bradford)
William Bradford
Led the Pilgrims- Obtained a Charter from the London company to settle south of the Hudson River
Mayflower
The ship that the Pilgrims came to the new world in, made landfall at Cape Cod in Massachusetts
Mayflower Compact
Landing outside of jurisdiction of any established government, they composed the compact, a foundation for orderly government based on the concent of the governed
They were able to buy out the investor who had origionally financed the voyage and gained a greater autonomy
Puritans
believed the anglican church still retained too many unscriptural practices left over from roman catholicism
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
Settled by Puritans
Charles I views on Puritans
determined to persecute them and rule without the Puritan-dominated Parliament, led to a civil war, led the Puritans to settle in america
Massachusetts Bay Comapny
Charter on a joint-stock obtained by the Puritans- neglected to specify where the company's headquarters is so they made it in a colony
John Winthrop
Taught that a new coloy should provide the whole world with a model of what Christian society out to be
Government of Massachusetts
develpoed to include a govenor and a representative assembly called the General Court selected by "freemen"
Freemen
adult male church members who selected the general court in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Great Migration
20,000 Puritans came to the new world in 1642
Structure of Massachusetts in the 1600s
Houses clustered around the church and village, Farmland located around the outside of town
The Elect
In each new puritan town, the elect- those who testified of having experienced saving grace- covenanted together as a church
Rhode Island
Founded by Roger Williams, populated by exiles and trouble makers not welcome in other colonies, constant political turmoil
Roger Williams
Puritan preacher who was asked to leave the Puritan colony and founded Rhode Island- Providence. Granted complete religious toleration
Anne Hutchison
Openly taught things contrary to Puritan Doctrine. Claimed to have special revelations from God superseding the Bible. Found Portsmouth in Rhode Island.
Connecticut
Founded by Puritans who had religious disagreements with the leadership of Massachusetts
Thomas Hooker
Led group of settlers and found Hartford. Thought Winthrop exercised more authority than was good
Fundamental Orders Of Connecticut
First written constitution in America. Provided a representative government
John Davenport
founded the colony of New Haven. Thought Winthrop was not strict enough
New Hampshire
Settled as an overflow from Massachusetts- economically dependent on Massachusetts
Proprietors
A single person who owned the colony and would be directly responsible for it for the King. When England was taking more intrest in colonies, they wanted more control so no more charters to joint-stock comanies, they used proprietorships
Maryland
First proprietary colony granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore. Refuge for english catholics. Calvert died and his son Cecilius took over. MD was exactly like VA
Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
Granted by George Calvert because Maryland had more Protestants than Catholics and wanted to guarentee political rights to Christians of all persuasions, also allowed a representative assembly
Charles II
restored to the throne after 20-year puritan revolution
Carolina
Proprietors came up with a plan for a hierarchial society. Proved unworkable and grew slowly. Carolina had slavery as a fully developed institution from the beginning
South Carolina Crop
Found rice to be a staple crop
James, Duke of York
Was given the Dutch Colony of New Netherlands by his brother Charles II. Sent out a fleet under command of Colonel Richard Nicols to conquer it. Adamantly opposed to representative assemblies but granted as many other civil and political rights as necessary
Typical New England family
Had more children that the typical English or Chesapeake Family. Because the Puritans had migrated as intact family units, much more stable and well ordered society. Parents decied who there kids would marry and when. Extremely wide literacy rate
New Englands Economy
Very stable economy, based on small farming, home industry, fishing, trade, large shipbuilding
Typical Chesapeake Family
Lived shorter lives, less healthy, fewer children survived. Men largly out numbered women. Most Chesapeake settlers came as indentured servents.
Life of Indentured Servents
indentured system was abused and treated badly. Owners finding some technicallity to lengthen their terms of indentur. Many didn't live long enough to gain freedom
Chesapeake Society
By late 17th century, area began to stabilize- death rates declining and life rising.

Wealthy families began to dominate social and political life. Small families worked hard on farms
South Carolina Society
Developed a society of large plantations and slavery. Economy dependent on rice and indigo
Mercantilists
Believed the world's wealth was sharply limited and therefore one nation's gain was automatically another nation's loss (Export more than import)believed the economy should be regulated by the government
Navigation Acts (1651, 1660, 1663, 1673)
Trade with the colonies was to be carried on only in ships made in Britain or America and with atleast 75% British or American Crews. "enumerated" goods were shipped from and American port, they were only to go to Britain or to another American Port. Nothing could be imported to the colonies without going through Britain
Enumerated goods
Raw Materials, timber, tobacco, rice, staple crops, sugar- materials that england would otherwise have to have imported from other countries
Angry Virginians
Angry at Sir William Berkely because of high-taxes, led to Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon
Failed to gain admittance to Berkeley's inner circle, whose financial advantages were covered. Began to strongly oppose Berkley
Bacon's Rebellion
Caused because of a disagreement over Indian policy. Bacon burned Jamestown
The Half-Way Conenant
created by New England Puritans who felt that the people of their colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth. provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Those who accepted the Covenant could become church members, but they did not have to entirely devote themselves to the strict principles of the church. As a cost, these members could not vote on any issues within the church. Specifically, it made baptism alone the condition to the civil privileges of church membership, but not of participation in the sacrament of the Supper
Jeremiads
Many Puritan ministers denounced the new sermons and called them this
Converting Indians
Population grew and local indian tribes felt threatened. Puritans tried to convert them into christianity. Bible was translated into Algonquain
Wampanoag Cheif, King Philip
Led a war to exterminate the whites. King Philips War, over 2,000 settlers died before he was defeated
1684 Massachusetts charter revoked
Because of the colony's large-scale evasion of the restrictions of the Navigation Acts
James II
Brother of Charles II and succeeded him when Charles died. wanted to go even farther in controlling the colonies, favored the establishment of a unified government for all of New England, abolish representative assemblies and facilitate the imposition of the Church of England on Puritan New england
Jacob Leisler
Leader of the Leisler Rebellion in NY... executed for hesitating to turn over the power to the new royal governor
Salen Witch Trials
Several young girls claimed to be tormented by the activities of certain neighbors
Cotton Mather have 19 executed and one crushed by rocks
Pennsylvania
Founded as a refuge for Quakers.. Peaceful relations with the Indians... Large exporter of grain to Europe and the West Indies
Quakers
believed everyone had an inner light which allowed the to commune directly wiht god, pacifists
William Penn
received a grant from charles II in payment of a large debt the king owed to penns late father
Molasses Act of 1733
An act for the better securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty's sugar colonies in America. Would have been disastrous for New England Merchants, bustons agents declined to enforce it.
Eighteenth century economic
constant drain of wealth from america to britain, drain in hard currency (gold and silver)
Eighteenth centry population growth
Scot-Irish and Germans
Germand migrate cause of wars, poverty, religious persecution, liked PA, "Pennsylvania Dutch"

Scotch-Irish, Scottish Presbyterians, migrated ebcause of high rent and economic depression
King William's War
1st war in America, no major battles ended by Treaty of Pyswick, made no major territorial changes
Queen Anne's War
second war, 12 years of sporadic fighting agains France and Spain. Ended by the Treaty of Utrecht, gave Britain major territorial gains and trade advantages
King Georges War
Agains France and Spain. Colonies accompanyied Brittish. William Pepperrell captured French fortress of Louisbourg- to colonists disgust British gace it back in exchange for lands in India in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Georgia
Wanted a Colony as a butter between South Carolina and Spanish Florida. Populated by poor people that could not manage living in England
The Enlightenment
European intellectual movement, key concept was rationalism- the belief that human reson was adequate to solve all of mankind's problems, and correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of Fod as an active force in the universe
John Locke
Political philosopher of the enlightenment. Strove to find in the social and political world the sort of natural laws that included the rights to life, liberty and property and any governments with abuse these rights may be overthrown
Benjamin Franklin
Poor Richard's Almanac
proposed a plan for intercolonial government
The Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals occurring throughout the colonies from the 1720s to 1740s
John Edwards
Preacher during the great awakening, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" a messag eof personal repentace and faith in jesus christ for salvation from an otherwise certain eternity in hell
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Ended King Georges War
Georege Whitefield
Preacher during the great awakening who traveled all over the colonies speaking to 30,000+.
Results of the Great Awakening
Religious community divied between Old lights and New lights
New- accepted the great awakening, colleges were founded- purpose for training new light preachers
Georege Washington
Sent to Western Pennsylvania to request French to leave. French declined, Wash sent again to expel them but they wre forced by larger army to fall back oh his fort nexessity and then to surrender
Seven Years war/ French and Indian war
General Edward Braddock marched to fort duquesene but abushed by small force of french and indians. When William Pitt became new prime minister and liquidated the French empire in North America
Treaty of Paris
ended the French and indian war. British gained all of Canada and All of the united states east of the mississippi river. Coloniests were happy to be appart of England, no thoughts of independence