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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a national policy of avoiding participation in foreign affairs
a national policy of acting without consulting others
the policy of emphasizing morality in foreign affairs
the policy of taking advantage of a situation for national gain
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington's 1796 final address as president in which he declared that the United States should avoid becoming involved in foreign alliances.
Barbary Wars
Conflicts the United States fought in the early eighteenth century with North African states against their piracy
The British practice in the early eighteenth century of stopping ships at sea to seize sailors suspected of having deserted the Royal Navy
Embargo Act
Passed by Congress in 1807 to prevent U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports for foreign ports without the approval of the federal government
War of 1812
Fought between the United States and Great Britain over impressment and U.S. territorial designs on Canada
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose attempts by European states to extend their political control into the Western Hemisphere
taxes on imports used to raise government revenue and to protect infant industries
manifest destiny
theory that the United States was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean
Spanish-American War
Brief 1898 war against Spain because of Spanish brutality in Cuba and U.S. desire to attain overseas territory
Roosevelt Corollary
Concept developed by President Theodore Roosevelt early in the twentieth century that it was the U.S. responsibility to assure stability in Latin America and the Carribbean
collective security
the concept that peace would be secured if all countries collectively opposed any country that invaded another
League of Nations
created in the peace treaty that ended World War I, it was an international governmental organization dedicated to preserving peace
Pearl Harbor
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, initiating U.S. entry into World War II.
United Nations
an international governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II to guarantee the security of nations and to promote global economic, physical, and social well-being.
international governmental organization (IGO)
an organization created by the governments of at least two and often many countries that operates internationally with the objectives of achieving the purposes that the member countries agree upon
Bretton Woods Agreement
international financial agreement signed shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
International governmental organization created shortly before the end of World War II to stabilize international financial relations through fixed monetary exchange rates
World Bank
International governmental organziation created shortly before the end of World War II to provice loans for large economic development projects
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Devised shortly after World War II as an interim agreement until a World Trade Organization could be created to help lower tariffs and increase trade
the U.S. foreign policy that actions should be taken in cooperation with other states after consultation
Truman Doctrine
U.S. policy initiated in 1947 of providing economic assistance and military aid to countries fighting against communist revolutions or political pressure
Marshall Plan
European Recovery Program, named after Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, of extensive U.S. aid to Western Europe after World War II
strategy to oppose expansion of Soviet power, particularly in Western Europe and East Asia, with military power, economic assistance, and political influence
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
the first peacetime military treaty the United States joined, NATO is a regional political and military organization created i 1950
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation that nearly escalated into war between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet deployment of medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba
Vietnam War
Between 1965 and 1973, the United States deployed up to 500,000 troops to Vietnam to try to prevent North Vietnam from taking over South Vietnam; the effort failed and was extremely divisive within the United States
the relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that occurred during the 1970s
Nixon Doctrine
the policy implemented at the end of the Vietnam War that the United States would provide arms and military equipment to countries but not do the fighting for them
human rights
the belief that human beings have inalienable rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion
Iranian hostage crisis
Crisis during the Carter administration when Iranian students with support of the Iranian government took over the U.S. embassy in Tehran, holding all the personnel hostage.
Carter Doctrine
policy announced after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that the Persian Gulf area was a vital U.S. interest and the United States would fight to maintain access to it
Reagan Doctrine
Policy that the United States would provide military assistance to anti-communist groups fighting against pro-Soviet governments
Operation Desert Storm
the 1991 American-led attack against Iraq to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait
Policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would remain actively involved in foreign affairs
Policy implemented during the Clinton administration that the United States would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Internation governemntal organization created in 1995 that manages multilateral negotiations to reduce barriers to trade and settle trade disputes
Department of State
Chief executive-branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy
Department of Defense
Chief executive-branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of U.S. military policy
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Executive agency responsible for collection and analysis of information about foreign countries and events
National Security Council (NSC)
executive agency responsible for advising the president about foreign and defense policy and events
Department of Homeland Security
Cabinet department created after the 9/11 attacks to coordinate domestic U.S. security efforts against terrorism
War Powers Act
Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period
military-industrial complex
the grouping of the U.S. armed forces and defence industries
nongovernmental organization
an organization that is not tied to a government
Worldwide terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden; responsible for numerous terrorist attacks against U.S. interests, including 9/11 attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
Fundamentalist Islamic government of Afghanistan that provided terrorist training bases for al-Qaeda
war on terrorism
Initiated by George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001, attacks to weed out terrorist operatives throughout the world, using diplomacy, military means, improved homeland security, stricter banking laws, and other means
Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty
2002 U.S.-Russian treaty that reduced the number of nuclear warheads in each side's arsenals respectively to about 1,700 and 2,200, the lowest total in decades
weapons of mass destruction
biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, which present a sizeable threat to U.S. security
information warfare
attacks against information and communication systems, which present a sizeable threat to U.S. security
Kyoto Conference on Global Climate Change
1997 international conference to develop agreements to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming
grand strategy
the choices a government makes to balance and apply economic, military, diplomatic and other resources to preserve the nation's people, territory and values