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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who's National Interest?:
-must enhance security
-must maximize power
-must prevent other states from prominence
-must prevento others from dominating military resources
-rational, visible, enduring
Realist's National Interest
What Ideology?:
-"IR is a competition for the power necessary to guarentee national security"
-military power is often national poower
-no moral obligations
Realism
What sub-ideology?:
-"Every predominance, or move toward predominance, represent a threat to the other states in the international system"
-Any powerful state likely will use its power to augment its power, aggressively, if necessary
Militant Realism
What sub-ideology?
-"There can be a slippage between the distribution of power and the perception of threat"
-Revisionist are threatening, while status quo states are not
Diplomatic Realism
Concept of increasing the state's power resources in 4 ways:
-strengthening armed forces and bottomw of economy
-focusing policy on resource heavy regions
-creating economic policy designed to produce relative gains
-using military force when it maintains the state's prestige or reputation
Internal Balancing
Concept of altering the distribution of power abroad in 3 ways:
-manipulating the system of interstate alliances
-tolerate spheres of influence
-weaken adversary states
External Balancing
-prying away its allies
-weakening hold on sphere of influence
-stopping trade
-removing hostile gov't
-waging preemptive war
-fighting wars to prevent status quo disturbance
6 Tactics to weaken states
-Power and National Security
-Domestic Impact Conception
-Ideological Principle Conception
3 concepts of National Interest
-power
-spheres of influence
-absence of principles
Power, National Security Conception of NI
-what would improve lives of citizens
-foreign policy relates to citizens of state
Domestic Impact Conception of NI
-policy is central to country's values
-use democracy to promote justice, peace
Ideological Principle Conception of NI
Peace, Power, Prosperity, Principles
Four P's
P associated with Realism, competition of power, and coersion
Power
P associated with International institutionalism, world order, and diplomacy
Peace
P associated with economic liberalism, global capitalism, and economy
Prosperity
P associated with democratic idealism, global democracy, and politics
Principles
"the overbearing influence of one nation over another"
Hegemony
theory that one state is able to create stability in the international system i.e. Pax Britanica
Hegemonic Stability
Forbade interference by European powers in the US hemisphere - led to hegemonism in Western Hemisphere
Monroe Doctrine
US should seek expansion of liberty because states are better when:
-trade is free
-nations are governed democratically
-human rights are honored
-nations have self-determination
Liberalism (also economic liberalism or radicalism)
Exist and must be honored, and a violation of these harms US
Human Rights
States need this _____ because:
-people cannot be subordinate
-there are spheres of influence
-foreign domination
-social unrest around the world harms US
-all occurrences of foreign domination are incorrect
Self Determination
-Needs cooperative interational environments
-US needs more free states
Congenial International Environment/Interdependence
Foreign Policy Logic that:
-delayed American hegemony
-puts US last among developed countries in foreign aid
-causes unilateralism
-casued continentalism
-from Monroe Doctrine
Isolationism
-Monroe Doctrine
-American moral superiority
-America escaped monarchs, churches, revolutions, fascism, and nationalism
-National sovereignty and autonomy
-moved away from this in 1940's (WWII)
Rootes of Isolationism
"Just and amicable feelings towards all nations"
"No permanent attachments or hate for any nations"
"Troubles seperating economic and political ties"
Washington's Farewell Address
"protecting the US from dangerous side effects of interdependence such as global pandemics and pollution, reducing level of wold armaments, and accelerating economic nations"
Internationalism
"interdependence does not create vital interests requiring political and military involvement"
"US has sufficient domestic efficiency"
"US has no binding moral obligations abroad"
Logic of Isolationism
"Promoting liberty is a moral obligation"
"Makes no specific assumptions about the power of the US beyond hte rather general assumption that is has the capability to increase liberty somehow"
Logic of Liberalism
Fosters peace economically
Free Trade
The logic that the US has the moral obligation to contribute substantially to solving global problems
The Logic of Liberal Internationalism
"the US is an imperialistic country, even though it has no significant empire; its empire is informal, long-standing, maintained by a plethora of instruments of intervention
Radical Anti-Imerpialism
EEIIUA Emphasis on Military; Executive Branch Dominance, Ignorance, Isolationsm, Unilateralism, Arrogance
7 Sins of US foreign policy
Policy used by US towards Soviet Union
Containment
Confrences that established Soviet Union as a reasonable rational power that can be dealt with with diplomatically
Yalta Conferences
Conferences that established Soviet Union as a ideolically driven country that cannot be dealt with
Riga Axioms
Truman's plan to rebuild Europe to prevent Soviet take ever
Truman Doctrine
The promotion by the US of any government opposed to communism regardless of human rights violations
ABC Democrats
System of politics-economy most countries fell into after WWII
Social-democracy
Russian event that preceded WWII and US-Soviet tensions
Russian Civil War
Conference held after Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia
Munich Conference
Policy that a power neutralizes its neighbors in an effort to protect itself
Finlandization
Conferences that established IMF, GATT, and WB
Bretton Woods Conference
-roll back communism (aggression)
-negotiations of many disagreements (diplomacy)
-appeasement
-containment/isolation of USSR
4 Options towards Soviet Russia
-ideolical threat of communism
-military threat of the red army
-security dilemma
Faults of Containment
Unplausible approach to dealing with Soviet Union because of US-Soviet relations
Diplomacy
policy where one state must see the world from another state's point of view
Appeasement
pollicy taken by US towards Soviet Union
Containment
hardlingers; willingly pursue the national interest through confrontation; emphasis on power; smart; tough; crafty; cunning
Hawk
soft liners; avoid conflict and confrontation; passionate and considerate even if it means a deal of naivety
Dove
-War is caused by two parties, an aggressor and an appeaser
-Deterrents are necessary b/c aggressors are present and deterrents will succeed
-Credibility of a deterrent can only be demonstrated through capablility and the courage to use it
-Confrontation is necessary, even when the short term interests do no justify it
-Successfully aggressive exhitbit the exhilaration effect
-Appeassing nations exhibit the revenge effect
Six Tenants of Appeasement of War
-Detterents almost always cause war (security theory)
Critiques of Appeassment Theory
-states must have the capability and the credibility to utilize deterrents
Necessities of Deterrents
-Relationship between foreign policy and public opinion
-how one would choose their stance on foreign policy
-processes of foreign policy
-attributes of the public
-decision process
Necessities of Public Opinion
delegates of people are of the people and are also citizens and share values with their constituents
Representative
Burkian and Representative delegate
Two Types of Delegate
Public Opinion - Opinion Submitting - Decision Making
Process of public opinion
groups that promote public interest such as labor unions and industry groups, pro-life and pro-choice groups, and minority and women's rights groups
Economic interest groups/ Issue groups/ identity groups
It must have noticeable preferences:
-Should display options and your preference
+show one's opinion as only alternative
+other opinions are ineffective
-Well grounded in a coherent account of the consequences of policy
-Theory of an outcome with an issue (consequences)
-One must understand the facts of the case to further evaluate consequences
Valid Opinion makeup
-Present options for constituents
-Give stricture and informational content
-Makers may put out pre-made opinions
-Must address attentive public
-Must play a role in public submitting porcess
Opinion Maker's duties
Opinion Makers - Attentive Public - Opinion Leaders - Mass Public
Opinion Flow
-How different is mass opinion and lead opinion?
-How interested is the public?
-How knowledgeable is the public?
-What do they believe?
-Are our opinions volatile?
5 Questions for Opinion Maker
Mass public is far more conservative in trade, intervention, and dimplomacy than policy makers
Mass Public Opinion Trends
Getting others to do what another says
Hard Power
Hardliners usually found in south; urbanites are usually internationalists
Public opinion dispersion
President in 1961
-Bay of Pigs
John F. Kennedy
-superior economy
-superior military
-geography
-power balance in Eurasia
-Nuclear weapons
-US isolation from foreign conflicts
Six Pillars of US security
-vigorous foreign policy
-US space program
-called for Cuban "freedom fighters"
Kennedy's Domestic Policy
-CIA trained rebels trained in Guatemala
-Attacked with B-26 to give illusion that Cuban Air Force had revolted
-US would land 1500 exiles
-no US troops present
-no US detectable presence
-no US air support
Kennedy's Conditions for Cuban takeover
-Dulles fired
-Castro held exiles
US paid 53 mil. for exiles
Result of Bay of Pigs
Why was it believed US action could be kept covert?
Why was it believed that B-26's could take out Cuban Air Force?
Why was it believed brigade's moral could overcome Cuba's military
Why was it believed Cuban forces were weak?
Why was it believed that Cubans would revolt?
Why was it believed that the backup place (escape to Escombres) would work?
Questions of incompitence of BoP
Ignoring or schewing information unfavorable to a person's opinion
Cognitive dissidence
Rational Actor Model
Organizational Process Model
Bureaucratic Politics Model
Radical (Military Industrial) Model
4 Models of Decision Making
attributes decisions to the most intelligent; the way people interact often affect decision making and group decisions are often the best guided
Group Think
-states make deisions and policies as a rational entity
-president represents rational actor "politics stop at the water's edge"
-actor's goals can be achieved through rational process
Rational Actor Model
1. definition of situation
2. identification of goals
3. identification of options
4. cost benefit analysis
5 Sequential Steps of Rational Actor
policies as decided and policies as implemented are two different things; decision making and implementation always take place at different places and by different forces
Organizational Process Model
bureaucracies argue from their stance; conglomerates come to their decisions from their organizational standing
Bureaucratic Politics Model
individuals are not bureaucratically, but socially
Radical (Military Inustrial) Model
-for international trade b/c his main constituency is the service sector
Bush's stance on international trade
-constituency
-party
2 factors that make up congressman's stance on trade